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User‐centered
Informa0on
Modeling            Bruce
Esrig  Talk
at
UPA
NJ,
16
March
2011
User‐centered
informa0on
modelingIn
order
to
design
a
solu0on,
let’s
...• Tell
the
stories
that
maFer
to
our
actors
becaus...
Warmup• Informa0on
modeling• Knowledge
representa0on
(will
expand)• Goals
and
tasks• Stories• Actors• User‐centered
inform...
Informa0on
modelingInforma0on
modeling
is
the
art
of
finding
out
what
you
need
to
talk
about
and
how
it
is
structured      ...
Knowledge
representa0onKnowledge
representa0on
is
the
aFempt
to
capture
essen0al
concepts,
individuals,
and
the
rela0onshi...
Goals
and
tasksGoals
are
the
things
that
users
or
other
actors
wish
to
accomplish.Tasks
are
the
sequences
of
steps
they
ca...
StoriesStories
explain
paths
that
users
and
other
actors
follow
from
wherever
they
may
be
to
a
different
condi0on
in
which
...
ActorsActors
are
the
players
in
the
story.• Their
quali0es,
behaviors,
and
interac0ons
may
be
modeled,
  but
that
is
not
t...
Knowledge
representa0on• In
the
beginning
...• Iden0ty• Types• AFributes• Rela0onships                    Bruce
Esrig.
Tal...
In
the
beginning
...   The
things
we
wish
to
talk
about
are
undifferen0ated.
We
may
recognize
them,
   but
we
don’t
know
wh...
Iden0ty       1           2               3                   4                       5                           6       ...
Types  Un0l
now,
we’ve
said
nothing
about
what
the
items
in
the
model
can
be.
They
   could
be
individuals,
concepts,
even...
Types
and
Iden0ty       1           2               3                   4                       5                         ...
AFributes                       18                                                                         32             ...
Rela0onships                  18                                                                     32                   ...
References•   Mental
Models
(Indi
Young)•   Informa0on
Architecture
for
the
WWW•   Informa0on
Modeling
Concepts
and
Guidel...
User‐centered
informa0on
modelingIn
order
to
design
a
solu0on,
let’s
try
to
...• Tell
the
stories
that
maFer
to
our
actors...
Agenda• Problem
statement
(qualita0ve)• Analyzing
the
problem
statement• Problem
statement
(formal)• Method• Applica0on
of...
Problem
statement
(qualita0ve)Suppose
(just
suppose)
that
a
child
has
a
computer,
school
work
to
do
on
the
computer,
and
a...
Problem
statement
(qualita0ve)Complica0ons:• Work
and
play
may
be
interleaved• Some
0mes
are
too
early
and
too
late• How
t...
Analyzing
the
problem
statementUser• Goals
and
tasks• Objects
manipulated• Model
of
objects• Func0ons
that
affect
objects  ...
Analyzing
the
problem
statement
(example)Parent• Goal:
Control
access
to
the
internet• Objects:
Web
sites• Model:
Web
site...
Problem
statement
(formal)An
applica0on
is
needed
that
controls
Internet
access
  for
various
audiences.Access
to
a
site
i...
Method• State
model
in
more
detail  – Types
of
objects  – Proper0es
of
objects
of
each
type  – Rela0onships
among
types
of...
Applica0on:
Define
objects        Users                                                Sites                Bruce
Esrig,
Ta...
Applica0on:
Define
aFributes       Users            Subjects                            Sites               Bruce
Esrig,
Ta...
Applica0on:
Define
aFributes          People                                                       Sites              Subje...
Applica0on:
Define
rela0onships          Person                                                      Site                  ...
Applica0on:
Define
rela0onships           User                                                       Site                  ...
Applica0on:
Define
rela0onships           User                                                       Site                  ...
Applica0on:
Define
rela0onships          Persona                                                      Site                 ...
User‐centered
informa0on
modelingIn
order
to
design
a
solu0on,
we
...• Tell
the
stories
that
maFer
to
our
actors
because
o...
