Aptc fiji cultural awareness workshop this is it

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Cultural Awareness - Fiji

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  • Vakaviti – Fijian Way…
  • Fiji is renowned for its Friendly People, Multiculturalism, exotic tourist destinations, Rugby, Fiji Water………………….to name a few.
  • Viti Levu is 4,109 sq mi in size and Vanua Levu is 2,242 sq mi in size. History: Fiji became a British colony under the Deed of Cession of 1874 and gained its independence in 1970. Its law and institutions are largely derived from British antecedents. The first inhabitants (Indigenous Fijians) people are of mixed Polynesian and Melanesian ancestry and they came from South East Asia. Indians are descendants of workers brought in from India from 1879 to 1916 to work as indentured workers for the British. The Europeans came later on in the 19th century. British came in power in 1874 and in 1970 the country became independent. Fiji government has the Prime Minister as the head, the President as the head of the state. It has got a multi-party system.
  • Note: When both the ethnic groups (Indigenous Fijians and Fiji-Indians have been referred together the term ‘Fijian’ has been used in this presentation.
  • Although evidence suggests that the Lapita people may have been the first to arrive via south east Asia. They were also skilled sailors and navigators settling along the shorelines of the major islands of Fiji.
  • The Melanesian people remained in Fiji and became the dominant race of the islands. Interestingly, however, many aspects of the Lapita culture were adopted by the Melanesians, including their chiefly hierarchical structure.
  • Enele Ma’afu – the King of Tonga. Conquered some of the most powerful chiefdoms in Fiji and was instrumental in the acceptance of Christianity when Fiji faced its dark days of Cannibal warfare.
  • During the 19th Century, Ratu Udreudre reportedly ate more than 99 people. He kept a stone for each body he ate, which were placed alongside his tomb in Rakiraki. While it is believed that he ate 9000 people, however; the actual estimates from the count of grave stones near 872. He is reputed to be the world’s most prolific cannibal.
  • The warriors getting the earth oven (Lovo) ready to cook the “bokolas” – Commoners.
  • Indigenous Fijian’s national dress is the “sulu” which resembles a skirt or Sarong. The wrap-around sulu is Fiji‘s most distinctive and versatile form of dress. It is commonly worn by both men and women. For men, the sulu, formally called “sulu vaka taga”, is fitted, often with pockets, reach about mid-calf and are used for official occasions, dressing up, school uniforms, or work uniforms. Women wear long floral dresses with an underskirt called a “sulu jiaba”. In the villages, women must cover up and wear long skirts or sulus. No skimpy attire is to be worn in villages or at formal traditional occasions. It is considered inappropriate to show one’s body. However, in towns and cities, one can wear casual clothing. Men tend to wear jeans, baggy shorts and t-shirts. Women wear jeans, shorts, skirts, t-shirts and tops. Evening wear can also consist of jeans and t-shirts, depending on the occasion. For formal gatherings, men wear shirts and long pants. Women wear dresses, skirts and tops. Whether it be long or short.  
  • Indigenous Fijian’s national dress is the “sulu” which resembles a skirt or Sarong. The wrap-around sulu is Fiji‘s most distinctive and versatile form of dress. It is commonly worn by both men and women. For men, the sulu, formally called “sulu vaka taga”, is fitted, often with pockets, reach about mid-calf and are used for official occasions, dressing up, school uniforms, or work uniforms. Women wear long floral dresses with an underskirt called a “sulu jiaba”. In the villages, women must cover up and wear long skirts or sulus. No skimpy attire is to be worn in villages or at formal traditional occasions. It is considered inappropriate to show one’s body. However, in towns and cities, one can wear casual clothing. Men tend to wear jeans, baggy shorts and t-shirts. Women wear jeans, shorts, skirts, t-shirts and tops. Evening wear can also consist of jeans and t-shirts, depending on the occasion. For formal gatherings, men wear shirts and long pants. Women wear dresses, skirts and tops. Whether it be long or short.  
