Plant and animal tissues


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Plant and animal tissues

  2. 2. WHAT IS A TISSUE? • Tissue is a cellular organizational level intermediate between cells and a complete organism. Hence, a tissue is an ensemble of cells, not necessarily identical, but from the same origin, that together carry out a specific function. • The study of tissue is known as histology or, in connection with disease, histopathology.
  3. 3. THE IMPORTANCE OF TISSUES • Formation of tissues has brought about a division of labour in multicellular organisms • Tissues become organised to form organs and organs into organ systems • As a result of improved organisation and higher efficiency multicellular organisms have higher survival • Plants are autotrophic organisms, so prepare their own food by photosynthesis, they are stationary and do not move from place to place, hence they do not need much energy. Most of the tissues in plants are dead and provide structural strength.
  4. 4. IMPORTANCE CONT.….. • Animals on the other hand are heterotrophic organisms, they move in search of food and hence need more energy compared to plants, most of the tissues they have are living. • Hence the plants and animals are made of different types of tissues. • There are some tissues in plants which divide through out their life, they divide for the growth and reproduction of the plant • Such ever dividing tissues are localized in certain regions of the plant body, thus based on the dividing capacity of the tissues they are classified into two
  5. 5. CONT……….
  6. 6. TYPES OF TISSUES • ANIMAL TISSUE Animal tissues can be grouped into four basic types: connective, muscle, nervous, and epithelial. • PLANT TISSUE Plant tissues are categorized broadly into three tissue systems: the epidermis, theground tissue, and the vascular tissue.
  7. 7. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ANIMAL AND PLANT TISSUES ANIMAL TISSUE PLANT TISSUE Since animals are mobile so they require more energy, hence more living tissues are required. Since plants are stationary so they do not require much energy, Hence more living tissues are not required. Animals move from one place to another in search of food, shelter etc., hence they need more energy and there more tissues are living. In plants, most tissues provide structural strength. Most of these tissues are dead 9can provide mechanical strength as easily as the living ones and need less maintenance. Cell growth is uniformally distributed Growth is limited to certain regions Structural organisation of organs and organ systems is more specialised and complex. Structural organisation of organs is comparatively less complex.
  9. 9. TISSUES IN PLANTS MERISTEMATIC TISSUE    Composed of immature cells and are regions of active cell division. Tend to be small, have thin walls and rich in cytoplasm. Found in the growing tips of the roots and stem. A. Apical Meristems  Responsible for increase in length of the plant body.  Found on root tips and apical buds B. Lateral Meristems  Responsible for increase in girth or diameter  Ex: Cambium present in woody plants and produce the cork
  10. 10. PERMANENT TISSUES • Cells of this tissue have lost their ability to divide and they have a specialized structure to perform specific functions. • Based on the type of cells present in the tissue, the Permanent tissue is divided into two categories: Simple Permanent Tissue Complex Permanent Tissue. • Simple permanent tissue consist of only one type of cells (eg. Parenchyma), • the complex permanent tissue consists of more than one type of cells (eg. Xylem and phloem)
  11. 11. SIMPLE PERMANENT TISSUES Dermal (Surface Tissue)  Forms the protective outer covering of the plant body Epidermis   Produce cutin to protect plants against loss of water Produce root hairs for absorption of water and minerals Periderm  Replaces the epidermis  Constitutes the corky outer bark of old trees.
  12. 12. CONT…… Fundamental (Ground Tissue) Used in the production and storage of food and in the support of plant. • Parenchyma Parenchyma on leaves function for photosynthesis Mechanical strength by maintaining turgidity and also store waste products. • Collenchyma Support of stems and adapt themselves to the rapid elongation of leaves. • Sclerenchyma Provides elasticity, flexibility, and rigidity to the plant body forming support.
  13. 13. CONT……. Vascular Tissue • Xylem Primarily functions for the transport of water and dissolved substances upward in the plant body. • Phloem Primary functions in the transport of organic materials such as carbohydrates and amino acids.
  14. 14. ANIMAL TISSUES • Multicellular (large) organisms function more efficiently if cells become specialized for specific functions. • There are four types of tissues found in animals: epithelial, connective, nerve, and muscle tissue. • Sponges do not have tissues.
  15. 15. TYPES OF ANIMAL TISSUES Epithelial tissue • Epithelial tissue covers the whole surface of the body. It is made up of cells that are closely packed and are composed of one or more layers. This tissue is specialized to form the covering or lining of all internal and external body surfaces. Epithelial tissue that occurs on surfaces on the interior of the body is known as endothelium. • Made up of continuous sheets of densely packed cells, with little space or intercellular material between them.
  16. 16. CONT………. A basement membrane is usually present. • Functions: Forms the covering or lining of all free body surfaces, both internal and external to protect cells from mechanical injury and water loss. Some has special functions of absorption, secretion, excretion, sensation and respiration.
