Neonicotinoids
Context, History,
and the Way Forward
Pollination
Pollination Agent
• Wind
• Water
• Insects
• Other

Anther

Stigma
• WIND

• INSECTS:
Solitary bee laying an egg
on a pollen ball
Specialist Bees

Photo by Sheila Potter
Bumble Bees
Pre-1990s:
Carbamates/Organophosphates/Synthetic Pyrethroids
½ of Pesticides used on Crops in
Ontario are Toxic to Honey Bees

High

52

35
15

Moderate
Low
Insecticide Use in Ontario 2008:
Region of Ontario

Tonnes of Insecticide
Applied

Tonnes of Herbicide
Applied

Southern O...
SYSTEMIC INSECTICIDES
Neonicotinoids
•
•
•
•
•
•

Patentable
Toxic & Persistent
Systemic: IN not ON
Targeted (but wide spectrum)
Low Toxicity to...
The Major Active Ingredients
•
•
•
•

Imidacloprid
Dinotefuran
Clothianidin
Thiamethoxam
Big Business
Turnover in million
US$ (2009)

Name

Company

Products

Imidacloprid

Bayer CropScience

Confidor, Admire,
G...
Neonicotinoids: Use in Ontario

•
•
•
•
•

Corn
Soyabean
Canola
Field Crops
Vegetables

•
•
•
•
•

Fruit
Turf
Herbs
Orname...
How Do Bees Come in Contact
with Neonicotinoids?
Toxicity & Bio-Accumulation
LD50: b=0
Toxic Effect = Dose x Timeb
Large dose
over a short
period of time

=

Small dose
ov...
The Dark Side of Persistence…
1000 days : Clothianidin/Imidacloprid

Environmental Loading
Systemic…
Water Soluble…
Cross-Toxicity and
Immuno-suppression
Sept. 13, 2013, PMRA
Notice of Intent NOI2013-01
“…we have concluded that
current agricultural practices
related to the us...
Integrated Pest
Management
….the day IPM died

•
•
•
•

December 1990
35 OMAF field offices closed
All except 6 Ag. Rep positions in north axed
Repla...
"Let’s say I want to try a new seed this year. I go to the crop
guy at the feed store, well, of course he’ going to tell m...
PROPHYLACTIC
INSECTICIDES
RE

•
•
•
•
•

Registration
Reinstate
React
Realize
Research
The Good News
PMRA Call for Comments:
Notice of Intent NOI2013-01--Action to Protect Bees from
Exposure to Neonicotinoid Pesticides
13 S...
Neonicotinoids
Neonicotinoids
Neonicotinoids
Neonicotinoids
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Neonicotinoids

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Speaker: Susan Chan
Session: Pesticides and Antibiotics: What's in your Food?

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Neonicotinoids

  1. 1. Neonicotinoids Context, History, and the Way Forward
  2. 2. Pollination Pollination Agent • Wind • Water • Insects • Other Anther Stigma
  3. 3. • WIND • INSECTS:
  4. 4. Solitary bee laying an egg on a pollen ball
  5. 5. Specialist Bees Photo by Sheila Potter
  6. 6. Bumble Bees
  7. 7. Pre-1990s: Carbamates/Organophosphates/Synthetic Pyrethroids
  8. 8. ½ of Pesticides used on Crops in Ontario are Toxic to Honey Bees High 52 35 15 Moderate Low
  9. 9. Insecticide Use in Ontario 2008: Region of Ontario Tonnes of Insecticide Applied Tonnes of Herbicide Applied Southern Ontario 61.6 1,788.7 Western Ontario 26.8 1,152.5 Central Ontario 12.7 358.5 Eastern Ontario 3.9 443.9 Northern Ontario 0.9 31.9 http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/facts/pesticide-use-appendix8.htm
  10. 10. SYSTEMIC INSECTICIDES
  11. 11. Neonicotinoids • • • • • • Patentable Toxic & Persistent Systemic: IN not ON Targeted (but wide spectrum) Low Toxicity to Mammals “Just in Case”
  12. 12. The Major Active Ingredients • • • • Imidacloprid Dinotefuran Clothianidin Thiamethoxam
  13. 13. Big Business Turnover in million US$ (2009) Name Company Products Imidacloprid Bayer CropScience Confidor, Admire, Gaucho 1,091 Thiamethoxam Syngenta Actara, Platinum, Cruiser 627 Clothianidin Sumitomo Chemical/Bayer CropScience Poncho, Dantosu, Dantop 439 Acetamiprid Nippon Soda Mospilan, Assail, ChipcoTristar 276 Thiacloprid Bayer CropScience Calypso 112 Dinotefuran Mitsui Chemicals Starkle, Safari, Venom Nitenpyram Sumitomo Chemical Capstar, Bestguard 79 8
  14. 14. Neonicotinoids: Use in Ontario • • • • • Corn Soyabean Canola Field Crops Vegetables • • • • • Fruit Turf Herbs Ornamentals Trees
  15. 15. How Do Bees Come in Contact with Neonicotinoids?
  16. 16. Toxicity & Bio-Accumulation LD50: b=0 Toxic Effect = Dose x Timeb Large dose over a short period of time = Small dose over a long period of time Honey bee: b=5 Native bees ?
  17. 17. The Dark Side of Persistence… 1000 days : Clothianidin/Imidacloprid Environmental Loading
  18. 18. Systemic…
  19. 19. Water Soluble…
  20. 20. Cross-Toxicity and Immuno-suppression
  21. 21. Sept. 13, 2013, PMRA Notice of Intent NOI2013-01 “…we have concluded that current agricultural practices related to the use of neonicotinoid treated corn and soybean seed are not sustainable."
  22. 22. Integrated Pest Management
  23. 23. ….the day IPM died • • • • December 1990 35 OMAF field offices closed All except 6 Ag. Rep positions in north axed Replaced by internet and 1-800 number
  24. 24. "Let’s say I want to try a new seed this year. I go to the crop guy at the feed store, well, of course he’ going to tell me to ’s buy his product. When we had the OMAFRA office doing research they gave an unbiased opinion. "Now when we go for our seed, who do we have to rely on," Renaud wonders. Renaud adds that OMAFRA is putting an end to "third party research," leaving the companies actually making the product to do their own research "rather than Guelph University." She says it means for individual companies "your results can be whatever you want them to be.” --Ellie Renaud, Provincial Director in Leeds County for the Ontario Federation of Agriculture. January 2000, Eastern Ontario AgriNews
  25. 25. PROPHYLACTIC INSECTICIDES
  26. 26. RE • • • • • Registration Reinstate React Realize Research
  27. 27. The Good News
  28. 28. PMRA Call for Comments: Notice of Intent NOI2013-01--Action to Protect Bees from Exposure to Neonicotinoid Pesticides 13 September 2013 Please provide your comments to: pmra.publications@hc-sc.gc.ca by 12 December 2013, and include the following information: • Your full name and organization; • Your phone number; and, • Your complete mailing address or email address.

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