  • Legend has it that the ceremony came from Tonga where the plant sprang from the grave of a Tongan Princess who died of a broken heart.
  • Legend has it that the ceremony came from Tonga where the plant sprang from the grave of a Tongan Princess who died of a broken heart.
  • Sperm Whales were regarded with reverence – perhaps the most important of the Fijian valuables… Used for any ceremony. The presentation of the Tabua manifests dignity, respect and wealth in Fijian society.
  • As your fijian host rhythmically chant and clap, each person in the circle is invited to drink from the shell full of kava. Clap (cobo) once before accepting the bilo and then 3 times after you have completely finished drinking from the bilo.
  • A sevusevu is presented to the traditional head of the village called a “turaga ni koro”. He then takes your gift to the chiefs’ heralds man (matani vanua) who then reports to the chief that the village has visitors. Usually cost $15 for half a kilo of waka (root).
  • It can vary from a blood curdling spear and club dance to a gentle and graceful fan and hand dance depicting Polynesian dance patterns. There are two groups in a dance…
  • Who sit on the ground and sing or chant for the second group who are dancers. The instruments are usually percussion, bamboo gongs, bamboo tubes, beating sticks for the hollowed wooden gong (Lali).
  • A special clan from the island of Beqa are believed to be the only Fijians that are able to walk on red hot stones without burning themselves
  • This ancient Fijian ritual, with origins on the island of Beqa, where legend says the ability was given by a God to the Sawau tribe. Traditionally, the firewalkers must observe two strict taboos for two(2) weeks before a fire walk. They cannot have any contact with women and they cannot eat any coconuts. Failure could result in severe burns.
  • When it is performance time, the fire walkers walk single file across a pit of red-hot stones a few metres in length, amazingly; their feet are unscathed.
  • A multi-racial, multi-cultural nation, the population of Fiji is made up of significant numbers of followers of all major religions. You will find Christian churches, Hindu Temples, Sikh Temples, Mosques, Synagogues and many more place of worships for different denominations living in Fiji
  • Aptc fiji cultural awareness workshop this is it

    1. 1. APTC CROSSCULTURALAWARENESSWORKSHOPL E A R N E R S ’ W O R K B O O K1APTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    2. 2. Bula, Welcome to the Fijian Experience!2APTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    3. 3. Overview About Fiji Background of this workshop A look at history & Culture of the Fiji Islands Pre-history The Melanesians/Pictures The Polynesians/Pictures The King of Tonga Fiji Culture, Religion & the Fijian Language Fijian Cultural Environment Analysis of iTaukei & Fiji Indian Business System Traditions & Ceremonies The Fijian Language Analysis of Fijian Business Style as per Theoretical Framework New Business Example of Cultural Insensitivity & Attuning In-Class Activity Conclusion3APTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    4. 4. About Fiji4APTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    5. 5. • Location: Fiji is situated in the centre of the South Pacific Ocean, on the InternationalDateline. It has a total landmass of about 18,000 square kilometers. Its two main islands areViti Levu and Vanua Levu• Capital: Suva• Population - Approx . 850,000. (60% people dwell in rural areas and 40% in the cities).• Currency: Fijian Dollar• Government: Republican• Ethnic Groups: Fijians (57%) Indians (37%) plus Caucasian, Chinese & other PacificIslanders and persons of mixed race.• Religion: Christianity (52%), Hinduism (38%), Muslim (8%), Others (2%)• Language: English is the official language. However people also speak Fijian and Hindi• Main Industries: Tourism, Sugar, Fishing & Forestry• Main Source of Income: Tourism & Sugar IndustriesAbout Fiji….5APTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    6. 6. BACKGROUND OF THISWORKSHOPFiji is a multiracial country where the culture andheritage is dynamic and strong . It constitutes oftwo major ethnic groups which are the iTaukei(indigenous Fijians) and Fiji-Indians and sinceboth have distinctive cultures and styles thisworkshop will analyze the cultural, language andbusiness aspects of both.6APTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    7. 