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DGALN - Direction de l'Eau et
de la Biodiversité
1
Council Directive
91/271/EEC of 21 May 1991
concerning urban waste-
water treatment
WWW.developpement-durable.gouv.fr
How to implement
the UWWTD
The French approach
Bruno RAKEDJIAN
French Ministry of ecology
Montenegro – November 2012
Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable developpment and energy
2Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro
November 2012
The French situation
facts and figures
The first step to know
what to do
3Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro
November 2012
French sensitive areas in 2011
3/4 of France
 1994 first identification → 1998
 1999 first review → 2006
 2006 second review → 2013
 2010 third review → 2017
2013
4Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro
November 2012
Chrorophyl a in Europe
and Montenegro
31 may 2008
Europe
Montenegro
5Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro
November 2012
Population and sanitation in 2011
65 millions inhabitants
about 55 millions inhabitants with UWWTP and collecting system
between 8 and 10 millions inhabitants with individual sanitation (4 to 5
millions)
19 600 agglomerations (3 300 agglomerations >= 2000 pe)
19 600 UWWTPs
In 2009, 31 000 local services about water supply (14000) and sanitation
(17000)
76 millions p.e generated (69 millions p.e >= 2000 Eh), maximum week
(45 millions pe average day)
97 millions p.e capacity
5 billions m3 wasterwater produced each year (130 m3/s)
Each inhabitant has a drinking water consumption of 150 l/d
6Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro
November 2012
épandagedirect compostageproduit compostagedéchet incinération décharge autre
0
50000
100000
150000
200000
250000
300000
350000
400000
450000
répartitionen2011desbouesdetraitementdeseauxuséesévacuées
Tonnesdematièressèchesparan
Quantity and destination of sludge
1 050 000 t(solids)/year in 2011
• 74 %  soil agriculture (with sludge compost) (60% in
2006)
• 5 % landfill (20% in 2006)
• 20 % incineration
Quantity and destination of sludge in 2011
soil
agriculture
landfillsludge compost
waste
othersludge compost
as product
incineration
7Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro
November 2012
<= 200
5801
30%
200-500
4091
21%
500-1000
3169
16%
1000-2000
2562
13%
2000-10000
2716
14%
10000-100000
1116
6%
>=100000
134
1%
capacité des STEU en France en 2011
Number of UWWTPs and capacity
End 2011
80% UWWTP < 2000 p.e.
30% UWWTP < 200 p.e
Nbr of UWWTPs for each capacity in France in 2011
8Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro
November 2012
<= 200
411
1%
200-500
825
1%
500-1000
1243
2%
1000-2000
2159
3%
2000-10000
9539
12%
10000-100000
27052
35%
<=100000
36374
47%
Charge reçues par les STEU en France en 2011 en milliers d'Eh
Size of UWWTPs and capacity
UWWTPs< 2000 p.e.
receive
7% of the pollution
UWWTPs< 500 p.e.
receive
2% of the pollution
 Small UWWTPs
don't contribute a lot to
the national emissions
but can create a local
problem in a small river
bassin
Load entering UWWTP in France
9Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro
November 2012
Type of treatment for
UWWTP > 2000 p.e.
83% of the
UWWTP > 2000 p.e.
have a more
stringent treatment
Type of treatment for UWWTP > 2000 Eh - 2011
More stringent 83%
Secondary 16%
Primary 1%
More Stringent treatment 83 % :
Nitrogen removal 77 %
Phosphorus removal 50%
10Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro
November 2012
Type of treatment in Europe in 2010
http://www.eea.europa.eu/themes/water/interactive/soe-wfd/urban-waste-water-treatment-directive-viewer
More stringent treatment Secondary treatment
11Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro
November 2012
Agglos < 2000 Eh Agglos >= 2 000 Eh et < 10 000 Eh Agglos >= 10 000 Eh
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
14000
16000
TYPE DE FILIERE SELON LA TAILLE DE L'AGGLOMERATION
cultures mixtes
biroéacteurs à membranes
traitement physico-chimique et
décantation
biofiltres
Filtre à sables
boue activée moyenne et forte
charge
disques biologiques
lits bactériens
filtre planté
lagunage
boue activée aération
prolongée
Type of waste water treatment
in France in 2010
Extended
aeration
Activated
sludges
Rotating biological Contactors
Constructed Wetlands (reed bed filters) 80% of the new small UWWTP in 2010
Trickling filters
Lagoons
12Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro
November 2012
Situation of UWWTPs in 2006
20% of UWWTP not compliant with the UWWTD.
13Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro
November 2012
Situation of UWWTPs in 2010 and 2011
• 8% of UWWTPs not compliant at the end of 2010 (3% new not-compliant UWWTPs since 2007)
• 6% of UWWTPs not compliant at the end of 2011 (4% new not-compliant UWWTPs)
• Life of a treatment plant is between 30 and 40 years.
• 3% of the UWWTPs have to be rebuilt
14Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro
November 2012
FRANCE 2006 (estimation)
BOD5 : 90 %
COD : 85 %
Phosphorus : 60 %
Totalnitrogen : 40 %
Kjeldahlnitrogen : 60 %
FRANCE 2010 ( Current measurement)
SS : 93%
BOD5 : 94 %
COD : 89 %
Phosphorus : 77 %
Totalnitrogen : 65 %
Kjeldahlnitrogen : 80 %
FRANCE 2012 (forecast)
BOD5 : 96 %
COD : 92 %
Phosphorus : 80 %
Totalnitrogen : 75 %
Kjeldahlnitrogen : 85 %
Performance of UWWTPs
An extended aeration activated
sludge UWWTP can reach :
BOD5 : 97 %
COD : 92 %
Phosphorus (normal biological removal) : 40
%
Phosphorus (boosted biological removal) : 60%
Phosphorus (chemical removal) : 80-95 %
Totalnitrogen : 80-90 %
Kjeldahlnitrogen : 90-95 %
15Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro
November 2012
Performance of UWWTPs
technologies (6175 UWWTPs)
TOUTESFILIERES
Biofiltres-34
bioréacteursàmembranes–16
bouesactivéesaérationprolongée–3640
bouesactivéesfaiblecharge–514
bouesactivéesfortecharge–29
bouesactivéesmoyennecharge–175
culturesmixtes–4
Décantation–12
disquesbiologiques-95
filtresàsable–49
filtresplantés–390
lagunesaérées–13
lagunagesnaturels–824
litsbactériens–382
20,00%
30,00%
40,00%
50,00%
60,00%
70,00%
80,00%
90,00%
100,00%
Performances des filières de traitement des eaux usées
calcul effectué sur 6175 station
Rdt MES
Rdt DCO
Rdt DBO5
Rdt NGL
Rdt NTK
Rdt Pt
FILIERES
RENDEMENTS
Membranebioreactors
Extendedaeration
activatedsludges
Primaryclarifiers
Rotatedbiological
Contactors
SandfilterSandfilters
Reedbedfilters
Aeratedlagoons
lagoons
TricklingFilters
MBBR
Otheractivated
sludges
Biologicalfilter
AllUWWTPs
16Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro
November 2012
Cost of the UWWTD
Investment and operating costs 1990 – 2010 (Statistic service of ministry of ecology)
Forecast 2011-2020
Collective sanitation Invst
Forecast Investment
Forecast Individual
sanitation Invst.
Forecast operating cost
Ind. sanitation Invst.
UWWTP Invst.
Forecast UWWTP Invst.
Operating Cost
Collection Invst.
Forecast collection Invst.
New individual sanitation regulation
http://www.statistiques.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/publications/c/references.html
17Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro
November 2012
Cost of the
French sanitation system
• Since 2006, each year 150 more than 2000 p.e UWWTPs
have been rebuilt. Normal renewal is between 100 and 120.
 Investment of 75 billion euros on collective sanitation
(treatment and collection) from 1990 to the end of 2011.
Cost in 1994 was estimated to 16 billion euros.
 Annual operating cost of the sanitation system (collection
and treatment) represents 6,6 billion euros (with depreciation
costs) and will reach more than 7 billion euros in a few years.
• One euro in a UWWTP needs between three and four
euros in a collecting system.
18Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro
November 2012
Asset of
French sanitation system
Between 160 and 200 billion euros
 30 billion euros related to UWWTPs
(300 euros/pe, 100 million p.e)
 90 billion euros related to collecting systems
(300 euros/km, 300 000 km)
• 15 billion euros related to connection to collecting system by
households (1000 euros/connection, 15 million houses)
• 30 billion euros relatedt to individual sanitation systems
(7500 euros per device, 4 million houses)
An investment of 3 000 euros for each citizen
every 40 years
19Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro
November 2012
Cost of
French sanitation system
 Water price (drinking water and sanitation) :
3.6 euros/m3 in 2009 (including VAT)
• For a year consumption of 120 m3 in a French
family, it represents 220 euros for drinking water
and 200 euros for sanitation
1% of the average household incomes
• The fixed part of water bill in 2009 : 45 euros
http://www.onema.fr/IMG/pdf/SynthesesN4-
BDEF.pdf
20Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro
November 2012
40 years of investments
The Seine-Normandie sanitation history between 1950 and 2007
Capacity
Nbr of UWWTPs
21Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro
November 2012
Results of UWWTD
implementation
Improvment of rivers quality
22Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro
November 2012
Impact on rivers - BOD5
1990 2010
35% bad status 2% bad status
23Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro
November 2012
Europe rivers BOD5
Difference
between countries
http://www.eea.europa.eu/themes/water/interactive/water-live-maps/status-of-water-quality
24Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro
November 2012
16% bad status
Impact on rivers - orthosphates
1990 2010
60% bad status
(Ammonium 11% bad status)(Ammonium 43% bad status)
25Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro
November 2012
Europe rivers orthophosphate
26Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro
November 2012
Improvment of Seine river quality
(orthophosphates)
After 20 years of sanitation investments
PARIS
upstream
PARIS
downstream
Half of the result : elimation of phosphorus in domestic detergents
Half of the result : better treatment in UWWTPs
27Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro
November 2012
Improvment of Seine river
estuary quality (ammonium)
After 40 years of sanitation investments
28Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro
November 2012
Improvment of Geneva Lake quality
(phosphorus)
After 40 years of sanitation investment
CIPEL, phosphorus scoreboard 2011 http://www.cipel.org/
Half of the result :
elimation of phosphorus
in domestic detergents
Half of the result :
better treatment in
UWWTPs
29Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro
November 2012
French way to implement the
directive
30Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro
November 2012
How to fund
a sanitation system
31Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro
November 2012
River basin agencies RBA (since 1964)
Money
11,6 billions euros financial assistance (2007 – 2012)
(60% sanitation, 11% drinking water, 10%
management of local policies)
13,3 billions euros financial assistance
(2013 – 2018) (50% sanitation)
UWWTPs
Financial assistance between 30% and 45% of the
total amount
Collecting systems
Financial assistance between 20 and 35% of the total
amount
Origin of the RBA budget
(Exemple of RMC, 9th programme)
• 70%households
• 19% local authorities
• 7% industries
• 1% agriculture
• 3% pesticides
• 1% other
Sanitation tax to RBA on the water bill between 35
and 70 cents
Solidarity between urban and rural areas in the
same river bassin
32Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro
November 2012
National office of water ONEMA
(since 2008)
ONEMA tasks
- financial solidarity to the benefit of
Corsica and French outermost territories
20 millions euros financial support to
investment each year
- Knowledge and national data
- Water Research
Budget comes from the 6 river bassin agencies
120 millions euros each year (from the water bill)
33Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro
November 2012
How to pay UWWTPs
Mainland France
-river bassin agencies (30 to 45%)
-regional and department local authorities (0 to 20%)
-local authorities in charge of the project (20 to 70% included bank loans)
Corsica
-River bassin agency RMC (30%)
-ONEMA (40%)
-Local authorities (20%)
-local authorities in charge of the project (10%)
Outermost territories
- ONEMA
- FEDER (it depends from the territory)
- French State
- Local Water authority (water office)
- Departmental authorities
- local authorities in charge of the project
Department and regional administrative level have budget issues. Sanitation financial
support is going to disappear
34Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro
November 2012
2006
A new way to implement the
UWWTD directive
35Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro
November 2012
• 1991 : UWWTD was published
• 1994 and 1996 : first sanitation Ministerial Decree and Order were published
• 2004 : Creation of a national database
• September 2004 : France was sentenced by the court of Justice for the non-
compliance as regards 1998 deadline
• December 8, 2006 : implementation of coercive and financial measures, an
interministerial French circular was published
• June 22, 2007 : change in sanitation regulation. Issuance of a new Ministerial Order
• July 1, 2007 : recruitment of a project manager with a high expertise in the sanitation
field
• September 2007 : The Minister of Environment decided to put in place a national
sanitation action plan with indicators and the aim to be compliant before the end of
2011
• September 2011 : Minister of Environment decided to put in place a new sanitation
action plan with new indicators
Main dates
36Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro
November 2012
It's compulsory to have a more accurate database each year with
information about the 19 600 agglomerations and UWWTPs
 to understand better how the sanitation sytems work and to
have accurate information about each UWWTP and collecting
system,
 to assess and disseminate data,
 to manage the sanitation policy at each territorial level,
 to feed the research sanitation policy with recent and complete
data
----> it requires a lot of time and human ressources
Creation of a national database
37Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro
November 2012
Importance of data
 It has taken France 4 years to have a reliable database
and 10 years to build a complete data system about
sanitation.