Interes0ng
surprises• Wikipedia.com
and
wikipedia.org
have
to
be
entered
   as
separate
excep0ons
(to
allow
access).• Gmai...
ExerciseAdd
one
constraint:• Time
bounds
per
audience                 Bruce
Esrig.
Talk
at
UPA
NJ,
16
March
2011   34
Solu0on:
Define
aFributes       Persona                                                     Site          Subjects         ...
Solu0on:
Define
objects       Persona                                                       Site          Subjects         ...
Solu0on:
Define
rela0onships       Persona                                                     Site                      th...
Case
studyMul$ple
       Persona                                                         Sitepersonas
                    ...
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User-centered Information Modeling

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A talk at UPA NJ on 16 March 2011.

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User-centered Information Modeling

  1. 1. User‐centered
Informa0on
Modeling Bruce
Esrig Talk
at
UPA
NJ,
16
March
2011
  2. 2. User‐centered
informa0on
modelingIn
order
to
design
a
solu0on,
let’s
...• Tell
the
stories
that
maFer
to
our
actors
because
of
their
goals.• Read
the
stories
for
informa0on
about
their
tasks
and
the
 knowledge
they
need
to
work
with• Formalize
some
of
the
concepts
that
occur
in
the
stories• Organize
the
concepts
using
meaningful
structural
 rela0onships• Annotate
the
rela0onships
with
logical
implica0ons• Check
the
results
against
the
stories Bruce
Esrig.
Talk
at
UPA
NJ,
16
March
2011 2
  3. 3. Warmup• Informa0on
modeling• Knowledge
representa0on
(will
expand)• Goals
and
tasks• Stories• Actors• User‐centered
informa0on
modeling Bruce
Esrig.
Talk
at
UPA
NJ,
16
March
2011 3
  4. 4. Informa0on
modelingInforma0on
modeling
is
the
art
of
finding
out
what
you
need
to
talk
about
and
how
it
is
structured Bruce
Esrig.
Talk
at
UPA
NJ,
16
March
2011 4
  5. 5. Knowledge
representa0onKnowledge
representa0on
is
the
aFempt
to
capture
essen0al
concepts,
individuals,
and
the
rela0onships
among
them
as
data• Tabular
data• Tree‐structured
data• Diagrams
with
bubbles
or
boxes,
lines,
labels,
and
 layout• Seman0c
web
or
linked
data Bruce
Esrig.
Talk
at
UPA
NJ,
16
March
2011 5
  6. 6. Goals
and
tasksGoals
are
the
things
that
users
or
other
actors
wish
to
accomplish.Tasks
are
the
sequences
of
steps
they
can
use
to
accomplish
them.• For
today,
let’s
ignore
postures,
such
as
appealing
 helplessness,
and
the
whole
subject
of
persuasion,
i.e.
 inspiring
others
to
want
what
you
want. Bruce
Esrig.
Talk
at
UPA
NJ,
16
March
2011 6
  7. 7. StoriesStories
explain
paths
that
users
and
other
actors
follow
from
wherever
they
may
be
to
a
different
condi0on
in
which
their
goal
is
achieved. Bruce
Esrig.
Talk
at
UPA
NJ,
16
March
2011 7
  8. 8. ActorsActors
are
the
players
in
the
story.• Their
quali0es,
behaviors,
and
interac0ons
may
be
modeled,
 but
that
is
not
the
kind
of
informa0on
we
are
modeling
today.• Instead,
we
are
focusing
on
informa0on
about
the
domain
 under
discussion
and
working
to
understand
how
the
stories
 and
the
actors
inform
us
about
the
structure
of
that
 informa0on. Bruce
Esrig.
Talk
at
UPA
NJ,
16
March
2011 8
  9. 9. Knowledge
representa0on• In
the
beginning
...• Iden0ty• Types• AFributes• Rela0onships Bruce
Esrig.
Talk
at
UPA
NJ,
16
March
2011 9
  10. 10. In
the
beginning
... The
things
we
wish
to
talk
about
are
undifferen0ated.