7. A look at the history and culture of the Fiji Islands7APTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    8. 8. Pre-History The exact origins of the first inhabitants of theislands of Fiji remain a mystery, since theFijians had no written language and relied onmemory and story telling for their history. It ismost commonly accepted that the first settlersarrived around 1500B.C. What is clear, however; is that Fiji was settledby two distinct races, the Polynesian andMelanesian races.8APTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    9. 9. The Melanesians… The Melanesian people made their wayto Fiji from the islands of Vanuatu, NewCaledonia and the eastern Solomonislands. These settlers were dark skinned withmany physical characteristics of theNegro race.9APTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    10. 10. Nee-Vanuatu and Kanaks10Nee-VanuatuKanaksAPTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    11. 11. …the Melanesian race of the pacific11Solomon IslandersPapua New GuineansAPTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    12. 12. A village in the foot hills of the Namosi Plateau, shows theFijian bures very similar to Vanuatu leaf haus12Indigenous Fijians (iTaukei)APTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    13. 13. The Polynesians… The other settlers of the islands of Fiji weretaller, lighter skinned and with straighter softhair. They are often referred to as the Lapitapeople, named for an area in New Caledoniawhere large deposits of their distinctive form ofpottery were found. Lapita pottery, marked by geometric designsformed by stamping the unfired clay with atooth-like implement have been found fromNew Guinea eastward to Samoa.13APTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    14. 14.  Scholars debate which race arrived first?14APTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    15. 15. A large portion of the Lapita people were forced, or chose to leave theislands of Fiji for places further east – Tonga, Samoa, Hawaii15APTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    16. 16. The King of Tonga – one of the most influential figures thatchanged the course of time for the Fijians16Enele Ma’afu – King of TongaAPTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    17. 17. Udre Udre– the last known Cannibal17APTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    18. 18. …legend has it he ate 872 people18His tomb can be seen on your way to Rakiraki town junctionAPTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    19. 19. ..the dark days in Fiji. Before Cession19APTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    20. 20. The Culture The Fijians are pretty easy-going people When invited to the village be mindful to wearmodest clothing Take off your hat (wearing one is a sign ofbeing disrespectful) Leave your shoes outside the door whenentering a home Keep in mind its insulting to touch someoneshead20APTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    21. 21. EXAMPLE OF CULTURAL INSENSITIVITY21APTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    22. 22. EXAMPLE OF ATTUNINGTO LOCAL CULTURE22McDonalds (Fiji) is mindful of the fact that Hindus donot consume beef products and that Muslims aremindful of having their meat ‘Halal’ (meat prepared asper Islamic law) therefore it caters to both by using100% vegetarian oil for its fries and having vegetarianmeals and using Halal meat. McDonalds Fiji is HalalCertified.APTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    23. 23. Stereotyping23APTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    24. 24. In-Class ActivityI invite you to think of and relate toeither a stereotype prevalent in yourcountry or cultural setting or relate to anexperience whereby an overseas basedcompany exhibited cultural insensitivityto the host country.24APTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    25. 25. Fijian Cultural EnvironmentCulturalAspectsiTaukei Fiji-IndiansReligion Christians Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs, South IndiansFood Food is mostly boiled/steamed. Typically like Asian-Indian food.However Beef and Pork are notconsumed.TraditionalDressing‘Sulu’ (worn like a sarong). Both men and women wearthis.