Life …..
2
Properties of Life
Living organisms:
– are composed of cells
– are complex and ordered
– respond to their environment
– ...
How to Define Life
Living Things Are Organized
• Organization of living systems begins with
atoms, which make up basic bui...
• Multicellular organisms (each an “individual” within a
particular species) contain organ systems (e.g.,
cardiovascular, ...
• A community plus its physical environment is an
ecosystem.
• The biosphere is comprised of regions of the Earth’s
crust,...
6
Levels of Organization
Cellular Organization
cells
organelles
molecules
atoms
The cell is the
basic unit of life.
7
Levels of Organization
Organismal Level
organism
organ systems
organs
tissues
8
Levels of
Organization
Population Level
ecosystem
community
population
Each level of organization builds
on the level be...
• Maintaining organization and
conducting life-sustaining processes
require an outside source of energy,
defined as the ca...
• All organisms must maintain a state of biological
balance, or homeostasis. Temperature, moisture level,
pH, etc. must be...
Living Things Respond
• Living things interact with the
environment and with other living
things.
• Response often results...
Living Things Reproduce and Develop
• Reproduction is the ability of every type of
organism to give rise to another organi...
Heredity
• The instructions for an organism’s
organization and development are
encoded in genes.
• Genes are comprised of ...
Living Things Have Adaptations
• Adaptations are modifications that make organisms suited to their
way of life.
• Natural ...
Evolution
• Evolution is defined as “descent with modification over time.”
– The fact that all life forms are composed of ...
How the Biosphere is Organized
Levels of Complexity
• The biosphere is the zone of air, land, and water where
organisms ex...
Ecosystems
• An ecosystem includes all aspects of a living community
and the physical environment (soil, atmosphere, etc.)...
The Human Population
• The human population modifies
existing ecosystems for its own
purposes.
• Two biologically diverse
...
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Intro lesson life

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Intro lesson life

  1. 1. Life …..
  2. 2. 2 Properties of Life Living organisms: – are composed of cells – are complex and ordered – respond to their environment – can grow and reproduce – obtain and use energy – maintain internal balance – allow for evolutionary adaptation
  3. 3. How to Define Life Living Things Are Organized • Organization of living systems begins with atoms, which make up basic building blocks called elements. • The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of all living things. • Different cells combine to make up tissues (e.g., myocardial tissue). • Tissues combine to make up an organ (e.g., the heart). • Specific organs work together as a system (e.g., the heart, arteries, veins, etc.). 3
  4. 4. • Multicellular organisms (each an “individual” within a particular species) contain organ systems (e.g., cardiovascular, digestive, respiratory, etc.). • A species in a particular area (e.g., gray squirrels in a forest) constitutes a population. • Interacting populations in a particular area comprise a community. 4 How to Define Life
  5. 5. • A community plus its physical environment is an ecosystem. • The biosphere is comprised of regions of the Earth’s crust, waters, and atmosphere inhabited by organisms. • Each level of organization is more complex than the level preceding it. 5 How to Define Life
  6. 6. 6 Levels of Organization Cellular Organization cells organelles molecules atoms The cell is the basic unit of life.
  7. 7. 7 Levels of Organization Organismal Level organism organ systems organs tissues
  8. 8. 8 Levels of Organization Population Level ecosystem community population Each level of organization builds on the level below it but often demonstrates new features.
  9. 9. • Maintaining organization and conducting life-sustaining processes require an outside source of energy, defined as the capacity to do “work.” • The ultimate source of energy for nearly all life on earth is the sun; plants and certain other organisms convert solar energy into chemical energy by the process of photosynthesis. • Food provides nutrient molecules used as building blocks for energy. • Metabolism is all the chemical reactions that occur in a cell. www.valdosta.edu extension.oregonstate.edu 9 Living Things Acquire Materials and Energy
  10. 10. • All organisms must maintain a state of biological balance, or homeostasis. Temperature, moisture level, pH, etc. must be maintained within the tolerance range of the organism. Organisms have intricate feedback and control mechanisms to maintain homeostatic balance. 10
  11. 11. Living Things Respond • Living things interact with the environment and with other living things. • Response often results in movement of the organism (e.g., a plant bending toward the sun to capture solar energy, a turtle withdrawing into its shell for safety, etc.). • Responses help ensure survival of the organism and allow the organism to carry out its biological activities. • The collective responses of an organism constitute the behavior of the organism. 11
  12. 12. Living Things Reproduce and Develop • Reproduction is the ability of every type of organism to give rise to another organism like itself. • Bacteria, protozoans, and other unicellular organisms simply split in two (binary fission). • Multicellular organisms often unite sperm and egg, each from a different individual, resulting in an immature individual which develops into the adult. www.micro.utexas.edu www.ericolson.addr.com 12
  13. 13. Heredity • The instructions for an organism’s organization and development are encoded in genes. • Genes are comprised of long molecules of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid); DNA is the genetic code in all living things. 13
  14. 14. Living Things Have Adaptations • Adaptations are modifications that make organisms suited to their way of life. • Natural selection is the process by which species become modified over time. – A species is a group of interbreeding individuals. – In natural selection, members of a species may inherit a genetic change that makes them better suited to a particular environment. – These members would be more likely to produce higher numbers of surviving offspring. 14
  15. 15. Evolution • Evolution is defined as “descent with modification over time.” – The fact that all life forms are composed of cells, contain genes comprised of DNA, and conduct the same metabolic reactions suggests all living things have a common ancestor. – One species can give rise to several species, each adapted to to a particular set of environmental conditions. – Evolution is responsible for the great diversity of life on Earth. 15 1860’s 1960’s 2012
  16. 16. How the Biosphere is Organized Levels of Complexity • The biosphere is the zone of air, land, and water where organisms exist. • A population consists of all members of one species in a particular area. • A community consists of all of the local interacting populations. 16
  17. 17. Ecosystems • An ecosystem includes all aspects of a living community and the physical environment (soil, atmosphere, etc.). • Interactions between various food chains make up a food web. • Ecosystems are characterized by chemical cycling and energy flow. • Ecosystems stay in existence because of a constant input of solar energy and the ability of photosynthetic organisms to absorb it. 17
  18. 18. The Human Population • The human population modifies existing ecosystems for its own purposes. • Two biologically diverse ecosystems, rain forests and coral reefs, are severely threatened by the human population. • Human beings depend on healthy working ecosystems for food, medicines, and raw materials. www.aims.gov.au/monmap/aesthetics/aes18031Sb.html www.fisheyeview.com www.casarioblanco.com www.hickerphoto.com 18

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