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An invited talk in Tromsoe, 5 June 2018.
Both social and ecological systems are complex, but when they combine (as when human societies farm/hunt) there is a double complexity. This complexity means it is infeasible to predict the outcome of their interaction and unwise to rely on any prediction. An alternative approach is to use complex simulations to try and discover some possible ways that such systems can go wrong. This can reveal risks that other approaches might miss, due to the fact that more of the complexity is included within the model. Once a risk is identified then measures to monitor its emergence can be implemented, allowing the earliest possible warning of this. An example of this approach applied to a fisheries ecosystem is described.