‘Sari’ or ‘Salwaar Kameez’ are worn bywomen. Men wear similar styled Indianoutfits.These are worn mostly during traditional ceremonies or religious occasions. Otherwise casualclothing is widely accepted in cities and town. Skimpy attire is forbidden by both cultural groupsespecially in the villages and rural setting as its not deemed appropriateTaboo Both groups do not express their feelings in public – couples do not hold hands or displayaffection in public. They tend to be private about their relationships.Respect of elders is prevalent.Sexuality is not openly discussed especially amongst the older generation. The youngergeneration however is more understanding and accepting.25APTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    26. 26. Fijian Cultural Environment …Cont’dCulturalAspectsiTaukei Fiji-IndiansMannerisms Indigenous Fijians (iTaukei) are particular about and are offended if they aretouched on their head . Pointing and standing with hands on hips is consideredrude.Negotiations Fijians are too polite and thus are hesitantto ask for clarifications or ask questions –thinking it is rude or offensive. Forsuccessful negotiation it is important thatthe party develops a rapport with them.Also due to their social structure theynormally refer to someone in higherauthority in their social structure to makethe decision.Fiji-Indians are a little more directand thus come to a conclusionfaster.26APTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    27. 27. Business Culture in Fiji27Aspects Public Sector Private SectorWork pace Slow – Even working hours is a littlelesser than private organizationsFast – competition is rife and staff havetargets to meet so work pace is fasterTimeliness Not so strictly observed – its ok toprocrastinate.More importance given and deadlines andstrictly adhered to.Bureaucracy High – because of the organizationstructure – lots of reportingLow – time is not wasted in bureaucraciesas ‘time is money’Dressing Smart casual is accepted however onofficial occasions formal dressing isrequiredDress code is more formal.Workforce 90% of the workforce are iTaukei 92% of the workforce are Fiji IndiansAPTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    28. 28. Fiji Business Culture…cont’d28Socializing Exchange ofGiftsUse of Titles/SurnamesNational Drink Kavais a norm duringofficial ceremoniesand refusal to drinka bowl is seenoffensive by theiTaukei.Not a widely acceptedbusiness practice. Newlegal requirement is thatall gifts are to bedeclared by persons totheir organizations. Thisis strictly followed in thepublic sector.Generally in business peopleprefer to be called by their firstnames rather than usingMr/Mrs/Ms. However in formalcorrespondence formal titles areused. For iTaukei they have titlessuch as Ratu (for men of chieflystatus) and Adi (pronouncedAan-Dee – for iTaikei women ofchiefly status) which is alwaysused when addressing them.APTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    29. 29. Dimension iTaukei Style Fiji-Indian StyleRules or Relationship?? iTaukei value relationships andplace a lot of emphasis onbuilding and maintainingrelationships. They need toestablish a rapport in order tounderstand the other party.Similarly Indians too valuerelationships a little more thanrules and place importance ontrust.Displaying of Emotions iTaukei do not display theiremotions openly but prefer tostay calm and quiet. They areshy and reserved so much sothat they consider it rude to askfor clarifications.Indians will speak out and notbe quite when the need ariseshowever they won’t be outrightconfrontational .Private Vs. WorkingLifeiTaukei and Indians both don’t keep their work and personal livesdistinctly apart. Work and personal lives both go hand in hand.Discussions about family at work and vice versa is quite common.Analysis of iTaukei and Fiji-Indian Business Styles29APTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    30. 30. Analysis of iTaukei and Fiji-Indian Business Styles….Cont’d30Dimension iTaukei Style Fiji-Indian StylePersonal Achievement vs. Statusin society• iTaukei place a lot of importance ontheir societal and hierarchal standingin society.• Chiefs would be given prominenceautomatically due to their social status.• Fiji-Indians are more Achievementoriented• They value and place emphasis onhard work and owe theirachievements through theireducation and parents hard work• They are highly competitive.Function as Individuals or as aGroup• iTaukei believe in communitarianismas they like to consult within theirgroups• However; they leave decisions to theperson in authority to makerecommendation.• Fiji-Indians are more individualists asthey like to operate individually andmake their own decisions.