Workshop IV“Introdução à Fonética: símbolos e pronúncia” Bruna Moreno e Ualisson Lemes
“Dentro das instituições que dizem adotar a abordagem comunicativa,parece não haver consenso a respeito da importância do ensino dessa habilidade [pronúncia] para a aprendizagem. Enquanto um número de professores de Inglês como LE acreditam que o ensino da pronúncia seja uma prática ultrapassada e conservadora, dando maisimportância ao ato de comunicar em si,outros já concebem o ensino da pronuncia como um aspecto essencial para garantir o sucesso da capacitação do aluno.”
Hoje se compreende que o ensino de pronúncia deve seguir um caminho maisbalanceado. Tendo clara a importância tantode reconhecer sons com alta carga funcional, ou seja, distintivos (como a vogal em least and list), quanto de reconhecer aspectos suprasegmentais, como entonação e tonicidade.
Phone: One of many possible sounds in the languages of the world. The smallest identifiable unit found in a stream of speech.E.g.: [p]Phoneme: A contrastive unit in the sound system of a particular language. A minimal segmental unit that serves to distinguish between meanings of words.E.g.: /p/
Allophones: An allophone is a phonetic variant of a phoneme in a particular language. There are different phones representing the same phoneme.E.g.: [ph] inicial position, as in pat/p/ [p] following a initial /s/, not aspirated, as in spin [p ] final position, lips remain closed and the the /p/ unreleased, as in cup
Consonant phonemes can be distinguished along three main dimensions:1. Voicing: whether or not the vocal cords are vibrating/s/ voiceless/z/ voiced
2. Place of Articulation: Air passes through the oral cavity (mouth) or the nasal passageway (nose), or through both. articulator: movable part of the articulatory system (mainly the lower lip and various parts of the tongue) place of articulation: Where the contact with the articulators occurs
The places of articulation summarized:Bilabial:produced with the two lips.Labiodental:produced with the upper teeth and inner lower lipDental:produced with the tongue tip on or near the inner surface of the upper teeth
Alveolar:produced with the tongue tip on or near the tooth ridgePalatal:produced with the tongue blade or body near the hard palateVelar:produced with the tongue body on or near the soft palateGlottal:Produced by air passing from the windpipe through the vocal cords
3. Manner of articulation:Level of obstruction in the air flow as it encounters the obstacles of the speech organs.Stop: the airstream is stopped completely prior to releaseFricative: air is forced through a narrow passageway criating frictionAffricate: the sound begins as a stop and is then released as a fricativeNasal: continuous air is released through the nasal cavity while the speech organs assume a stop like positionApproximant: the airstream moves around the tongue in a relatively unobstructed way. They are of two kinds: the liquids and the glides(semivowels).
Vowel: the peak of the syllable, which mightbe composed of a single vowel. all voiced. relatively unobstructed air flow changes in shape and size of the oral cavity three types: 1. Simple vowels 2. Glides 3. Diphtongs
Parts of the tongue involved:Front, central, backPositions of the tongue:High, mid, lowPosition of the lips:Rounded, spread, neutral