Workshop v


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Workshop v

  1. 1. Workshop IV“Introdução à Fonética: símbolos e pronúncia” Bruna Moreno e Ualisson Lemes
  2. 2. “Dentro das instituições que dizem adotar a abordagem comunicativa,parece não haver consenso a respeito da importância do ensino dessa habilidade [pronúncia] para a aprendizagem. Enquanto um número de professores de Inglês como LE acreditam que o ensino da pronúncia seja uma prática ultrapassada e conservadora, dando maisimportância ao ato de comunicar em si,outros já concebem o ensino da pronuncia como um aspecto essencial para garantir o sucesso da capacitação do aluno.”
  3. 3. Hoje se compreende que o ensino de pronúncia deve seguir um caminho maisbalanceado. Tendo clara a importância tantode reconhecer sons com alta carga funcional, ou seja, distintivos (como a vogal em least and list), quanto de reconhecer aspectos suprasegmentais, como entonação e tonicidade.
  4. 4. Phone: One of many possible sounds in the languages of the world. The smallest identifiable unit found in a stream of speech.E.g.: [p]Phoneme: A contrastive unit in the sound system of a particular language. A minimal segmental unit that serves to distinguish between meanings of words.E.g.: /p/
  5. 5. Allophones: An allophone is a phonetic variant of a phoneme in a particular language. There are different phones representing the same phoneme.E.g.: [ph] inicial position, as in pat/p/ [p] following a initial /s/, not aspirated, as in spin [p ] final position, lips remain closed and the the /p/ unreleased, as in cup
  6. 6. Sound Examples Sound Examples1. /b/ boy, cab 13. /ʒ/ leisure, beige2. /p/ pie, lip 14. /ʃ/ shy, dish3. /d/ dog, bed 15. /h/ his, ahead4. /t/ toe, cat 16. /tʃ/ cheek, watch5. /g/ go, beg 17. /dʒ/ joy, budge6. /k/ cat, back 18. /m/ me, seem7. /v/ view, love 19. /n/ no, sun8. /f/ fill, life 20. /ŋ/ sing, singer9. /ð/ the, bathe 21. /l/ long, full10. /θ/ thin, bath 22. /r/ run, car11. /z/ zoo, goes 23. /w/ win, away12. /s/ see, bus 24. /j/ you, soya
  7. 7. How do you pronounce this word? ghoti
  8. 8. /fɪʃ/Explanation:gh = /f/ as in tough and rougho = /ɪ/ as in womemti = /ʃ/ as in nationInvented by George Bernard Shaw
  9. 9. Shoe OceanSugar NauseousIssue ConsciousMansion ChaperonMission SchistNation FuschiaSuspicion Pshaw
  10. 10. Consonant phonemes can be distinguished along three main dimensions:1. Voicing: whether or not the vocal cords are vibrating/s/ voiceless/z/ voiced
  11. 11. 2. Place of Articulation: Air passes through the oral cavity (mouth) or the nasal passageway (nose), or through both. articulator: movable part of the articulatory system (mainly the lower lip and various parts of the tongue) place of articulation: Where the contact with the articulators occurs
  12. 12. The Articulatory System
  13. 13.  The places of articulation summarized:Bilabial:produced with the two lips.Labiodental:produced with the upper teeth and inner lower lipDental:produced with the tongue tip on or near the inner surface of the upper teeth
  14. 14. Alveolar:produced with the tongue tip on or near the tooth ridgePalatal:produced with the tongue blade or body near the hard palateVelar:produced with the tongue body on or near the soft palateGlottal:Produced by air passing from the windpipe through the vocal cords
  15. 15. 3. Manner of articulation:Level of obstruction in the air flow as it encounters the obstacles of the speech organs.Stop: the airstream is stopped completely prior to releaseFricative: air is forced through a narrow passageway criating frictionAffricate: the sound begins as a stop and is then released as a fricativeNasal: continuous air is released through the nasal cavity while the speech organs assume a stop like positionApproximant: the airstream moves around the tongue in a relatively unobstructed way. They are of two kinds: the liquids and the glides(semivowels).
  16. 16. Vowel: the peak of the syllable, which mightbe composed of a single vowel. all voiced. relatively unobstructed air flow changes in shape and size of the oral cavity three types: 1. Simple vowels 2. Glides 3. Diphtongs
  17. 17. Parts of the tongue involved:Front, central, backPositions of the tongue:High, mid, lowPosition of the lips:Rounded, spread, neutral