PROGRAMS WITHIN ITS
PRESENTED BY: LOIS KEEFE
EDUCATION HAS BEEN A PART OF U.S. CORRECTIONS SYSTEM SINCE 1880’S
EDUCATION WAS RELIGIOUS FOCUS
SWITCHED TO A REHABILITATIVE FOCUS IN 1930’S
MANY PRISONS BEGAN OFFERING POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION IN THE
POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION IS POST-GED/HIGH SCHOOL COURSE WORK
INTRODUCTION OF PELL GRANT
CURRENT FUNDING & INMATE ENROLLMENT RATES
INMATES HAVE LESS EDUCATION THAN THE U.S. POULATION AS A WHOLE
(Spycher, 2014). POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION PREPARES THEM TO
REENTER SOCIETY & REDUCES RECIDIVISM RATES
ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAMS
EXCEPTIONAL STUDENT EDUCATION
CLOSE MANAGEMENT EDUCATION
INMATE TEACHING ASSISTANT
LOCAL EDUCATION AGENCY (LEA)-
OPERATED EDUCATION PROGRAMS
VOLUNTEER LITERACY PROGRAMS
MANDATORY LITERACY PROGRAMS
TITLE II OF THE WORKFORCE
INVESTMENT ACT OF1998
CERTIFIED ACADEMIC TEACHERS
PROVIDE MATH, READING
LANGUAGE, & WORKFORCE
INMATES DEVELOP “SOFT SKILLS”
SUCH AS WORKING IN TEAMS,
VERBAL NEGOTIATIONS, BUILDING
FY 2011-12-2601 INMATES EARNED
GED (Dept. of Corrections 2012)
AUTO SERVICE TECHNOLOGY
PC SUPPORT SERVICES
A/C, REFRIGERATION & HEATING
COMMERCIAL FOODS/CULINARY ARTS
CARL D. PERKINS CAREER AND TECHNICAL
EDUCATION ACT OF 2006
PROVIDES INMATES WITH ESSENTIAL
KNOWLEDGE,SKILLS AND ABILITIES TO
SECURE EMPLOYMENT IN OCCUPATIONS IN
DEMAND IN FLORIDA
33 DISTINCT VOCATIONAL TRADES
PREPARES INMATES FOR REENTRY TO
CIVILIAN LIFE (Dept. of Corrections, 2012)
FLORIDA SHOULD NOT ERADICATE ITS
PROGRAMS WITHIN ITS PRISONS.
THE MAJORITY OF INMATES LACK BASIC EDUCATIONAL AND
INMATES WHO PARTICIPATE IN PRISON-BASED EDUCATIONAL
PROGRAMS CAN EARN HIGHER WAGES, PAY TAXES, AND
BECOME PRODUCTIVE MEMBERS OF SOCIETY
INMATES WHO COMPLETE PRISON-BASED EDUCATIONAL
PROGRAMS HAD LOWER RECIDIVISM RATES THAN THOSE WHO
IT COSTS APPROXIMATELY $30,000 A YEAR TO HOUSE AN
INMATE. ANY REDUCTION IN RECIDIVISM RATES CAN RESULT IN
MILLIONS OF TAXPAYER’S DOLLARS TO BE USED FOR OTHER
Why Florida should eradicate
• Too costly
• Do inmates really deserve an education?
• Even with an education, what are the
chances that an employer will hire a exconvict?
PRESENTED BY: Jonathan Castillo
• Cost should not be the only determining factor of
whether or not inmates deserve an education.
• Inmates do not deserve an education because of
the type of offenses that they have committed. The
chart shown on this slide gives a breakdown of the
type of crimes that Florida inmates have
• Many believe that inmates are in prison for
punishment and should not be rewarded with a
Some believe that receiving an education while incarcerated increases the likelihood that an
inmate can obtain a job once they are released from prison.
In a study conducted in 2008, a total of 740
prison inmates from the state of Ohio, Illinois,
and Texas were surveyed after their release to
find out how many of them were able to obtain
a job after release.
In this chart you can see that only 31% were
currently employed after 2 months since
release and 45% were currently employed
after 8 months since release.
Most of the income that inmates received
were from family and friends and not from
According to the Florida Department of
Corrections, Florida housed 100,455
inmates in the month of January 2014.
In 2011-2012 educational and vocational
programs made up $36,659,409 of the
Although this may seem like a small
portion of the budget, it is a significant
amount of money that can be used to
fund the state’s below national average
salary for correctional workers.
