Gaming and education overview

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Short presentation introducing gaming and education.

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Gaming and education overview

  1. 1. NITLE workshop Bryn Mawr College March 2008 Gaming and Teaching: Virtual Environments for Liberal Education
  2. 2. Plan of the presentation <ul><li>Gaming overview </li></ul><ul><li>Gaming and learning </li></ul><ul><li>(previous image: Straad Players, Second Life) </li></ul>(Viking Quest, BBC 2006)
  3. 3. I. Gaming <ul><li>Vexed definitional question </li></ul><ul><li>“video” </li></ul><ul><li>“computer” </li></ul><ul><li>Digital? </li></ul><ul><li>Networked technologies? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Long history of gaming <ul><li>Predigital </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chess, go, Senet, mancala, backgammon, dice, cards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kriegspiel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold War games </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spacewar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zork to IF boom (1980s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1990s rebirth </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Gaming in 2008 <ul><li>Physical platforms </li></ul><ul><li>Console </li></ul><ul><li>Cell phone </li></ul><ul><li>PSP </li></ul><ul><li>Extended forms (DDR) </li></ul><ul><li>New forms: Wii </li></ul><ul><li>PC </li></ul><ul><li>CD, DVD </li></ul><ul><li>Browser </li></ul><ul><li>Downloadable </li></ul><ul><li>… And these can be combined </li></ul>
  6. 6. Gaming in 2008 <ul><li>Size: huge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(WoW: 10 million subscribers, January 2008) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Player range: genders, classes, nations </li></ul><ul><li>Interface, device driver </li></ul>Eve Online, from site
  7. 7. Gaming in 2008 <ul><li>Growing content diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Current events (Kumawar) </li></ul><ul><li>Political argument (September 12th, FoodForce) </li></ul><ul><li>Religious gaming (Left Behind: Eternal Forces, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Literary gaming (Kafkamesto, 2006) </li></ul>(BBC Climate Challenge, 2007-present)
  8. 8. Genres <ul><li>First-person shooter </li></ul><ul><li>Puzzle </li></ul><ul><li>Platform jumper </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>“ Adventure” </li></ul><ul><li>Sports </li></ul><ul><li>Minigame (Koster fractals) </li></ul><ul><li>New forms </li></ul><ul><li>Katamari </li></ul><ul><li>Portal </li></ul><ul><li>Augmented reality games </li></ul>
  9. 9. Narrative <ul><li>Where is storytelling in a game? </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence of activities </li></ul><ul><li>Cut-scene or cinematic </li></ul><ul><li>Writerly player </li></ul><ul><li>Encyclopedia world (Murray, Manovich) </li></ul><ul><li>Ludology vs. narratology </li></ul><ul><li>Linearity? </li></ul><ul><li>Game on rails </li></ul><ul><li>Branching outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Multilinear </li></ul><ul><li>Open-ended </li></ul>
  10. 10. Offshoot: machinima <ul><li>Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Counterstrike, Halo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second Life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Movies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Art movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Machinima Academy of Arts and Sciences ( http://www.machinima.org/ ) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Virtual worlds <ul><li>“’ Cyberspace. A consensual hallucination experienced daily by billions of legitimate operators, in every nation, by children being taught mathematical concepts… </li></ul>Antecedents, early digital: science fiction 1984: William Gibson, Neuromancer 1992: Neal Stephenson, Snow Crash
  12. 12. <ul><li>“’ . . . A graphic representation of data abstracted from the banks of every computer in the human system… </li></ul><ul><li>Unthinkable complexity…Lines of light ranged in the nonspace of the mind, clusters and constellations of data. Like city lights, receding…’” </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;What's that?&quot; Molly asked, as he flipped the channel selector. </li></ul><ul><li>[Case replies:] &quot;Kid's show.&quot; </li></ul>-William Gibson, Neuromancer (1984)
  13. 13. <ul><li>Antecedents, digital: the MUD, Adventure (1970s-present) </li></ul>(LambdaMOO, 1990-present)
  14. 14. <ul><li>Antecedents, predigital: Theater of Memory </li></ul>(from Philippe Codognet, http://webia.lip6.fr/~codognet/ )
  15. 15. Antecedents, digital <ul><li>(Activeworlds, 1995-present) </li></ul><ul><li>(image via www.virtualworldlets.net) </li></ul>Avatar spaces -Activeworlds -Atmospheres -There
  16. 16. 2d-3d worlds <ul><li>(Club Penguin, 2005-present) </li></ul>-Habbo Hotel -Cyworld -Runescape -VMK
  17. 17. Google Earth -Keyhole DB -2d: KML -3d: Sketchup -reach -Geotagging photos: videos Mirror worlds
  18. 18. Augmented Reality <ul><li>“ Human Pacman,” Adrian David Cheok, circa 2005 </li></ul>-mobile devices game players general use tools -science fiction explores (Vernor Vinge, Rainbows End )
  19. 19. Web 3d? <ul><li>Second Life scene, December 2006 </li></ul>-identity as avatar -platform for experiencing digital media -standards?