We
may
recognize
them,
 but
we
don’t
know
what
they
are,
or
anything
about
them.
We
may
even
share
 a
common
experience
of
one
of
them
and
s0ll
not
have
a
name
for
it. Bruce
Esrig.
Talk
at
UPA
NJ,
16
March
2011 10
  11. 11. Iden0ty 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 To
represent
knowledge,
we
must
find
something
to
write
down
to
represent
 each
thing
or
phenomenon
that
we
know
about
and
wish
to
model. The
root
of
knowledge
modeling
is
establishing
iden0ty.
We
need
a
way
of
 agreeing
on
which
item
is
which. Bruce
Esrig.
Talk
at
UPA
NJ,
16
March
2011 11
  12. 12. Types Un0l
now,
we’ve
said
nothing
about
what
the
items
in
the
model
can
be.
They
 could
be
individuals,
concepts,
events,
phenomena,
quali0es,
constraints,
... A
simple
technique
for
organizing
items
is
to
find
similari0es
among
them
and
 define
groupings
that
each
of
which
contains
only
items
that
are
similar
in
a
 certain
regard.
We
might
call
such
a
grouping
a
type
(or
a
concept). Bruce
Esrig.
Talk
at
UPA
NJ,
16
March
2011 12
  13. 13. Types
and
Iden0ty 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Types
can
be
built
by
finding
the
individuals
that
belong
to
the
type.
You
could
 imagine
iden0fying
a
batch
of
individuals,
and
considering
those
that
meet
 certain
selec0on
criteria
to
be
part
of
the
type. Alterna0vely,
you
might
start
with
a
descrip0on,
and
only
later
find
out
which
 individuals
fit
the
descrip0on,
if
any. Bruce
Esrig.
Talk
at
UPA
NJ,
16
March
2011 13
  14. 14. AFributes 18 32 23 Color:
green 7 Texture:
rough Loca0on:
(geo‐coordinates) Neighbor:
Item
18 Type:
(simple
type
such
as
green
dot
or 











pointer
into
type
hierarchy,
such
as
Dot
>
Green) Some
aFributes
have
simple
values
that
you
may
not
be
 modeling
as
individuals,
such
as
the
names
of
colors
or
textures. Bruce
Esrig.
Talk
at
UPA
NJ,
16
March
2011 14
  15. 15. Rela0onships 18 32 23 Color:
green 7 Texture:
rough Loca0on:
(geo‐coordinates) Neighbor:
Item
18 Type:
(simple
type
such
as
green
dot
or 











pointer
into
type
hierarchy,
such
as
Dot
>
Green) We
say
we
have
a
rela0onship
when the
related
value
is
an
individual
in
the
model. Bruce
Esrig.
Talk
at
UPA
NJ,
16
March
2011 15
  16. 16. References• Mental
Models
(Indi
Young)• Informa0on
Architecture
for
the
WWW• Informa0on
Modeling
Concepts
and
Guidelines• The
UML
Language
Reference
Manual• Seman0c
Web
for
the
Working
Ontologist• Designing
for
Naviga0on• Mental
Notes
cards
(what
we’re
not
talking
about) Bruce
Esrig.
Talk
at
UPA
NJ,
16
March
2011 16
  17. 17. User‐centered
informa0on
modelingIn
order
to
design
a
solu0on,
let’s
try
to
...• Tell
the
stories
that
maFer
to
our
actors
because
of
their
goals.• Read
the
stories
for
informa0on
about
their
tasks
and
the
 knowledge
they
need
to
work
with• Formalize
some
of
the
concepts
that
occur
in
the
stories• Organize
the
concepts
using
meaningful
structural
 rela0onships• Annotate
the
rela0onships
with
logical
implica0ons• Check
the
results
against
the
stories Bruce
Esrig.
Talk
at
UPA
NJ,
16
March
2011 17
  18. 18. Agenda• Problem
statement
(qualita0ve)• Analyzing
the
problem
statement• Problem
statement
(formal)• Method• Applica0on
of
method• Exercise• Solu0on• Case
study Bruce
Esrig.
