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ACA Teaching the Net.gen slideshow


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ACA Teaching the Net.gen slideshow

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ACA Teaching the Net.gen slideshow

  1. 1. NITLE Research 2009 Digital natives and the liberal arts: expectations and technologies
  2. 2. Plan of the workshop <ul><li>Digital natives: an explanatory model </li></ul><ul><li>Touring the information landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Major concepts </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>(Many of these slides contain significant amounts of text. This is unusual for net.gen discussions.) </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>“ Each August for the past 11 years, Beloit College in Beloit, Wis., has released the Beloit College Mindset List. It provides a look at the cultural touchstones that shape the lives of students entering college. It is the creation of Beloit’s Keefer Professor of the Humanities Tom McBride and Public Affairs Director Ron Nief... </li></ul><ul><li>“ Students entering college for the first time this fall were generally born in 1990.” </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>For these students, Sammy Davis Jr., Jim Henson, Ryan White, Stevie Ray Vaughan and Freddy Krueger have always been dead. </li></ul><ul><li>Harry Potter could be a classmate, playing on their Quidditch team. </li></ul><ul><li>Since they were in diapers, karaoke machines have been annoying people at parties. </li></ul><ul><li>They have always been looking for Carmen Sandiego. </li></ul><ul><li>GPS satellite navigation systems have always been available. </li></ul><ul><li>Coke and Pepsi have always used recycled plastic bottles. </li></ul><ul><li>Shampoo and conditioner have always been available in the same bottle. </li></ul><ul><li>Gas stations have never fixed flats, but most serve cappuccino. </li></ul><ul><li>Their parents may have dropped them in shock when they heard George Bush announce “tax revenue increases.” </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic filing of tax returns has always been an option. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Girls in head scarves have always been part of the school fashion scene. </li></ul><ul><li>All have had a relative--or known about a friend's relative--who died comfortably at home with Hospice. </li></ul><ul><li>As a precursor to “whatever,” they have recognized that some people “just don’t get it.” </li></ul><ul><li>Universal Studios has always offered an alternative to Mickey in Orlando. </li></ul><ul><li>Grandma has always had wheels on her walker. </li></ul><ul><li>Martha Stewart Living has always been setting the style. </li></ul><ul><li>Haagen-Dazs ice cream has always come in quarts. </li></ul><ul><li>Club Med resorts have always been places to take the whole family. </li></ul><ul><li>WWW has never stood for World Wide Wrestling. </li></ul><ul><li>Films have never been X rated, only NC-17. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>The Warsaw Pact is as hazy for them as the League of Nations was for their parents. </li></ul><ul><li>Students have always been &quot;Rocking the Vote.” </li></ul><ul><li>Clarence Thomas has always sat on the Supreme Court. </li></ul><ul><li>Schools have always been concerned about multiculturalism. </li></ul><ul><li>We have always known that “All I Ever Really Needed to Know I Learned in Kindergarten.” </li></ul><ul><li>There have always been gay rabbis. </li></ul><ul><li>Wayne Newton has never had a mustache. </li></ul><ul><li>College grads have always been able to Teach for America. </li></ul><ul><li>IBM has never made typewriters. </li></ul><ul><li>Roseanne Barr has never been invited to sing the National Anthem again. </li></ul><ul><li>McDonald’s and Burger King have always used vegetable oil for cooking french fries. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>They have never been able to color a tree using a raw umber Crayola. </li></ul><ul><li>There has always been Pearl Jam. </li></ul><ul><li>The Tonight Show has always been hosted by Jay Leno and started at 11:35 EST. </li></ul><ul><li>Pee-Wee has never been in his playhouse during the day. </li></ul><ul><li>They never tasted Benefit Cereal with psyllium. </li></ul><ul><li>They may have been given a Nintendo Game Boy to play with in the crib. </li></ul><ul><li>Authorities have always been building a wall along the Mexican border. </li></ul><ul><li>Lenin’s name has never been on a major city in Russia. </li></ul><ul><li>Employers have always been able to do credit checks on employees. </li></ul><ul><li>Balsamic vinegar has always been available in the U.S. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Macaulay Culkin has always been Home Alone. </li></ul><ul><li>Their parents may have watched The American Gladiators on TV the day they were born. </li></ul><ul><li>Personal privacy has always been threatened. </li></ul><ul><li>Caller ID has always been available on phones. </li></ul><ul><li>Living wills have always been asked for at hospital check-ins. </li></ul><ul><li>The Green Bay Packers (almost) always had the same starting quarterback. </li></ul><ul><li>They never heard an attendant ask “Want me to check under the hood?” </li></ul><ul><li>Iced tea has always come in cans and bottles. </li></ul><ul><li>Soft drink refills have always been free. </li></ul><ul><li>They have never known life without Seinfeld references from a show about “nothing.” </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Windows 3.0 operating system made IBM PCs user-friendly the year they were born. </li></ul><ul><li>Muscovites have always been able to buy Big Macs. </li></ul><ul><li>The Royal New Zealand Navy has never been permitted a daily ration of rum. </li></ul><ul><li>The Hubble Space Telescope has always been eavesdropping on the heavens. </li></ul><ul><li>98.6 F or otherwise has always been confirmed in the ear. </li></ul><ul><li>Michael Milken has always been a philanthropist promoting prostate cancer research. </li></ul><ul><li>Off-shore oil drilling in the United States has always been prohibited. </li></ul><ul><li>Radio stations have never been required to present both sides of public issues. </li></ul><ul><li>There have always been charter schools. </li></ul><ul><li>Students always had Goosebumps. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>1.1: Emergence of a model </li></ul>
  12. 12. Digital natives: 2001 <ul><li>“ It is now clear that as a result of this ubiquitous environment and the sheer volume of their interaction with it, today’s students think and process information fundamentally differently from their predecessors.” </li></ul><ul><li>Marc Prensky, </li></ul><ul><li>“ Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants” </li></ul><ul><li>(from ) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Net.gen, 2005 <ul><li>“ Today’s Net Gen college students have grown up with technology. Born around the time the PC was introduced, 20 percent began using computers between the ages of 5 and 8. Virtually all Net Gen students were using computers by the time they were 16 to 18 years of age…” </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>“… Computer usage is even higher among today’s children. Among children ages 8 to 18, 96 percent have gone online. Seventy-four percent have access at home, and 61 percent use the Internet on a typical day.” </li></ul><ul><li>Diana and James Oblinger, eds., </li></ul><ul><li>Educating the Net Generation (2005) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  15. 15. “ Digital disconnect”: gap opens in K-12 <ul><li>“ Many schools and teachers have not yet recognized - much less responded to – the new ways students communicate and access information over the Internet. Students report that there is a substantial disconnect between how they use the Internet for school and how they use the Internet during the school day and under teacher direction…” </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>“… For the most part, students’ educational use of the Internet occurs outside of the school day, outside of the school building, outside the direction of their teachers.” </li></ul><ul><li>Pew study, August 200 2 </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  17. 17. Opening the gap into college, 2005 <ul><li>“ You are the first class of the ‘Net Generation’ or if you prefer – The Networked Generation. </li></ul><ul><li>You breathe bits of information as easily as my generation breathes air. </li></ul><ul><li>As members of the Net Generation, you are entering a world that needs you….” </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>“… But be aware that much of this world will find your ways of working, learning and socializing quite bizarre. You are digital natives. We – the grey beards, the baby boomers and the gen X-ers – are digital immigrants and our practices will need to evolve rapidly to keep up with yours.” </li></ul><ul><li>John Seely-Brown </li></ul><ul><li>University of Michigan commencement, 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>( ) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Corporations adopt <ul><li>“ [R]esearchers Ian Jukes and Anita Dosaj refer to this disconnect as the result of poor communication between “digital natives,” today’s students and “digital immigrants,” many adults. These parents and educators, the digital immigrants, speak DSL, digital as a second language.” </li></ul><ul><li>Apple web page </li></ul><ul><li>( ) </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>1.2: Criticism of a model </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>“ In the case of the &quot;digital generation,&quot; the class, ethnic, and geographic biases could not be more obvious... </li></ul><ul><li>[E]ven at elite universities, many are not rich enough to be all that digital. Like the rest of us, they will use a tool if the tool works for them and they can afford it. If not, then not.” </li></ul><ul><li>Siva Vaidhyanathan, </li></ul><ul><li>University of Virginia, December 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>( ) </li></ul>Limits to the net.gen model: class