  20. 20. Interactive Fiction <ul><li>Speaking of text adventures: </li></ul><ul><li>1980s boom: Infocom </li></ul><ul><li>Ongoing art form </li></ul><ul><li>Nick Montfort, Twisty Little Passages </li></ul>(“Dead Cities”, from Lovecraft Commonplace Book project 2007 http:// www.illuminatedlantern.com/if/games/lovecraft / )
  21. 21. Interactive Fiction <ul><li>Speaking of text adventures: </li></ul><ul><li>Inform 7, free IF editor </li></ul>(Richard Liston, Ursinus College, classroom example 2008)
  22. 22. <ul><li>Established long enough to be used for political satire… </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Defective Yeti, January 2006 http://www.defectiveyeti.com/archives/001561.html </li></ul>
  24. 24. Alternate reality games <ul><li>Permeability of game boundary (space and time) </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on distributed, collaborative cognition </li></ul><ul><li>Increased ephemerality </li></ul>(Perplex City, 2003-2006)
  25. 25. <ul><li>Political ARGs (ex: World Without Oil , May 2007) </li></ul>()
  26. 26. <ul><ul><li>Example: Chain Factor – casual game, TV show (2007) </li></ul></ul>Combined with other games, media
  27. 27. <ul><li>New platforms (ex: Myspace, for SilverLadder, 2007-ongoing) </li></ul>
  28. 28. Most widely played ARGs <ul><li>Art of the Heist, various for Audi, 2005 (500,000 website visitors, on-going players ?); </li></ul><ul><li>The Beast, Sean Stewart et al for Microsoft & Dreamworks, 2001 (3 mill players worldwide); </li></ul><ul><li>I Love Bees (aka Haunted Apiary), 42 Entertainment for Microsoft, 2004 (3 mill+ players worldwide); </li></ul><ul><li>Jamie Kane, BBCi, 2005/..(20,000+ players) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Alternate reality games <ul><li>Majestic, Electronic Arts, 2001(800,000 initially registered, 70,000 ongoing players); </li></ul><ul><li>MetaCortechs, independent [“Project Mu” in credits](1.3 mill, 113 countries); </li></ul><ul><li>Perplex City, Mind Candy, 2005/.. (100,000s website visits, 14,000+ players worldwide). </li></ul><ul><li>-Christy Dena, “ARG-stats” (2007-ongoing) http://www.christydena.com/online-essays/arg-stats/ </li></ul>
  30. 30. II. Gaming and education <ul><li>“Video games… situate meaning in a multimodal space through embodied experiences to solve problems and reflect on the intricacies of the design of imagined worlds and the design of both real and imagined social relationships and identities in the modern world.” </li></ul>
  31. 31. 21-century boom <ul><li>James Paul Gee (author of preceding quote) </li></ul><ul><li>Marc Presnsky </li></ul><ul><li>Henry Jenkins </li></ul><ul><li>John Seely Brown </li></ul><ul><li>Mia Consalvo </li></ul><ul><li>Constance Steinkuehler </li></ul><ul><li>Kurt Squire </li></ul>
  32. 32. James Paul Gee’s argument <ul><li>Semiotic domains; tranference </li></ul><ul><li>Embodied action and feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Projective identity </li></ul><ul><li>Edging the regime of competence (Vygotsky) </li></ul><ul><li>Probe-reprobe cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Social learning (roles; consumption-production) </li></ul>
  33. 33. Gee on Rise of Nations <ul><li>“Fish tank” tutorial </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic self-assessment </li></ul>
  34. 34. Multimedia literacies <ul><li>Gee: multimodal principle </li></ul><ul><li>Selfe et al : multimodal literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Bogost: procedural rhetoric </li></ul>Dean for American game (2004) Archived at http://www.deanforamericagame.com/play.html
  35. 35. Multimedia literacies <ul><li>“… within games, there are in fact multitudes of literacy practices – games are full of text, she asserted, to say nothing of the entirely text-based fandom communities online that take place in forums, blogs and social networks.” </li></ul><ul><li>Constance Steinkuehler, </li></ul><ul><li>FuturePlay 2007, Toronto </li></ul><ul><li>Quoted in http://www.gamasutra.com/php-bin/news_index.php?story =16264 </li></ul>
  36. 36. Context and immersion <ul><li>James Paul Gee’s argument </li></ul><ul><li>Semiotic domains </li></ul><ul><li>Squire: experiential learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learners prefer immersive environments to targeted scenes </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Which educational theory? <ul><li>Ian Bogost: behaviorist versus constructivist </li></ul><ul><li>Issues summoned up: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Media effect (violence) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer across domains, platforms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Simulation gap” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjectivity and assessment </li></ul></ul>Image from Scot Osterweil, presentation to Learning from Video Games: Designing Digital Curriculums (NERCOMP SIG , 2007)
  38. 38. Approaching digital natives <ul><li>“ It is now clear that as a result of this ubiquitous environment and the sheer volume of their interaction with it, today’s students think and process information fundamentally differently from their predecessors.” </li></ul><ul><li>Marc Prensky, </li></ul><ul><li>“ Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants” (2001) </li></ul><ul><li>(from http://www.marcprensky.com/writing/default.asp ) </li></ul>
