PLANT AND ANIMAL TISSUES
BY THABISO MASEMULA
07 MARCH 2014
WHAT IS A TISSUE?
• Tissue is a cellular organizational level intermediate between cells and
a complete organism. Hence, a tissue is an ensemble of cells, not
necessarily identical, but from the same origin, that together carry out
a specific function.
The study of tissue is known as histology or, in connection with
THE IMPORTANCE OF TISSUES
• Formation of tissues has brought about a division of labour in
• Tissues become organised to form organs and organs into organ
• As a result of improved organisation and higher efficiency multicellular
organisms have higher survival
• Plants are autotrophic organisms, so prepare their own food by
photosynthesis, they are stationary and do not move from place to
place, hence they do not need much energy. Most of the tissues in
plants are dead and provide structural strength.
• Animals on the other hand are heterotrophic organisms, they move in
search of food and hence need more energy compared to plants,
most of the tissues they have are living.
• Hence the plants and animals are made of different types of tissues.
• There are some tissues in plants which divide through out their life,
they divide for the growth and reproduction of the plant
• Such ever dividing tissues are localized in certain regions of the plant
body, thus based on the dividing capacity of the tissues they are
classified into two
TYPES OF TISSUES
• ANIMAL TISSUE
Animal tissues can be grouped into four basic
types: connective, muscle, nervous, and epithelial.
• PLANT TISSUE
Plant tissues are categorized broadly into three tissue systems:
the epidermis, theground tissue, and the vascular tissue.
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ANIMAL AND PLANT
Since animals are mobile so they require
more energy, hence more living tissues are
Since plants are stationary so they do not
require much energy, Hence more living
tissues are not required.
Animals move from one place to another in
search of food, shelter etc., hence they need
more energy and there more tissues are
In plants, most tissues provide structural
strength. Most of these tissues are dead
9can provide mechanical strength as easily as
the living ones and need less maintenance.
Cell growth is uniformally distributed
Growth is limited to certain regions
Structural organisation of organs and organ
systems is more specialised and complex.
Structural organisation of organs is
comparatively less complex.
TISSUES IN PLANTS
Composed of immature cells and are regions of active cell division.
Tend to be small, have thin walls and rich in cytoplasm.
Found in the growing tips of the roots and stem.
A. Apical Meristems
Responsible for increase in length of the plant body.
Found on root tips and apical buds
B. Lateral Meristems
Responsible for increase in girth or diameter
Ex: Cambium present in woody plants and produce the cork
• Cells of this tissue have lost their ability to divide and they have a
specialized structure to perform specific functions.
• Based on the type of cells present in the tissue, the Permanent tissue
is divided into two categories:
Simple Permanent Tissue
Complex Permanent Tissue.
• Simple permanent tissue consist of only one type of cells (eg.
• the complex permanent tissue consists of more than one type of cells
(eg. Xylem and phloem)
SIMPLE PERMANENT TISSUES
Dermal (Surface Tissue)
Forms the protective outer covering of the plant body
Produce cutin to protect plants against loss of water
Produce root hairs for absorption of water and minerals
Replaces the epidermis
Constitutes the corky outer bark of
Fundamental (Ground Tissue)
Used in the production and storage of food and in the support of plant.
Parenchyma on leaves function for photosynthesis
Mechanical strength by maintaining turgidity and also store waste products.
Support of stems and adapt themselves to the rapid elongation of leaves.
Provides elasticity, flexibility, and rigidity to the plant body forming support.
Primarily functions for the transport of water and dissolved
substances upward in the plant body.
Primary functions in the transport of organic materials such as
carbohydrates and amino acids.
• Multicellular (large) organisms function more efficiently if cells become
specialized for specific functions.
• There are four types of tissues found in animals: epithelial,
connective, nerve, and muscle tissue.
• Sponges do not have tissues.
TYPES OF ANIMAL TISSUES
• Epithelial tissue covers the whole surface of the body. It is made up of
cells that are closely packed and are composed of one or more layers.
This tissue is specialized to form the covering or lining of all internal
and external body surfaces. Epithelial tissue that occurs on surfaces
on the interior of the body is known as endothelium.
• Made up of continuous sheets of densely packed cells, with little
space or intercellular material between them.
A basement membrane is usually present.
Forms the covering or lining of all free body surfaces, both
internal and external to protect cells from mechanical injury
and water loss.
Some has special functions of absorption, secretion,
excretion, sensation and respiration.