 More than 150 people feed this database
 Pressure is needed every day to be sure that the database
is feeded. 3 persons at national level are necessary : a
manager, a technician and a web-tool developper
--- > It is now possible in Paris to know all about each
treatment plant and the river where it is discharged
38Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro
November 2012
The creation of a sanitation website
http://assainissement.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/
A reference to water stakeolders
(10 000 unique visitors per month).
A guaranty of transparency
The implementation of Aarhus convention
Time saved to answer to public
Disseminating data help to have more accurate
data
Additional pressure on local authorities to have
compliant sanitation systems (red and yellow
points)
A place to find lot of information and news about
sanitation. (regulation, action plans and incators,
quality of rivers, sanitation tools...)
39Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro
November 2012
A collective work to implement the directive
 The policy is supported at the highest level of the State by the Ministers with
Sanitation reference persons at local level. They all have the same approach
 A close collaboration between local civil servants and representatives of river
basin agencies at local level to have the same speech to the communities.
 They all have to apply the 2006 circular :
 Legal formal notices have to be taken by the Prefects (local State’s autorities) where
the beginning and the end dates of the works are written. Criminal and financial
sanctions can be applied if local autoroties don’t respect the deadlines
 Criminal sanctions can be applied if there’s a water pollution,
 Town planning can be blocked,
 River basin agencies help local authorities but can reduce their financial support if
they do not respect their contract,
 The prefects can be called by the first minister cabinet if they don’t want to apply
the measures of the action plan
 The project manager can help the local state's civil servants to do their job in case of
sanitation issues. He doesn't hesitate to go out into the field to meet local
authorities
40Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro
November 2012
Result of the 2007-2011
sanitation action plan
41Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro
November 2012
Sanitation projects
France is concerned by 3 infringement procedures coming from the European
commission about each deadline of the UWWTD (1998, 2000 and 2005)
• 1998-2110 (277 UWWTP not compliant as regards the 1998 deadline). All
UWWTP are now compliant
• 2004-2032 (199 agglomerations) There is a referral to court 258 for not
having respected the 2000 deadline. 4 agglomerations are still not compliant
•2009-2306 : France received a letter of formal notice 258 about 551 UWWTP
for not having respected the 2005 deadline. At the end of this year only 60
UWWTP will stay not compliant thanks to the action plan adopted in 2007.
It requires between 3 and 5-6 year to make an agglomeration compliant
when starting from the beginning of the procedure.
 target concerning 2000 and 2005 deadlines: 100% compliance before the
end of 2013
42Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro
November 2012
The new sanitation action plan
2012-2018
To be sure that sanitation systems reamain
compliant under the UWWTD during dry
and wet weather.
To make sanitation systems compliant with
the Water Framework Directive and other
directives (Bathing and Shellfish Waters...).
It's time to have small agglomerations (under
2000 p.e) compliant with all directives.
43Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro
November 2012
Action Plan 2008-2012
(74 priority UWWTPs concerned with litigation)
44Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro
November 2012
Action Plan 2012-2018
(2nd dashboard : 123 UWWTP)
45Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro
November 2012
Monitoring of treatment plants
and collecting systems
46Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro
November 2012
European and national regulation
Monitoring of treatment plants
UWWTD
National regulation : arrêté du 22 juin 2007
47Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro
November 2012
European and national regulation
Monitoring of storm water overflows
UWWTD (not compulsory)
National regulation : arrêté du 22 juin 2007
Flow measuring system concerning biggest discharges (collecting system
more than 10 000 p.e)
Estimation of the flow concerning discharges (collecting system between 2
000 p.e and 10 000 p.e)
One of the French aims is to gather information as regards the biggest
systems at the end of 2013.
French is late because priority was to be compliant with the UWWTD.
Decreasing storm water overflows by wet weather is a priority of the new
action plan
48
CONCLUSION
French approach can be used by different policies
at different administrative level
• Action plan with accurate aims
• Same approach from the national to the local level with a
collective work
• A project manager who is expert in the policy
• Coercive and financial measures implemented
• A reference person at each level
• Meetings on the ground organised with the project manager
• Reliable database and public communication
• Dashboards regularly updated
Don't have too short deadlines
In France 20 years to become compliant
49
CONCLUSION
Priorities have to be established to implement the
UWWTD directive
• First priority concerning agglomerations of more than 10 000 p.e
and all agglomerations with bathing waters
• Second priority agglomerations 2000 p.e. and more
• Third priority agglomerations of less than 2 000 p.e
Don't build oversized treatment plants if it is not possible to build
all the collecting system.
When a collecting system is built, a treatment plant has also to be
built because without it it will create a big impact on rivers.
50Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro
November 2012
Thank you for your
attention
Bruno RAKEDJIAN
Project manager in sanitation
Ministry of ecology – biodiversity and water department
Bruno.rakedjian@developpement-durable.gouv.fr
http://assainissement.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/

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How to implement the urban waste water directive - Presentation given in Montenegro

  • 1. DGALN - Direction de l'Eau et de la Biodiversité 1 Council Directive 91/271/EEC of 21 May 1991 concerning urban waste- water treatment WWW.developpement-durable.gouv.fr How to implement the UWWTD The French approach Bruno RAKEDJIAN French Ministry of ecology Montenegro – November 2012 Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable developpment and energy
  • 2. 2Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro November 2012 The French situation facts and figures The first step to know what to do
  • 3. 3Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro November 2012 French sensitive areas in 2011 3/4 of France  1994 first identification → 1998  1999 first review → 2006  2006 second review → 2013  2010 third review → 2017 2013
  • 4. 4Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro November 2012 Chrorophyl a in Europe and Montenegro 31 may 2008 Europe Montenegro
  • 5. 5Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro November 2012 Population and sanitation in 2011 65 millions inhabitants about 55 millions inhabitants with UWWTP and collecting system between 8 and 10 millions inhabitants with individual sanitation (4 to 5 millions) 19 600 agglomerations (3 300 agglomerations >= 2000 pe) 19 600 UWWTPs In 2009, 31 000 local services about water supply (14000) and sanitation (17000) 76 millions p.e generated (69 millions p.e >= 2000 Eh), maximum week (45 millions pe average day) 97 millions p.e capacity 5 billions m3 wasterwater produced each year (130 m3/s) Each inhabitant has a drinking water consumption of 150 l/d
  • 6. 6Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro November 2012 épandagedirect compostageproduit compostagedéchet incinération décharge autre 0 50000 100000 150000 200000 250000 300000 350000 400000 450000 répartitionen2011desbouesdetraitementdeseauxuséesévacuées Tonnesdematièressèchesparan Quantity and destination of sludge 1 050 000 t(solids)/year in 2011 • 74 %  soil agriculture (with sludge compost) (60% in 2006) • 5 % landfill (20% in 2006) • 20 % incineration Quantity and destination of sludge in 2011 soil agriculture landfillsludge compost waste othersludge compost as product incineration
  • 7. 7Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro November 2012 <= 200 5801 30% 200-500 4091 21% 500-1000 3169 16% 1000-2000 2562 13% 2000-10000 2716 14% 10000-100000 1116 6% >=100000 134 1% capacité des STEU en France en 2011 Number of UWWTPs and capacity End 2011 80% UWWTP < 2000 p.e. 30% UWWTP < 200 p.e Nbr of UWWTPs for each capacity in France in 2011
  • 8. 8Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro November 2012 <= 200 411 1% 200-500 825 1% 500-1000 1243 2% 1000-2000 2159 3% 2000-10000 9539 12% 10000-100000 27052 35% <=100000 36374 47% Charge reçues par les STEU en France en 2011 en milliers d'Eh Size of UWWTPs and capacity UWWTPs< 2000 p.e. receive 7% of the pollution UWWTPs< 500 p.e. receive 2% of the pollution  Small UWWTPs don't contribute a lot to the national emissions but can create a local problem in a small river bassin Load entering UWWTP in France
  • 9. 9Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro November 2012 Type of treatment for UWWTP > 2000 p.e. 83% of the UWWTP > 2000 p.e. have a more stringent treatment Type of treatment for UWWTP > 2000 Eh - 2011 More stringent 83% Secondary 16% Primary 1% More Stringent treatment 83 % : Nitrogen removal 77 % Phosphorus removal 50%
  • 10. 10Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro November 2012 Type of treatment in Europe in 2010 http://www.eea.europa.eu/themes/water/interactive/soe-wfd/urban-waste-water-treatment-directive-viewer More stringent treatment Secondary treatment
  • 11. 11Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro November 2012 Agglos < 2000 Eh Agglos >= 2 000 Eh et < 10 000 Eh Agglos >= 10 000 Eh 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 TYPE DE FILIERE SELON LA TAILLE DE L'AGGLOMERATION cultures mixtes biroéacteurs à membranes traitement physico-chimique et décantation biofiltres Filtre à sables boue activée moyenne et forte charge disques biologiques lits bactériens filtre planté lagunage boue activée aération prolongée Type of waste water treatment in France in 2010 Extended aeration Activated sludges Rotating biological Contactors Constructed Wetlands (reed bed filters) 80% of the new small UWWTP in 2010 Trickling filters Lagoons
  • 12. 12Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro November 2012 Situation of UWWTPs in 2006 20% of UWWTP not compliant with the UWWTD.