  39. 39. Net.gen <ul><li>“ Today’s Net Gen college students have grown up with technology. Born around the time the PC was introduced, 20 percent began using computers between the ages of 5 and 8. Virtually all Net Gen students were using computers by the time they were 16 to 18 years of age…” </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>… Computer usage is even higher among today’s children. Among children ages 8 to 18, 96 percent have gone online. Seventy-four percent have access at home, and 61 percent use the Internet on a typical day. </li></ul><ul><li>Diana and James Oblinger, eds., </li></ul><ul><li>Educating the Net Generation (2005) </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.educause.edu/educatingthenetgen </li></ul>
  41. 41. Gap opens in K-12 <ul><li>“Many schools and teachers have not yet recognized - much less responded to – the new ways students communicate and access information over the Internet. Students report that there is a substantial disconnect between how they use the Internet for school and how they use the Internet during the school day and under teacher direction…” </li></ul>
  42. 42. “ Digital disconnect” <ul><li>“… For the most part, students’ educational use of the Internet occurs outside of the school day, outside of the school building, outside the direction of their teachers.” </li></ul><ul><li>Pew study, August 200 2 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.pewinternet.org/report_display.asp?r=67 </li></ul>
  43. 43. Pedagogical functions <ul><li>Jason Mittell, Middlebury college: </li></ul><ul><li>Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Simulations </li></ul><ul><li>Politics (criticism, activism) </li></ul><ul><li>Media studies (psych, cultural studies, media) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NITLE brownbag, January 2008 </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Pedagogy: virtual worlds <ul><li>Ancient Spaces project, University of British Columbia </li></ul>Machu Picchu, Arts Metaverse, Open Croquet
  45. 45. Pedagogy: virtual worlds <ul><li>Second Life, </li></ul><ul><li>Bryan Zelmanov </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogy: social software </li></ul><ul><li>“ Emotional bandwidth” (Linden Labs) </li></ul><ul><li>Social presence </li></ul><ul><li>Self-expression </li></ul>
  46. 46. Game studies <ul><li>Serious Games </li></ul><ul><li>Conferences </li></ul><ul><li>Scholarly articles and books (MIT Press) </li></ul><ul><li>Games Learning Society conference, http://www.glsconference.org/2008/index.html </li></ul>
  47. 47. Game studies <ul><li>Liberal arts instances </li></ul><ul><li>Jason Mittell, Middlebury </li></ul><ul><li>Richard Liston, Ursinus </li></ul><ul><li>Aaron Delwiche, Trinity (image) </li></ul><ul><li>Christian Spielvogel, Hope </li></ul><ul><li>Harry Brown, Depauw </li></ul>
  48. 48. Strategic options <ul><li>Off the shelf: preexisting games </li></ul><ul><li>Disc, WWW, download </li></ul>(Rome: Total War)
  49. 49. Strategic options <ul><li>Modding </li></ul><ul><li>Platforms: Unreal, Neverwinter Nights </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Revolution (MIT) </li></ul>(image credit: Jason Mittell)
  50. 50. Strategic options <ul><li>DIY </li></ul><ul><li>Faculty team </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arden </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://web.uncg.edu/dcl/econ201/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Student project (example: “The Phone”) </li></ul>
  51. 51. Strategic options <ul><li>Campus partnerships </li></ul><ul><li>Faculty </li></ul><ul><li>Academic computing </li></ul><ul><li>IT </li></ul><ul><li>Library </li></ul><ul><li>Students </li></ul><ul><li>Alumni/admissions </li></ul><ul><li>Community </li></ul>
  52. 52. Strategic options <ul><li>External partnerships </li></ul><ul><li>Corporation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ex: Brandeis-IBM Innov8 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consortia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: NMC+Sun, +Second Life </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Foundations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Macarthur Digital Media </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nonprofits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: PETlab (Parsons The New School for Design, Games for Change, MacArthur Foundation) </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Acknowledgements <ul><li>Many NITLE-affiliated campus faculty and staff, as yet unmentioned </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorms group: Michael Sellers, Charles Cameron </li></ul><ul><li>Ruben Puentedura (Hippasus) </li></ul>
  54. 54. National Institute for Technology and Liberal Education (NITLE) http://nitle.org Liberal Education Today blog http://b2e.nitle.org

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