  17. 17. CONNECTIVE TISSUES • The connective tissue is specialized to connect and anchor various body organs • It connects the bones to each other, bind the tissues and give support to various parts of the body by creating a packing around the organs, • Thus the main function of the tissue are binding, supporting and packing • The cells of the tissue are living and are separated from each other • A homogenous gel like intercellular substance called the medium or matrix forms the bulk of the connective tissue
  18. 18. CONT…. • The space between the cells are filled with a non living matrix which may be solid as in bone and cartilage and fluid as in blood • Thus blood is a type of connective tissue • Blood has a fluid matrix called the plasma, in which the RBC, WBC and platelets are suspended • The plasma contains proteins, salts and hormones • The bone is another example of a connective tissue • It is a strong and nonflexible tissue, embedded in a hard matrix composed of calcium and phosphorus compounds
  19. 19. CONT……. • Two bones are connected to each other by another type of connective tissue called ligament • Tissue is very elastic and has strength and contains very little matrix • The muscles are connected to the bones by another type of connective tissue called tendons • • Tendons are fibrous with great strength and limited flexibility • The cartilage is seen at the surface of the joints, nose, ear, trachea and larynx Cartilage is another type of connective tissue, which has widely spaced cells
  20. 20. TYPES OF CONNECTIVE TISSUES 1. Loose Connective Tissue • Made up of highly elastic fibers with few scattered thin collagen fibers. • This tissue fills the space between organs and serves as packing materials surrounding the elements of other tissues • This binds muscle cells together and binds skin to underlying tissues • Ex. Adipose tissue, areolar tissue
  21. 21. CONT……… 2. Dense Connective Tissue • Made up of thick collagen fibers and dark, compressed cells between the fiber bundles. • Functions: (1) for flexibility and support, (2) shock absorption and (3) reduction of friction. • Ex. Tendon, ligament, urinary tract and collagen
  22. 22. MUSCULAR TISSUE • The muscular tissue are made of muscle cells and these cells are elongated and large sized , so they are also called the muscle fibres • The movement of the body or limbs are brought about by the contraction and relaxation of the contractile protein present in the muscle cells. • Most of the muscular tissue is attached to the bones and hence are called the skeletal muscles • • The movement of the muscles can be controlled as well as uncontrolled • And the type of muscles where the movement cannot be controlled are called the involuntary muscles The type of muscles in which the movement is under our control are called the voluntary muscles
  23. 23. CONT…… • The muscular tissue can be divided into 3 1. Striated muscles 2. Smooth muscles 3. Cardiac muscles STRIATED MUSCLES • • The muscles are also known as skeletal muscles or voluntary muscles • • • The cells of this tissue are long, cylindrical, unbranched and multinucleate. The type of muscles show light and dark bands or striations when stained, hence they are also known as striated muscles They are attached to the bones and help in body movements Each muscle cell is enclosed in a distinct plasma membrane called the sarcolemma
  24. 24. CONT…… SMOOTH MUSCLES • These are also known as the unstriated or the involuntary muscles • They occur as bundles which are spindle shaped and have a single nucleus • The movement of these muscles cannot be controlled • The tissue are often seen in the walls of the alimentary canal, visceral organs except the heart
  25. 25. TYPES CONT.…. CARDIAC MUSCLES • They show the characteristics of both the striated and smooth muscles • The cells of this muscles are branched cylindrical and uninucleated, the intercellular spaces are filled with the connective tissue • They have dark and light bands on them • The muscles around the heart show rhythmic contraction and relaxation throughout the life , and hence these involuntary muscles are also known as the cardiac muscles
  26. 26. NERVOUS TISSUE • It is a tissue which is specialized to transmit messages within the body • Brain, spinal cord and nerves are all composed of nervous tissue • The cells of this tissue are called nerve cells or neurons • The neurons have the ability to receive stimuli within or outside the body and to conduct impulses (signals) to different parts of the body • The impulse travels from one neuron to another • Many nerve fibres bound together make up a nerve • The neurons have the three main parts
  27. 27. TYPES OF NEURONS 1. Motor Neurons/Efferent  Accept nerve impulses from the CNS  Transmit them to muscles or glands 2. Sensory Neurons/Afferent  Accept impulses from sensory receptors  Transmit them to the CNS 3. Interneurons/Association  Convey nerve impulses between various parts of the CNS
  28. 28. REFERENCE LIST • Chauhan, N. (2013). History of animal tissue culture and natural surroundings for animal cell. Assessed on 07 March 2014 • Martin, J. (2012). Tissues. Assessed on 06 March 2014 • Roderno-Desingano, C. (2012). Plant Tissues. Assessed on 07 March 20114
  29. 29. CONT……… • Schwann, Theodor (1839). Microscopic Investigations on the Accordance in the Structure and Growth of Plants and Animals. Berlin.(English translation by the Sydenham Society, 1847) • Starr,C., Taggart, R., Evers, C. and Starr, L. (2013:). Biology: The Unity and Diversity of Life. 13th edition. Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning