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An invited talk given at the Institute for Research into Superdiversity (IRIS), University of Brimingham, 31st Jan 2017
A simulation to illustrate how the complex patterns of cultural and genetic signals might combine to define what we mean by "groups" of people is presented. In this model both (a) how each individual might define their "in group" and (b) how each individual behaves to others in 'in' or 'out' groups can evolve over time. Thus groups are not something that is precisely defined but is something that emerges in the simulation. The point is to illustrate the power of simulation techniques to explore such processes in a non-prescriptive way that takes the micro-macro distinction seriously and represents them within complex simulations. In the particular simulation presented, groups defined by culture strongly emerge as dominant and ethnically defined groups only occur when they are also culturally defined.