• They rally behind community workand participate assiduouslyPast, Present or Future Oriented • iTaukei are more focused on thepresent – they live their lives basicallyon a day to day basis.• Fiji-Indians are more future oriented– most of their decision looks at howit would impact their future plans andaspirations.Internal Vs. External Control(Do we control our workingenvironment or are we controlledby it)Both iTaukei and Fiji-Indians blend into the existing working environment. Theygenerally work harmoniously and are accommodative and accepting on the existingenvironment.APTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    31. 31. Traditions and Ceremonies• Yaqona: more commonly referred to as Kava -Fijis‟ traditional ceremonial drink.• Its made from the pulverised roots of a localpepper plant, mixed with water and consumedfrom a communal coconut shell bowl/cup(bilo).• You will be asked to sit on the floor as the kavais being prepared in a tanoa bowl.31APTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    32. 32. TABUA(Tambua) – Whales ToothAPTC School of Hospitality and CommunityServices32
    33. 33. Yaqona Ceremony33APTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    34. 34. Communal Cup (Bilo)34APTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    35. 35. Sevusevu – A Village Visit35APTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    36. 36. The Yaqona rootEnsure that the yaqona root is presented as a gift.36APTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    37. 37. Presenting a sevusevu (gift). Your respect for their customs and traditions willnot only make you a welcome guest in their villages & homes, but add adimension to your stay.37APTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    38. 38. Roqoroqo (Rongorongo)/BabyshowerAPTC School of Hospitality and Community Services38
    39. 39. Reguregu (Condolence Gathering)APTC School of Hospitality and Community Services39
    40. 40. The Meke - music is woven into the fabric of Fiji and the mekeembraces traditional song and dance to tell legends, lovestories, history and spirits of the islands40APTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    41. 41. …Vakatara – the Orchestra41APTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    42. 42. Preparing the Hot Stones42APTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    43. 43. Vilavila I Revo – the Fire Walkers of Beqa43APTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    44. 44. …a gift from their traditional God44APTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    45. 45. Religion – Na Lotu45APTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    46. 46. The Fijian Language – Na Vosa Vakaviti46One of the main reasons many visitors from English- speaking world find Fiji acongenial place to visit is that majority of the local people speak English.However; if you wish to develop a better understanding of the Fijian people and theirculture; then learning a few Fijian words and everyday phrases will help you get aroundand truly enjoy the world class Fijian Hospitality.PronunciationFijian pronunciation isn‟t difficult for the English speaker. The standard Fijianalphabet uses all the English letters except „x‟. The letters “h” and „z‟ are used asborrowed words.The Fijians‟ five vowels are pronounced much as they are in languages such as Spanish,German and Italian.a as in fathere as in beti as in Indiao as in orchestrau fluteAPTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    47. 47. The Fijian Language – Na Vosa Vakaviti…Cont’d47Vowels have both short and long variants, with the long vowelhaving a significantly longer sound that changes the entiremeaning of the word. An approximate English equivalent is thedifference between the final vowel sound in “icy” and “I see” Soto convey the correct meaning of a word it‟s important that thevowel length is taken into account in your pronunciation.E.g. mama means „a ring‟Mamaa means „chew it‟Maamaa means „light‟ (in weight)Most consonants are pronounced as they are in English, butthere are a few differences you need to be aware of:APTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    48. 48. The Fijian Language The Fijian language does have a few idiosyncrasies interms of pronunciation, however; so keep in mind thatthe letter “a” is pronounced „ah‟ as in father. Any word with a “d” has an unwritten „n‟ in front of it–e.g. Nadi is pronounced Nandi Put an „m‟ before the “b” as in Tabu – Tambu(taboo) „c‟ is pronounced “th” as in Moce – Mo-they(goodbye) ‘g‟ is pronounced “ng”- as in Running48APTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    49. 