  • 13. 13Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro November 2012 Situation of UWWTPs in 2010 and 2011 • 8% of UWWTPs not compliant at the end of 2010 (3% new not-compliant UWWTPs since 2007) • 6% of UWWTPs not compliant at the end of 2011 (4% new not-compliant UWWTPs) • Life of a treatment plant is between 30 and 40 years. • 3% of the UWWTPs have to be rebuilt
  • 14. 14Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro November 2012 FRANCE 2006 (estimation) BOD5 : 90 % COD : 85 % Phosphorus : 60 % Totalnitrogen : 40 % Kjeldahlnitrogen : 60 % FRANCE 2010 ( Current measurement) SS : 93% BOD5 : 94 % COD : 89 % Phosphorus : 77 % Totalnitrogen : 65 % Kjeldahlnitrogen : 80 % FRANCE 2012 (forecast) BOD5 : 96 % COD : 92 % Phosphorus : 80 % Totalnitrogen : 75 % Kjeldahlnitrogen : 85 % Performance of UWWTPs An extended aeration activated sludge UWWTP can reach : BOD5 : 97 % COD : 92 % Phosphorus (normal biological removal) : 40 % Phosphorus (boosted biological removal) : 60% Phosphorus (chemical removal) : 80-95 % Totalnitrogen : 80-90 % Kjeldahlnitrogen : 90-95 %
  • 15. 15Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro November 2012 Performance of UWWTPs technologies (6175 UWWTPs) TOUTESFILIERES Biofiltres-34 bioréacteursàmembranes–16 bouesactivéesaérationprolongée–3640 bouesactivéesfaiblecharge–514 bouesactivéesfortecharge–29 bouesactivéesmoyennecharge–175 culturesmixtes–4 Décantation–12 disquesbiologiques-95 filtresàsable–49 filtresplantés–390 lagunesaérées–13 lagunagesnaturels–824 litsbactériens–382 20,00% 30,00% 40,00% 50,00% 60,00% 70,00% 80,00% 90,00% 100,00% Performances des filières de traitement des eaux usées calcul effectué sur 6175 station Rdt MES Rdt DCO Rdt DBO5 Rdt NGL Rdt NTK Rdt Pt FILIERES RENDEMENTS Membranebioreactors Extendedaeration activatedsludges Primaryclarifiers Rotatedbiological Contactors SandfilterSandfilters Reedbedfilters Aeratedlagoons lagoons TricklingFilters MBBR Otheractivated sludges Biologicalfilter AllUWWTPs
  • 16. 16Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro November 2012 Cost of the UWWTD Investment and operating costs 1990 – 2010 (Statistic service of ministry of ecology) Forecast 2011-2020 Collective sanitation Invst Forecast Investment Forecast Individual sanitation Invst. Forecast operating cost Ind. sanitation Invst. UWWTP Invst. Forecast UWWTP Invst. Operating Cost Collection Invst. Forecast collection Invst. New individual sanitation regulation http://www.statistiques.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/publications/c/references.html
  • 17. 17Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro November 2012 Cost of the French sanitation system • Since 2006, each year 150 more than 2000 p.e UWWTPs have been rebuilt. Normal renewal is between 100 and 120.  Investment of 75 billion euros on collective sanitation (treatment and collection) from 1990 to the end of 2011. Cost in 1994 was estimated to 16 billion euros.  Annual operating cost of the sanitation system (collection and treatment) represents 6,6 billion euros (with depreciation costs) and will reach more than 7 billion euros in a few years. • One euro in a UWWTP needs between three and four euros in a collecting system.
  • 18. 18Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro November 2012 Asset of French sanitation system Between 160 and 200 billion euros  30 billion euros related to UWWTPs (300 euros/pe, 100 million p.e)  90 billion euros related to collecting systems (300 euros/km, 300 000 km) • 15 billion euros related to connection to collecting system by households (1000 euros/connection, 15 million houses) • 30 billion euros relatedt to individual sanitation systems (7500 euros per device, 4 million houses) An investment of 3 000 euros for each citizen every 40 years
  • 19. 19Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro November 2012 Cost of French sanitation system  Water price (drinking water and sanitation) : 3.6 euros/m3 in 2009 (including VAT) • For a year consumption of 120 m3 in a French family, it represents 220 euros for drinking water and 200 euros for sanitation 1% of the average household incomes • The fixed part of water bill in 2009 : 45 euros http://www.onema.fr/IMG/pdf/SynthesesN4- BDEF.pdf
  • 20. 20Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro November 2012 40 years of investments The Seine-Normandie sanitation history between 1950 and 2007 Capacity Nbr of UWWTPs
  • 21. 21Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro November 2012 Results of UWWTD implementation Improvment of rivers quality
  • 22. 22Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro November 2012 Impact on rivers - BOD5 1990 2010 35% bad status 2% bad status
  • 23. 23Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro November 2012 Europe rivers BOD5 Difference between countries http://www.eea.europa.eu/themes/water/interactive/water-live-maps/status-of-water-quality
  • 24. 24Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro November 2012 16% bad status Impact on rivers - orthosphates 1990 2010 60% bad status (Ammonium 11% bad status)(Ammonium 43% bad status)
  • 25. 25Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro November 2012 Europe rivers orthophosphate
  • 26. 26Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro November 2012 Improvment of Seine river quality (orthophosphates) After 20 years of sanitation investments PARIS upstream PARIS downstream Half of the result : elimation of phosphorus in domestic detergents Half of the result : better treatment in UWWTPs
  • 27. 27Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro November 2012 Improvment of Seine river estuary quality (ammonium) After 40 years of sanitation investments
  • 28. 28Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro November 2012 Improvment of Geneva Lake quality (phosphorus) After 40 years of sanitation investment CIPEL, phosphorus scoreboard 2011 http://www.cipel.org/ Half of the result : elimation of phosphorus in domestic detergents Half of the result : better treatment in UWWTPs
  • 29. 29Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro November 2012 French way to implement the directive
  • 30. 30Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro November 2012 How to fund a sanitation system
  • 31. 31Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro November 2012 River basin agencies RBA (since 1964) Money 11,6 billions euros financial assistance (2007 – 2012) (60% sanitation, 11% drinking water, 10% management of local policies) 13,3 billions euros financial assistance (2013 – 2018) (50% sanitation) UWWTPs Financial assistance between 30% and 45% of the total amount Collecting systems Financial assistance between 20 and 35% of the total amount Origin of the RBA budget (Exemple of RMC, 9th programme) • 70%households • 19% local authorities • 7% industries • 1% agriculture • 3% pesticides • 1% other Sanitation tax to RBA on the water bill between 35 and 70 cents Solidarity between urban and rural areas in the same river bassin
  • 32. 32Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro November 2012 National office of water ONEMA (since 2008) ONEMA tasks - financial solidarity to the benefit of Corsica and French outermost territories 20 millions euros financial support to investment each year - Knowledge and national data - Water Research Budget comes from the 6 river bassin agencies 120 millions euros each year (from the water bill)
  • 33. 33Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro November 2012 How to pay UWWTPs Mainland France -river bassin agencies (30 to 45%) -regional and department local authorities (0 to 20%) -local authorities in charge of the project (20 to 70% included bank loans) Corsica -River bassin agency RMC (30%) -ONEMA (40%) -Local authorities (20%) -local authorities in charge of the project (10%) Outermost territories - ONEMA - FEDER (it depends from the territory) - French State - Local Water authority (water office) - Departmental authorities - local authorities in charge of the project Department and regional administrative level have budget issues. Sanitation financial support is going to disappear
  • 34. 34Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro November 2012 2006 A new way to implement the UWWTD directive
  • 35. 35Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro November 2012 • 1991 : UWWTD was published • 1994 and 1996 : first sanitation Ministerial Decree and Order were published • 2004 : Creation of a national database • September 2004 : France was sentenced by the court of Justice for the non- compliance as regards 1998 deadline • December 8, 2006 : implementation of coercive and financial measures, an interministerial French circular was published • June 22, 2007 : change in sanitation regulation. Issuance of a new Ministerial Order • July 1, 2007 : recruitment of a project manager with a high expertise in the sanitation field • September 2007 : The Minister of Environment decided to put in place a national sanitation action plan with indicators and the aim to be compliant before the end of 2011 • September 2011 : Minister of Environment decided to put in place a new sanitation action plan with new indicators Main dates
  • 36. 36Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro November 2012 It's compulsory to have a more accurate database each year with information about the 19 600 agglomerations and UWWTPs  to understand better how the sanitation sytems work and to have accurate information about each UWWTP and collecting system,  to assess and disseminate data,  to manage the sanitation policy at each territorial level,  to feed the research sanitation policy with recent and complete data ----> it requires a lot of time and human ressources Creation of a national database
  • 37. 37Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro November 2012 Importance of data  It has taken France 4 years to have a reliable database and 10 years to build a complete data system about sanitation.  More than 150 people feed this database  Pressure is needed every day to be sure that the database is feeded. 3 persons at national level are necessary : a manager, a technician and a web-tool developper --- > It is now possible in Paris to know all about each treatment plant and the river where it is discharged
  • 38. 38Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro November 2012 The creation of a sanitation website http://assainissement.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/ A reference to water stakeolders (10 000 unique visitors per month). A guaranty of transparency The implementation of Aarhus convention Time saved to answer to public Disseminating data help to have more accurate data Additional pressure on local authorities to have compliant sanitation systems (red and yellow points) A place to find lot of information and news about sanitation. (regulation, action plans and incators, quality of rivers, sanitation tools...)
  • 39. 39Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro November 2012 A collective work to implement the directive  The policy is supported at the highest level of the State by the Ministers with Sanitation reference persons at local level. They all have the same approach  A close collaboration between local civil servants and representatives of river basin agencies at local level to have the same speech to the communities.  They all have to apply the 2006 circular :  Legal formal notices have to be taken by the Prefects (local State’s autorities) where the beginning and the end dates of the works are written. Criminal and financial sanctions can be applied if local autoroties don’t respect the deadlines  Criminal sanctions can be applied if there’s a water pollution,  Town planning can be blocked,  River basin agencies help local authorities but can reduce their financial support if they do not respect their contract,  The prefects can be called by the first minister cabinet if they don’t want to apply the measures of the action plan  The project manager can help the local state's civil servants to do their job in case of sanitation issues. He doesn't hesitate to go out into the field to meet local authorities
  • 40. 40Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro November 2012 Result of the 2007-2011 sanitation action plan
  • 41. 41Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro November 2012 Sanitation projects France is concerned by 3 infringement procedures coming from the European commission about each deadline of the UWWTD (1998, 2000 and 2005) • 1998-2110 (277 UWWTP not compliant as regards the 1998 deadline). All UWWTP are now compliant • 2004-2032 (199 agglomerations) There is a referral to court 258 for not having respected the 2000 deadline. 4 agglomerations are still not compliant •2009-2306 : France received a letter of formal notice 258 about 551 UWWTP for not having respected the 2005 deadline. At the end of this year only 60 UWWTP will stay not compliant thanks to the action plan adopted in 2007. It requires between 3 and 5-6 year to make an agglomeration compliant when starting from the beginning of the procedure.  target concerning 2000 and 2005 deadlines: 100% compliance before the end of 2013
  • 42. 42Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro November 2012 The new sanitation action plan 2012-2018 To be sure that sanitation systems reamain compliant under the UWWTD during dry and wet weather. To make sanitation systems compliant with the Water Framework Directive and other directives (Bathing and Shellfish Waters...). It's time to have small agglomerations (under 2000 p.e) compliant with all directives.
  • 43. 43Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro November 2012 Action Plan 2008-2012 (74 priority UWWTPs concerned with litigation)
  • 44. 44Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro November 2012 Action Plan 2012-2018 (2nd dashboard : 123 UWWTP)
  • 45. 45Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro November 2012 Monitoring of treatment plants and collecting systems
  • 46. 46Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro November 2012 European and national regulation Monitoring of treatment plants UWWTD National regulation : arrêté du 22 juin 2007
  • 47. 47Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro November 2012 European and national regulation Monitoring of storm water overflows UWWTD (not compulsory) National regulation : arrêté du 22 juin 2007 Flow measuring system concerning biggest discharges (collecting system more than 10 000 p.e) Estimation of the flow concerning discharges (collecting system between 2 000 p.e and 10 000 p.e) One of the French aims is to gather information as regards the biggest systems at the end of 2013. French is late because priority was to be compliant with the UWWTD. Decreasing storm water overflows by wet weather is a priority of the new action plan
  • 48. 48 CONCLUSION French approach can be used by different policies at different administrative level • Action plan with accurate aims • Same approach from the national to the local level with a collective work • A project manager who is expert in the policy • Coercive and financial measures implemented • A reference person at each level • Meetings on the ground organised with the project manager • Reliable database and public communication • Dashboards regularly updated Don't have too short deadlines In France 20 years to become compliant
  • 49. 49 CONCLUSION Priorities have to be established to implement the UWWTD directive • First priority concerning agglomerations of more than 10 000 p.e and all agglomerations with bathing waters • Second priority agglomerations 2000 p.e. and more • Third priority agglomerations of less than 2 000 p.e Don't build oversized treatment plants if it is not possible to build all the collecting system. When a collecting system is built, a treatment plant has also to be built because without it it will create a big impact on rivers.
  • 50. 50Workshop on the Implementation of the Drinking Water and Wastewater Directives in Montenegro November 2012 Thank you for your attention Bruno RAKEDJIAN Project manager in sanitation Ministry of ecology – biodiversity and water department Bruno.rakedjian@developpement-durable.gouv.fr http://assainissement.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/