Talk
at
UPA
NJ,
16
March
2011 18
  19. 19. Problem
statement
(qualita0ve)Suppose
(just
suppose)
that
a
child
has
a
computer,
school
work
to
do
on
the
computer,
and
a
desire
to
play.The
same
computer
can
be
used
to
work
or
play,
so
a
parent
wishes
to
structure
the
situa0on.Can
we
design
sohware
that
will
dis0nguish
between
work
ac0vi0es
and
play
ac0vi0es,
and
keep
track
of
0me,
to
structure
the
ac0vity
on
behalf
of
the
parent? Bruce
Esrig.
Talk
at
UPA
NJ,
16
March
2011 19
  20. 20. Problem
statement
(qualita0ve)Complica0ons:• Work
and
play
may
be
interleaved• Some
0mes
are
too
early
and
too
late• How
to
decide
what
sites
are
allowed
for
work
and
for
play• What
if
the
system
decides
incorrectly?Complica0ons
excluded
from
the
discussion:• More
computers
in
the
house• More
users
in
the
family Bruce
Esrig.
Talk
at
UPA
NJ,
16
March
2011 20
  21. 21. Analyzing
the
problem
statementUser• Goals
and
tasks• Objects
manipulated• Model
of
objects• Func0ons
that
affect
objects Bruce
Esrig.
Talk
at
UPA
NJ,
16
March
2011 21
  22. 22. Analyzing
the
problem
statement
(example)Parent• Goal:
Control
access
to
the
internet• Objects:
Web
sites• Model:
Web
site
has
subject
maFer• Func0ons:
Allow/block
web
site Bruce
Esrig.
Talk
at
UPA
NJ,
16
March
2011 22
  23. 23. Problem
statement
(formal)An
applica0on
is
needed
that
controls
Internet
access
 for
various
audiences.Access
to
a
site
is
based
on
the
subjects
that
appear
on
 the
site.Create
a
model
that
illustrates
the
informa0on
 rela0onships
among
audiences,
sites,
and
subjects. Bruce
Esrig.
Talk
at
UPA
NJ,
16
March
2011 23
  24. 24. Method• State
model
in
more
detail – Types
of
objects – Proper0es
of
objects
of
each
type – Rela0onships
among
types
of
objects• Apply
model
and
test
it
out• Refine
(or
debug!)
as
needed Bruce
Esrig.
Talk
at
UPA
NJ,
16
March
2011 24
  25. 25. Applica0on:
Define
objects Users Sites Bruce
Esrig,
Talk
at
UPA
NJ,
16
March
2011 25
  26. 26. Applica0on:
Define
aFributes Users Subjects Sites Bruce
Esrig,
Talk
at
UPA
NJ,
16
March
2011 26
  27. 27. Applica0on:
Define
aFributes People Sites Subjects Subjects People
are
interested
in
subjects Sites
are
about
subjects Bruce
Esrig,
Talk
at
UPA
NJ,
16
March
2011 27
  28. 28. Applica0on:
Define
rela0onships Person Site then
the
site
is
allowed for
the
person. Subjects Subjects If
all
subjects
the
site
is
about
 are
allowed
for
the
person, Person
is
allowed
to
view
subjects Site
is
about
subjects Our
conceptual
model
of
the
world
has
people
and
sites. Our
analysis
model
examines
a
person
and
a
site. Bruce
Esrig,
Talk
at
UPA
NJ,
16
March
2011 28
  29. 29. Applica0on:
Define
rela0onships User Site then
the
site
is
allowed for
the
user. Subjects Subjects If
all
subjects
the
site
is
about
 are
allowed
for
the
user, User
is
allowed
to
view
subjects Site
is
about
subjects Aboutness
is
actually
calculated
by
analyzing
subjects
 that
are
men0oned
on
pages
at
a
domain. Then
all
the
subjects
that
appear
on
a
site
are
 aFributed
to
the
site. Bruce
Esrig,
Talk
at
UPA
NJ,
16
March
2011 29
  30. 30. Applica0on:
Define
rela0onships User Site then
the
site
is
allowed for
the
user. Subjects Subjects If
all
subjects
the
site
men0ons
 are
allowed
for
the
persona, User
is
allowed
to
view
subjects Site
men$ons
subjects What
we
are
thinking
about
changes
from
people
(in
general), to
person
(in
par0cular),
to
user
(thinking
about
the
system),
and
 next
to
persona
(thinking
about
a
way
that
a
person
uses
a
system). Bruce
Esrig,
Talk
at
UPA
NJ,
16
March
2011 30
  31. 31. Applica0on:
Define
rela0onships Persona Site then
the
site
is
allowed for
the
persona. Subjects Subjects If
all
subjects
the
site
men0ons
 are
allowed
for
the
persona, Persona
is
allowed
to
view
subjects Site
men0ons
subjects (In
this
par0cular
example,
one
user
account
can
serve
one
or
more
 people
on
one
or
more
computers
by
giving
each
person
one
or
 more
personas.) Bruce
Esrig,
Talk
at
UPA
NJ,
16
March
2011 31
  32. 32. User‐centered
informa0on
modelingIn
order
to
design
a
solu0on,
we
...• Tell
the
stories
that
maFer
to
our
actors
because
of
their
goals.• Read
the
stories
for
informa0on
about
their
tasks
and
the
 knowledge
they
need
to
work
with• Formalize
some
of
the
concepts
that
occur
in
the
stories• Organize
the
concepts
using
meaningful
structural
 rela0onships• Annotate
the
rela0onships
with
logical
implica0ons• Check
the
results
against
the
stories Bruce
Esrig.
Talk
at
UPA
NJ,
16
March
2011 32
  33. 33. Interes0ng
surprises• Wikipedia.com
and
wikipedia.org
have
to
be
entered
 as
separate
excep0ons
(to
allow
access).• Gmail
contains
media
and
entertainment,
so
a
parent
 can’t
rule
out
all
media
and
entertainment
and
s0ll
 allow
a
child
to
use
Gmail
while
doing
homework.• Kids
accept
an
amazing
variety
of
game
sites
... hFps://www.cia.gov/kids‐page/games/index.html Bruce
Esrig.
Talk
at
UPA
NJ,
16
March
2011 33
  34. 34. ExerciseAdd
one
constraint:• Time
bounds
per
audience Bruce
Esrig.
Talk
at
UPA
NJ,
16
March
2011 34
  35. 35. Solu0on:
Define
aFributes Persona Site Subjects Subjects Time
 Time
of
day,
 constraint Elapsed
0me Bruce
Esrig,
Talk
at
UPA
NJ,
16
March
2011 35
  36. 36. Solu0on:
Define
objects Persona Site Subjects Subjects Clock
and
 Timer Time
 Time
of
day,
 constraint Elapsed
0me Bruce
Esrig,
Talk
at
UPA
NJ,
16
March
2011 36
  37. 37. Solu0on:
Define
rela0onships Persona Site then
the
site
is
allowed for
the
persona. Subjects Subjects If
all
site
subjects
are
allowed
 for
the
persona Clock
and
 Timer AND Time
 Time
is
within
bounds Time
of
day,
 constraint Elapsed
0me Bruce
Esrig,
Talk
at
UPA
NJ,
16
March
2011 37
  38. 38. Case
studyMul$ple
 Persona Sitepersonas
 Site
is
allowed per user
account Subjects Subjects All
site
subjects
are
allowedUser
account (1) Some
sites
contain
a
mix
of
allowed
 and
not‐allowed
subjects. (2) Some$mes
the
constraint
is
on
the
 Timer Clock reason
for
use
(entertainment
vs
 study),
not
the
subject. Time
 AND Elapsed
0me constraint Elapsed
0me
is
within
bounds AND Time
 Time
of
day
is
within
bounds Time
of
day constraint Need
two
user
accounts
because
diff
people
have
diff
$me
constraints Bruce
Esrig,
Talk
at
UPA
NJ,
16
March
2011 38

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