• The connective tissue is specialized to connect and anchor various
• It connects the bones to each other, bind the tissues and give support
to various parts of the body by creating a packing around the organs,
• Thus the main function
of the tissue are binding, supporting and
• The cells of the tissue are living and are separated from each other
• A homogenous gel like intercellular substance called the medium or
matrix forms the bulk of the connective tissue
• The space between the cells are filled with a non living matrix which
may be solid as in bone and cartilage and fluid as in blood
• Thus blood is a type of connective tissue
• Blood has a fluid matrix called the plasma, in which the RBC, WBC
and platelets are suspended
• The plasma contains proteins, salts and hormones
• The bone is another example of a connective tissue
• It is a strong and nonflexible tissue, embedded in a hard matrix
composed of calcium and phosphorus compounds
Two bones are connected to each other by another type of connective tissue
• Tissue is very elastic and has strength and contains very little matrix
• The muscles are connected to the bones by another type of connective
tissue called tendons
Tendons are fibrous with great strength and limited flexibility
The cartilage is seen at the surface of the joints, nose, ear, trachea and
Cartilage is another type of connective tissue, which has widely spaced
TYPES OF CONNECTIVE TISSUES
1. Loose Connective Tissue
Made up of highly elastic fibers with few scattered thin collagen
This tissue fills the space between organs and serves as packing
materials surrounding the elements of other tissues
This binds muscle cells together and binds skin to underlying
Ex. Adipose tissue, areolar tissue
2. Dense Connective Tissue
Made up of thick collagen fibers and dark, compressed cells between the
Functions: (1) for flexibility and support, (2) shock absorption and (3)
reduction of friction.
Ex. Tendon, ligament, urinary tract and collagen
The muscular tissue are made of muscle cells and these cells are elongated
and large sized , so they are also called the muscle fibres
The movement of the body or limbs are brought about by the contraction
and relaxation of the contractile protein present in the muscle cells.
Most of the muscular tissue is attached to the bones and hence are called
the skeletal muscles
The movement of the muscles can be controlled as well as uncontrolled
And the type of muscles where the movement cannot be controlled are
called the involuntary muscles
The type of muscles in which the movement is under our control are called
the voluntary muscles
• The muscular tissue can be divided into 3
1. Striated muscles
2. Smooth muscles
3. Cardiac muscles
The muscles are also known as skeletal muscles or voluntary muscles
The cells of this tissue are long, cylindrical, unbranched and multinucleate.
The type of muscles show light and dark bands or striations when stained, hence
they are also known as striated muscles
They are attached to the bones and help in body movements
Each muscle cell is enclosed in a distinct plasma membrane called the
• These are also known as the unstriated or the involuntary muscles
• They occur as bundles which are spindle shaped and have a single
• The movement of these muscles cannot be controlled
• The tissue are often seen in the walls of the alimentary canal, visceral
organs except the heart
• They show the characteristics of both the striated and smooth
• The cells of this muscles are branched cylindrical and uninucleated,
the intercellular spaces are filled with the connective tissue
• They have dark and light bands on them
• The muscles around the heart show rhythmic contraction and
relaxation throughout the life , and hence these involuntary muscles
are also known as the cardiac muscles
• It is a tissue which is specialized to transmit messages within the body
• Brain, spinal cord and nerves are all composed of nervous tissue
• The cells of this tissue are called nerve cells or neurons
• The neurons have the ability to receive stimuli within or outside the
body and to conduct impulses (signals) to different parts of the body
• The impulse travels from one neuron to another
• Many nerve fibres bound together make up a nerve
• The neurons have the three main parts
TYPES OF NEURONS
1. Motor Neurons/Efferent
Accept nerve impulses from the CNS
Transmit them to muscles or glands
2. Sensory Neurons/Afferent
Accept impulses from sensory receptors
Transmit them to the CNS
Convey nerve impulses between various parts of the CNS
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animal cell. http://www.slideshare.net/neeje/history-of-animal-tissue-culture-andnatural-surroundings-for-animal-cell-16654220?qid=bb711369-20e7-4842-ba1d4f16ef99fb18&v=qf1&b=&from_search=5
Assessed on 07 March 2014
• Martin, J. (2012). Tissues. http://www.slideshare.net/josephmartin37266136/tissues27026546?qid=6a01a9f0-a316-402e-8d4343bc57bb7eb1&v=default&b=&from_search=5
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Assessed on 07 March 20114
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