  22. 22. Limits to the net.gen model: complexity <ul><li>“ I have spent more than a decade in the constant company of people 18 to 23 years old. The faces change. The age range does not. I have to report that the levels of comfort with, understanding of, and dexterity with digital technology varies greatly in every class. Yet it has not changed in more than 10 years. Every class has a handful of people with amazing skills…” </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>“… and a large number of people who can't stand computers at all. A few every year lack mobile phones. Many can't afford any gizmos and resent assignments that demand digital work. Most use Facebook and Myspace because they are easy, not because they are powerful (which, of course, they are not).” </li></ul><ul><li>Siva Vaidhyanathan, </li></ul><ul><li>University of Virginia, December 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>( ) </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>1.3: Dialectical responses </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>“ So let’s keep using the term, but as an aspiration as well as a description. Rather than pretend all kids are Digital Natives, let’s make that our goal. Because if we don’t act, the problems could get even worse.” </li></ul><ul><li>-Jesse Baer, </li></ul><ul><li>Harvard Law, December 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>( ) </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>“ [A]lthough tensions arise between Net Gen and classroom practices, when met head-on these tensions are ultimately productive for both faculty and students. For the faculty, the knowledge and practices that students bring to the classroom reveal new insights for teaching and learning with technology…” </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>“… For the students, a critical engagement with their own practices results in a broadening of their view of the possible ways to engage technology.” </li></ul><ul><li>Sarah Lohnes, &quot;What Do Net Gen Students Have To Teach Us? Stories from the Connected Classroom&quot;, Transformations , 2006 </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Constructivism and social media: </li></ul><ul><li>“ [I]n all of the classrooms described above, the emphasis is on viewing students as knowledge producers and publishers.” </li></ul><ul><li>-Lohnes (2006) </li></ul>
  29. 29. One pedagogical note <ul><li>“ One factor may be that all three professors [in the study] are participants, to varying degrees and in different ways, in some of the same (or similar) technology practices in which their students engage.” </li></ul><ul><li>--Lohnes (2006) </li></ul>
  30. 30. Pause for consideration <ul><li>Previous NITLE workshop participants: </li></ul><ul><li>Producers/consumers of technology – good </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Publishing experience: knows criticism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategy: faculty to encourage students to produce, go through criticism cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Students have to relearn traditional consuming habits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information literacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media literacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>21 st century learning skills </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Pause for consideration <ul><li>Where do you stand on this model? </li></ul><ul><li>Amazing production qualities </li></ul><ul><li>Increased visual learning (over auditory, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Video production </li></ul><ul><ul><li>amazing rate, but certain arrogance, teaching gap – much to learn about quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content: awful </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Pause for consideration <ul><li>Where do you stand on this model? </li></ul><ul><li>Can hide ineptness, esp content </li></ul><ul><li>They sense expectations from us </li></ul><ul><li>YouTube: content for critique, discussion </li></ul>
  33. 33. Pause for consideration <ul><li>Where do you stand on this model? </li></ul><ul><li>Digital social layer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>added to everyday life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replacement of digital for f2f </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Important for college outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Belonging, respect in f2f environments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multitasking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ switchtasking” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ continuous partial attention” </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Pause for consideration <ul><li>Where do you stand on this model? </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>iPhone cheating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practices - ban? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased access to information in class </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Pause for consideration <ul><li>Where do you stand on this model? </li></ul><ul><li>Playlists </li></ul><ul><li>Addiction to connectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Security blanket </li></ul><ul><li>Different levels of skill </li></ul><ul><li>Basic help, at times </li></ul><ul><li>Different expectations of audience and content </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>2: tour of the landscape </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>At this point, much Webbery ensues. </li></ul><ul><li>YouTube, Facebook, MySpace, Google *, etc. </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>3: key concepts </li></ul>
  39. 39. Some leading topics from literature and discussions <ul><li>Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright </li></ul><ul><li>Networking </li></ul><ul><li>Gaming </li></ul><ul><li>Fears </li></ul><ul><li>Devices </li></ul><ul><li>The creepy treehouse </li></ul><ul><li>Where should we engage? </li></ul>
  40. 40. Reading decline? <ul><li>&quot; the fact is that people don’t read anymore ” - Steve Jobs, “The Passion of Steve Jobs,” New York Times, 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>General concern about bad reading habits, decreasing amounts </li></ul>
  41. 41. Nicholas Carr: <ul><li>“ Over the past few years I’ve had an uncomfortable sense that someone, or something, has been tinkering with my brain, remapping the neural circuitry, reprogramming the memory. My mind isn’t going—so far as I can tell—but it’s changing. I’m not thinking the way I used to think. </li></ul><ul><li>“ I’m not the only one.” </li></ul>
  42. 42. “ Is Google Making Us Stupid?” <ul><li>“ [A British Library study] found that people using the sites exhibited “a form of skimming activity,” hopping from one source to another and rarely returning to any source they’d already visited. They typically read no more than one or two pages of an article or book before they would “bounce” out to another site.” </li></ul><ul><li>-fall 2008, </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>“ The next few decades will witness transformations in our ability to communicate, as we recruit new connections in the brain that will propel our intellectual development in new and different ways.” </li></ul>
  44. 44. On the other side of the mouse… <ul><li>Other factors: NCLB </li></ul><ul><li>Harry Potter and the Young Adult boom </li></ul><ul><li>Net.gen love for “feedback loops” (Palfrey and Gasser, 2008) </li></ul>
  45. 45. Research: journalism <ul><li>Not reading newspapers </li></ul><ul><li>Some tv, little radio </li></ul><ul><li>Web </li></ul><ul><li>Google </li></ul><ul><li>Social connections - Facebook </li></ul>
  46. 46. Research: journalism <ul><li>How are we responding now? </li></ul><ul><li>Information literacy? </li></ul><ul><li>Media literacy? </li></ul>
  47. 47. Privacy note <ul><li>“ [T]he majority of online adults (61%) do not feel compelled to limit the amount of information that can be found about them online. Just 38% say they have taken steps to limit the amount of online information that is available about them...” </li></ul>
  48. 48. Privacy note <ul><li>[in comparison] “55% of online teens have created an online profile and... most restrict access to them in some way. Looking at adults, their use of social networking profiles is much lower (just 20%), but those who use the sites appear to do so in a more transparent way.” </li></ul><ul><li>Pew Study, December 2007 </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  49. 49. <ul><li>The majority of teenagers act in some way to protect their information: </li></ul><ul><li>While 39% say they restrict access to their photos “most of the time,” another 38% report restricting access “only sometimes.” Just 21% of teens who post photos say they “never” restrict access to the images they upload… </li></ul><ul><li>“ Teens and Social Media”, Amanda Lenhart, Mary Madden, Aaron Smith, Alexandra Macgill </li></ul><ul><li>December 2007 </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  50. 50. Copyright <ul><li>Grown up in great age of… </li></ul><ul><li>P2p trading </li></ul><ul><li>Ready tools for infringement (JD Lasica, Darknet ) </li></ul><ul><li>Industries warring against customers </li></ul><ul><li>Remarkable knowledge: </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright law </li></ul><ul><li>Fair use </li></ul><ul><li>Threats of being sued </li></ul><ul><li>Decreasing privacy </li></ul>
  51. 51. Teens as creators, authors <ul><li>The majority of American teenagers are Web 2.0 content creators. </li></ul><ul><li>“ 64% of online teens ages 12-17... or or 59% of all teens... have participated in one or more among a wide range of content-creating activities on the internet, up from 57% of online teens in a similar survey at the end of 2004.” </li></ul>
  52. 52. Teens as creators, authors <ul><li>“ [these activities include] share their own artistic creations online, such as artwork, photos, stories, or videos... create or work on webpages or blogs for others, including those for groups they belong to, friends, or school assignments...created their own online journal or blog... maintain their own personal webpage... remix content they find online into their own creations…” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Teens and Social Media” </li></ul><ul><li>Amanda Lenhart, Mary Madden, Aaron Smith, Alexandra Macgill </li></ul><ul><li>December 2007 </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  53. 53. One gender note <ul><li>“ Overall, girls dominate the teen blogosphere; 35% of all online teen girls blog, compared with 20% of online teen boys. This gender gap for blogging has grown larger over time. Virtually all of the growth in teen blogging between 2004 and 2006 is due to the increased activity of girls.” </li></ul>
  54. 54. <ul><li>“ Older teen girls are still far more likely to blog when compared with older boys (38% vs. 18%), but younger girl bloggers have grown at such a fast clip that they are now outpacing even the older boys (32% of girls ages 12-14 blog vs. 18% of boys ages 15-17).” </li></ul><ul><li>Pew study, December 2007 </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  55. 55. Has creativity changed? <ul><li>What has changed?( Linda Creasy) What is creativity, now </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Original thought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthesizing, remixing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plagiarism </li></ul>
  56. 56. Social networks, communities <ul><li>Other places for teens (Dana Boyd) </li></ul><ul><li>Rheingold, The Virtual Community (1993) </li></ul><ul><li>Extend, complement f2f networks </li></ul>
  57. 57. <ul><li> * 97% of American teens ages 12-17 play some kind of video game. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>* 99% of boys say they are gamers and 94% of girls report that they play games.” </li></ul></ul>Gaming “ Game playing is universal, with almost all teens playing games and at least half playing games on a given day.”
  58. 58. <ul><li>“ Game playing experiences are diverse, with the most popular games falling into the racing, puzzle, sports, action and adventure categories. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>* A typical teen plays at least five different categories of games and 40% of them play eight or more different game types. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>* While some teens play violent video games, those who play violent games generally also play non-violent games. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Game playing is social, with most teens playing games with others at least some of the time. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>* 76% of gaming teens play games with others at least some of the time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>* 82% play games alone at least occasionally, though 71% of this group also plays games with others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>* 65% of gaming teens play with others in the same room.” </li></ul></ul>
  59. 59. <ul><li>“ Game playing can incorporate many aspects of civic and political life. </li></ul><ul><li>* 76% of youth report helping others while gaming. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>* 44% report playing games where they learn about a problem in society.” </li></ul></ul>-”Teens, Video Games, and Civics” HASTAC/Pew/Macathur study, 2008
  60. 60.
  61. 61. Games as pedagogical objects <ul><li>“ Video games… situate meaning in a multimodal space through embodied experiences to solve problems and reflect on the intricacies of the design of imagined worlds and the design of both real and imagined social relationships and identities in the modern world.” </li></ul><ul><li>-James Paul Gee, 2003 </li></ul>
  62. 62. Fears <ul><li>Decline of reading </li></ul><ul><li>Shallow research </li></ul><ul><li>Creative attitudes towards intellectual property </li></ul><ul><li>Immersed in violence (gaming) </li></ul><ul><li>Any number of sexual concerns </li></ul>
  63. 63. Devices <ul><li>Expanded device ecology </li></ul><ul><li>Social role of youth driving mobile devices </li></ul><ul><li>Attraction of privacy, control </li></ul>
  64. 64. <ul><li>-Chris Lott, cited 2007 </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  65. 65. Where can we engage? <ul><li>Building curricula </li></ul><ul><li>Embracing creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Shifting model of information and digital literacy </li></ul><ul><li>And make it the subject of intellectual conversation! </li></ul>
  66. 66. Kids aren’t the only adopters <ul><li>The world of emerging technology is simply too large to be owned by any one group of people </li></ul>
  67. 67. Kids aren’t the only adopters Or, &quot;You can't let the little p____s generation-gap you&quot; - William Gibson, Neuromancer (1984)
  68. 68. Kids aren’t the only adopters <ul><li>“ Twitterers (a.k.a. Tweeters) are not primarily teens or college students as you might expect. In fact, in February the largest age group on Twitter was 35-49; with nearly 3 million unique visitors, comprising almost 42 percent of the site’s audience...” </li></ul>
  69. 69. Kids aren’t the only adopters <ul><li>“… We found that the majority of people visit while at work, with 62 percent of the combo unique audience accessing the site from work only versus 35 percent that accessed it from home only.” </li></ul><ul><li>-Nielsen study, 2009 </li></ul>
  70. 70. Kids aren’t the only adopters <ul><li>Some technologies are cross-generational </li></ul><ul><li>Facebook </li></ul><ul><li>Blogging </li></ul>
  71. 71. Kids aren’t the only adopters <ul><li>Some aren’t: </li></ul><ul><li>Podcasts </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual worlds </li></ul><ul><li>Digital storytelling </li></ul><ul><li>Google Scholar </li></ul><ul><li>E-book readers </li></ul><ul><li>Critical study </li></ul>
  72. 72. Curriculum <ul><li>Course materials </li></ul><ul><li>Topic generator </li></ul>
  73. 73. Gaming pedagogy Game-based teaching
  74. 74. Gaming pedagogy: virtual worlds <ul><li>Ancient Spaces project, University of British Columbia </li></ul>Machu Picchu, Arts Metaverse, Open Croquet
  75. 75. Gaming pedagogy: virtual worlds <ul><li>Second Life, </li></ul><ul><li>Bryan Zelmanov </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogy: social software </li></ul><ul><li>“ Emotional bandwidth” (Linden Labs) </li></ul><ul><li>Social presence </li></ul><ul><li>Self-expression </li></ul>
  76. 76. Gaming pedagogy: serious games Gaming studies
  77. 77. Gaming and libraries <ul><li>Libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Collections </li></ul><ul><li>Game night </li></ul><ul><li>Creating games </li></ul>Defense of Hidgeon, Games Archive: University of Michigan
  78. 78. Creativity <ul><li>Expression </li></ul><ul><li>New forms of publication </li></ul><ul><li>Broader audience </li></ul><ul><li>Remix </li></ul><ul><li>That copyright issue </li></ul>
  79. 79. Digital literacy 2.0 <ul><li>Beyond information literacy </li></ul><ul><li>How to view media critically? </li></ul><ul><li>When and how to interact? </li></ul>
  80. 80. <ul><li>Why digital literacy? </li></ul><ul><li>“ A population that knows what to do with the tools at hand stands a better chance of resisting enclosure. The more people who know how to use participatory media to learn, inform, persuade, investigate, reveal, advocate and organize, the more likely the future infosphere will allow, enable and encourage liberty and participation.” </li></ul>Howard Rheingold, “Participative Pedagogy for a Literacy of Literacies” (2008)
  81. 81. <ul><li>“ Such literacy can only make action possible, however − it is not in the technology, or even in the knowledge of how to use it, but in the ways people use knowledge and technology to create wealth, secure freedom, resist tyranny. </li></ul>Howard Rheingold, “Participative Pedagogy for a Literacy of Literacies” (2008)
  82. 82. National Institute for Technology and Liberal Education (NITLE) Liberal Education Today blog