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Geologic Controls on Liquefaction Processes at the Bottineau

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Geologic Controls on Liquefaction Processes at the Bottineau

  1. 1. GEOLOGIC CONTROLS ON LIQUEFACTION PROCESSES AT THE BOTTINEAU QUICKSAND SITE BRODY B. AWALT DEPT. OF GEOSCIENCES MINOT STATE UNIVERSITY SPRING 2014
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION • EXAMINED SEDIMENTOLOGY AND STRATIGRAPHY
  3. 3. BACKGROUND
  4. 4. Photo of the Turtle Mountains from the Bottineau Quicksand Site. View is to the north- northeast. Note the salt accumulation at the surface. Ground level photo of the Bottineau Quicksand site. View is toward the east.
  5. 5. BOTTINEAU COUNTY
  6. 6. LIQUEFACTION
  7. 7. FIELD METHODS
  8. 8. HAND AUGER Core Sample
  9. 9. CORE LOCATIONS
  10. 10. Strat Unit II Strat Unit I • Stratified • Less dense • Lacks Joints • Massive • Over compacted/Dense • Jointed • Discontinuous sand lenses
  11. 11. DEPOSITIONAL SETTINGS FOR VARIOUS TYPES OF TILL http://www.swisseduc.ch/glaciers/earth_icy_planet/glaciers06 -en.html?id=9 http://www.swisseduc.ch/glaciers /new_zealand/hooker_terrestrial/ icons/20_hooker_glacier_structur e.jpg
  12. 12. SUPRA-GLACIAL TILL SUB-GLACIAL TILL Supra-glacial Till, Iowa Sub-glacial Till, Iowa
  13. 13. WELLS
  14. 14. WELL INSTALLATION Fill Sand Clay
  15. 15. LABORATORY METHODS
  16. 16. PARTICLE SIZE ANALYSIS • GRAVEL SEPARATION • BOUYCOUS HYDROMETER METHOD(1927,1951, AND 1961) • SAND, SILT, AND CLAY SEPARATION
  17. 17. GRAVEL SEPARATION
  18. 18. SAND, SILT, AND CLAY SEPARATION
  19. 19. NO. 230 SIEVE
  20. 20. RESULTS • PENETROMETER READINGS • SITE HYDROLOGY • PARTICLE SIZE ANALYSIS
  21. 21. PENETROMETER READINGS B1-Density B4-Density Depth(cm) kg/cm² kg/cm² 0-20 0.20 0.00 20-40 0.23 0.00 40-60 1.25 0.50 60-80 1.75 0.75 80-100 2.00 1.25 100-120 2.00 1.50 120-140 2.25 1.50 140-160 2.50 1.50 160-180 3.00 1.75 180-200 3.00 1.75 200-220 3.25 220-240 3.25 240-260 3.25 260-280 3.75 280-300 3.75 300-320 >4.50 320-340 >4.50 Strat Unit II Strat Unit I Strat Unit I Strat Unit II Fill
  22. 22. WATER LEVER MEASUREMENTS -325 -300 -275 -250 -225 -200 -175 -150 -125 -100 -75 -50 -25 0 25 Nov/3/13 Nov/17/13 Nov/31/13 Dec/14/13 WaterLevel(cm) Well Readings B1 B2 B3 B4
  23. 23. PARTICLE SIZE ANALYSIS Strat Unit II Strat Unit I Strat Unit I Strat Unit II Fill
  24. 24. DISCUSSION
  25. 25. GEOLOGIC SETTING DURING DEPOSITION OF STRAT UNIT I Adapted from The Geology of Bottineau County Geologic Survey
  26. 26. GEOLOGIC SETTING DURING DEPOSITION OF STRAT UNIT II Adapted from The Geology of Bottineau County Geologic Survey
  27. 27. GROUND WATER FLOW VE = 141.6x
  28. 28. SITE CROSS-SECTION Turtle Mtns. B1 B2 B4 B3
  29. 29. FUTURE RESEARCH
  30. 30. GROUND PENETRATING RADAR
  31. 31. AKNOWLEDGMENTS • DR. KRIEG • MR. MCKAY • DR. CRACKEL • DR. ROYER • GEOLOGY CLASSMATES