49. Cont’d. “q” is „g‟ – as in Good The letter „r‟ is rolled as in Spanish In Fijian words, each vowel is given its fullweight and never shortened, skipped or slurred.49APTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    50. 50. Useful Fijian Phrases50English vaka-Viti (Fijian)Welcome BulaHello Bula (inf) Drau bula (dl) Dou bula (pl) Nibula (mp)How are you? Vacava tiko?Long-time no see Sa dede da sega ni sotaWhats your name?My name is ...O cei na yacamu(ni)?Na yacaqu o ...Where are you from?Im from ...O ni lako mai vei? O kemuni mai vei?O yau mai ...Pleased to meet you Ia (ni) bulaGood morning Yadra, Ni sa yadraGood afternoon/evening Bula, Ni sa BulaGood night/Goodbye Moce, Ni sa moceGuide to abbreviations: inf = informal, frm = formal, sg = singular (to one person), dl = dual (to two people), pl =plural (to three or more people), mp = many people (to a large group of people)APTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    51. 51. Useful Fijian Phrases…Cont’dAPTC School of Hospitality and Community Services51English Vaka-Viti (Fijian)Good luck Vanuinui vinakaCheers/Good health! Bula!Have a nice day Vanuinui vinaka ki na siga ni kuaBon appetit Da kana!Bon voyage Vanuinui vinaka e nomu volauI dont understand Au sega ni taura rawaCould you speakmore slowly please?Vosa mada vakamālua?Could you repeat that? Tukuna tale madaPlease write it down Kerekere, mo ni volaDo you speak Fijian?I speak little FijianO(nī) kilā na vosa vakaviti?Au kilā vakalailai na vosa vakaviti
    52. 52. Useful Fijian Phrases…Cont’d52English Vaka-Viti (Fijian)Do you speak English? O(nī) vosa vakavālagi?How do you say ...in Fijian?Na cava na kena vosa vakaviti ni ...?Pardon (what did you say?) Ō?Excuse me Au lako mada yani (to get past)How much is this? E vica na kena i-sau?Sorry(Nī) vosota sara / (Nī) vosoti au (generalTulou / Jilou (when invading space)Please Yalo vinakaThank you Vinaka, Vinaka vaka levuWheres the toilet? E vei na vale-lailai?This gentleman/ladywill pay for everythingNa turaga/marama oqo e na sauma taucokoAPTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    53. 53. Useful Fijian Phrases…Cont’d53English Vaka-Viti (Fijian)Would you like todance with me?Ko via meke kei au?I love you Au domoni iko / Au lomani ikoGet well soon Nuitaka ni ko na vabulabula totoloLeave me alone! Biuti au tu madaga!Help!Fire!Stop!Kere veivuke!Kama!Kele!Call the police! Qirita na ovisa!Merry Christmasand Happy New YearMe Nomuni na marau ni siga ni sucu kei na tawase ni yabakivouHappy Easter Vanuinui vinaka ni Siga ni MateHappy Birthday Vanuinui vinaka ki na nomu siga ni sucuAPTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    54. 54. ConclusionI hope you enjoyed the cultural experience of Fiji andtaken note of the cultural and business etiquettesprevalent here. The uniqueness of the Fijian experienceis the peaceful coexistence of the two major ethnicsgroups and the acceptance and adaptation to bothcultures with the other minor ethnic groups. This hasculminated in a modern Fijian lifestyle whereby bothethnic groups have adopted to each other’s dressingstyles, cooking methods, religion etc. Intermarriages arealso common now. The new generation of Fijians areeducated and thus are in a position to make betterinformed choices and thus are more mindful andaccepting of the new lifestyles and businessenvironment. “Overtime, cultures evolve as societiesadapt to transitions in their external and internalenvironments and relationships” (Deresky, 2008).54APTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    55. 55. Acknowledgements: Evelyn Maharaj Lal – Material & research on FijianBusiness Culture. Dr. Asinate Kedrayate – Dept. ofSociology, University of the South Pacific Bureau of Statistics – Fiji Government Dr. Apolonia Tamata – Fijian Culture/Historian55APTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    56. 56. REFERENCES www.countrycodes.boomja.com www.fijigov.fj www.ftib.org.fj www.jasons.com/fiji/fijian-culture www.munroleyslaw.com www.pitic.org www.swyaa.org The Fiji Museum – Archives unit www.everyculture.com www.justpacific.com/fiji/fijiphotos56APTC School of Hospitality and Community Services
    57. 57. VINAKA!57APTC School of Hospitality and Community Services

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