  32. 32. QUESTIONS
  33. 33. MOISTURE CORRECTION FACTOR MCF = 1- WEIGHT OF AIR DRY SOIL – WEIGHT OF OVEN DRY SOIL WEIGHT OF OVEN DRY SOIL
  34. 34. PARTICLE SIZE ANALYSIS-B1 Hydrometer Texture Analysis-B1 Sample (cm) Corrected Weight (g) 6 hour 52 Minute Reading (g/L) Blank Solution (g/L) Corrected 6 hour 52 Minute Reading (g/L) Sand Fraction Weight (g) Percent Sand Percent Silt Percent Clay 0-20 60.27 40 4 36 20.03 33 7 60 20-40 66.80 30 4 26 23.86 36 25 39 40-60 66.99 31 4 27 20.28 30 29 40 60-80 66.79 31 4 27 21.06 32 28 40 80-100 64.40 30 4 26 19.73 31 29 40 100-120 61.63 29 4 25 19.65 32 28 41 120-140 61.02 29 4 25 18.69 31 28 41 140-160 62.68 29 4 25 20.07 32 28 40 160-180 62.15 30 4 26 19.82 32 26 42 180-200 64.93 28.5 4 24.5 20.99 32 30 38 200-220 64.60 28 4 24 19.46 30 33 37 220-240 65.14 26 4 22 21 32 34 34 240-260 62.97 25 4 21 20.5 33 34 33 260-280 58.93 22 4 18 19.16 33 37 31 280-300 61.16 22 4 18 20.48 33 37 29 300-320 60.48 23 4 19 20.01 33 35 31 320-340 63.19 25 4 21 20.12 32 35 33
  35. 35. PARTICLE SIZE ANALYSIS-B4 Hydrometer Texture Analysis-B4 Sample (cm) Corrected Weight (g) 6 hour 52 Minute Reading (g/L) Blank Solution (g/L) Corrected 6 hour 52 Minute Reading (g/L) Sand Fraction Weight (g) Percent Sand Percent Silt Percent Clay 0-20 49.95 19 3 16 30.67 61 7 32 20-40 49.80 25 3 22 27.17 55 1 44 40-60 49.77 26 3 23 21.69 44 10 46 60-80 49.40 21 3 18 20.04 41 23 36 80-100 49.59 16 3 13 28.86 58 16 26 100-120 45.89 21 3 18 23.57 51 9 39 120-140 49.00 17.5 3 14.5 20.75 42 28 30 140-160 47.66 21 4 17 1.21 3 62 36 160-180 45.45 15.5 4 11.5 25.86 57 18 25 180-200 47.98 20 4 16 20.63 43 24 33
  36. 36. MOISTURE CORRECTION FACTOR Soil Moisture Correction Factor B1 Sample Crucible Weight (g) Crucible Plus Air Dry Soil Weight (g) Air Dry Soil Weight (g) Crucible Plus Oven Dry Soil Weight (g) Oven Dry Soil Weight (g) MCF Original Weight (g) Corrected Weight (g) 0-20 20.04 30.78 10.74 30.73 10.69 0.9953 60.55 60.27 20-40 19.32 29.89 10.57 29.87 10.55 0.9981 66.93 66.80 40-60 20.11 31.31 11.20 31.31 11.20 1.0000 66.99 66.99 60-80 21.10 32.06 10.96 32.06 10.96 1.0000 66.79 66.79 80-100 20.42 30.78 10.36 30.78 10.36 1.0000 64.40 64.40 100-120 20.32 30.39 10.07 30.39 10.07 1.0000 61.63 61.63 120-140 19.74 29.98 10.24 29.98 10.24 1.0000 61.02 61.02 140-160 19.27 29.77 10.50 29.77 10.50 1.0000 62.68 62.68 160-180 22.34 33.27 10.93 33.28 10.94 1.0000 62.09 62.15 180-200 20.48 30.09 9.61 30.09 9.61 1.0000 64.93 64.93 200-220 20.26 31.22 10.96 31.08 10.82 0.9872 65.44 64.60 220-240 20.49 30.97 10.48 30.96 10.47 0.9990 65.20 65.14 240-260 19.69 29.82 10.13 29.80 10.11 0.9980 63.09 62.97 260-280 19.79 29.96 10.17 29.88 10.09 0.9921 59.40 58.93 280-300 19.69 28.70 9.01 28.65 8.96 0.9945 61.50 61.16 300-320 20.78 31.60 10.82 31.58 10.80 0.9982 60.59 60.48 320-340 21.04 31.82 10.78 31.80 10.76 0.9981 63.31 63.19
  37. 37. MOISTURE CORRECTION FACTOR Soil Moisture Correction Factor B4 Sample Crucible Weight (g) Crucible Plus Air Dry Soil Weight (g) Air Dry Soil Weight (g) Crucible Plus Oven Dry Soil Weight (g) Oven Dry Soil Weight (g) MCF Original Weight (g) Corrected Weight (g) 0-20 19.99 30.29 10.30 30.28 10.29 0.9990 70.74 49.95 20-40 21.58 31.41 9.83 31.37 9.79 0.9959 70.71 49.80 40-60 19.62 30.55 10.93 30.50 10.88 0.9954 65.92 49.77 60-80 19.87 29.06 9.19 28.95 9.08 0.9880 62.84 49.40 80-100 20.66 31.54 10.88 31.45 10.79 0.9917 63.41 49.59 100-120 19.02 29.47 10.45 28.61 9.59 0.9177 60.37 45.89 120-140 20.63 31.15 10.52 30.94 10.31 0.9800 60.14 49.00 140-160 21.64 31.26 9.62 30.81 9.17 0.9532 63.70 47.66 160-180 21.25 32.78 11.53 31.73 10.48 0.9089 69.48 45.45 180-200 19.17 29.59 10.42 29.17 10.00 0.9597 59.98 47.98
  38. 38. SAND PERCENT BY WEIGHT-B1 Percent Sand by Weight-B1 Sample Beaker Weight (g) Sample Plus Beaker Weight (g) Sand Weight (g) Corrected Total Sample Weight (g) Percent Sand 0-20 110.34 130.37 20.03 60.55 33.08 20-40 112.19 136.05 23.86 66.93 35.65 40-60 114.09 134.37 20.28 66.99 30.27 60-80 113.11 134.17 21.06 66.79 31.53 80-100 113.16 132.89 19.73 64.40 30.64 100-120 106.16 125.81 19.65 61.63 31.88 120-140 110.34 129.03 18.69 61.02 30.63 140-160 112.19 132.26 20.07 62.68 32.02 160-180 114.09 133.91 19.82 62.09 31.92 180-200 113.11 134.1 20.99 64.93 32.33 200-220 113.16 132.62 19.46 65.44 29.74 220-240 106.16 127.16 21 65.20 32.21 240-260 113.11 133.61 20.5 63.09 32.49 260-280 113.16 132.32 19.16 59.40 32.26 280-300 112.19 132.67 20.48 61.50 33.30 300-320 114.09 134.1 20.01 60.59 33.03 320-340 110.34 130.46 20.12 63.31 31.78
  39. 39. SAND PERCENT BY WEIGHT-B4 Percent Sand by Weight-B4 Sample Beaker Weight (g) Sample Plus Beaker Weight (g) Sand Weight (g) Corrected Total Sample Weight (g) Percent Sand 0-20 111.98 142.57 30.59 49.95 61.24 20-40 113.22 140.39 27.17 49.80 54.56 40-60 114.03 135.72 21.69 49.77 43.58 60-80 111.13 131.17 20.04 49.40 40.57 80-100 114.71 143.57 28.86 49.59 58.20 100-120 106.16 129.73 23.57 45.89 51.37 120-140 112.19 132.94 20.75 49.00 42.35 140-160 106.16 107.37 1.21 47.66 2.54 160-180 114.03 139.89 25.86 45.45 56.90 180-200 111.13 131.76 20.63 47.98 42.99
  40. 40. GRAVEL SEPARATION Sample Corrected Weight (g) Gravel Weight (g) 0-20 60.27 2.96 20-40 66.80 2.39 40-60 66.99 2.8 60-80 66.79 2.23 80-100 64.40 2.15 100-120 61.63 2.75 120-140 61.02 1.82 140-160 62.68 1.62 160-180 62.15 2.13 180-200 64.93 2.52 200-220 64.60 3.43 220-240 65.14 1.83 240-260 62.97 2.73 260-280 58.93 2.05 280-300 61.16 2.09 300-320 60.48 2.52 320-340 63.19 2.01 Sample Corrected Weight (g) Gravel Weight (g) 0-20 49.95 14.75 20-40 49.79 5.51 40-60 49.77 3.69 60-80 49.40 1.21 80-100 49.58 11.49 100-120 45.88 2.34 120-140 49.00 3.85 140-160 47.66 0.01 160-180 45.44 1.22 180-200 47.98 1.96 B1 B4
  41. 41. B1 B4
  42. 42. • INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY

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