National average wage of correctional
employees: $39,020 per year.
Florida average wage of correctional
employees: $28,280 - $30,160
Graph displaying the budget breakdown
for the Florida Department of Corrections
in the fiscal year 2011-2012
• Each inmate costs an average of
$47.50 a day to house in our state
prisons, averaging a sum of $17,338 a
• To put this into perspective, according
to National Poverty Center, the poverty
threshold for an individual is $11,490
while the threshold for a family with
one child is $19,530.
• Hosting a vocational program in our
prison system increases the cost per
inmate an additional $2,000 per year.
Chart Displaying the 2013 poverty
Graph obtained from:
SHOULD INMATES RECEIVE A
FREE COLLEGE EDUCATION?
PRRESENTED BY: ANA LEON
EDUCATION IS NOT A HUMAN
In United States prison education-including reading
and writing activities- is considered a privilege rather
than a human right:
US courts traditionally have stressed that there are
not constitutional right on education in prisons.
Therefore, post-secondary prison education in the
US rest on public and political attitudes.
The current feeble situation of post-secondary education in state, federal and
private prisons derives from the eradication of Pell grants for prison inmates:
First in 1988, inmates with drug convictions were barred;
Then, in 1992 those sentenced to death or life without parole were deprived
of educational funding.
Finally, in 1994 grants were eliminated for all state and federal prisoners,
notwithstanding their insignificant presence at less than a half percent of Pell
Before 1994 legislative injunction, there were hundreds of higher education programs
within prison walls. However, that amount decreased rapidly to a few.
Of some 350 post-secondary programs in the United States, all but eight closed.
The only programs steadily available in US prisons are legally mandated GED
equivalency classes, vocational training, and workforce re-entry courses.
State-funded prison arts programs, such as the extremely popular but nowdefunct Arts in Corrections program in California state prisons, are almost nonexistent.
Only a few prisoners, whose families can afford tuition, pay for mail
correspondence academic courses from community colleges.
PUBLIC POLICY ALTERNATIVES
IN THE US REGARDING HIGHER
EDUCATION AND PRISONS
Public policy alternatives in the US regarding higher education
and prisons conclusively accentuate negative retributive
functions over education.
✔As of 2007, five states spent more in prisons than on
✔Another 13 spent at least seventy per cent as much on
prisons as education.
Political leaders at state and federal levels possibly have a
precise estimate of public opinion when they view higher
education for convicted felons as an unwarranted reward.
✔In Texas, current spending legislation would prohibit any
public expenditure for post-secondary education in prisons.
Some people argue that:
“Free college education is a privilege taken for
by the inmates who are receiving it.”
“Those who have chosen to commit a crime have
chosen to limit their opportunities and freedoms.”
“Inmates have been given an opportunity that lawabiding citizens have not.”
Why should innocent, law-abiding citizens be forced
to pay for those who have done wrong?
WHAT TO THINK
PRESENTED BY: AARON
Statements have been made that there are not as many
vocational programs as there should be within the prison
system, however statistics show that a very low percentages
of inmates actually show up to the classes.
What would be the use of spending hundreds of thousands of
dollars on a program that only a fraction of the the inmates it
was assigned for actually showed up?
If opportunities are given to improve future lifestyles and only
a few can and will participate in these opportunities then why
should we continue these programs?
While having vocational training in prisons looks like a great idea only
those inmates who are serving long term sentences and are generally
older attend the programs that are available. The existing programs
seem to be less and less attractive to the newer influxes of inmates.
The younger inmates don’t seem to care much about whether
opportunities are available or not. Once again diminishing the the pool
of inmates who have the potential to gain knowledge.
It is actually the younger inmates who need the training most of all
many of them are incarcerated because they did not have skills that
could help them get jobs.
According to a 2005 analysis from Forbes.com, « on average
reincarceration rates for particiapants in vocational training
programs were 46 percent less than non-participants.»
However there are few studies or results to show the reasons
for why the inmates dont actually recidivate. According to a
study from Prison Fellowiship.com, «about 80 percent of
parolees cannot find a job once released.» Not to mention
employers are far more reluctant to hire former convicts
regardless of vocational skill.
POST LOCK UP LIFE
With the statistic that about 80% of parolees cannot find a job
once they are released. It is safe to say that spending
hundreds of thousands of dollars on teaching men and
women skills they cannot use is a waste.
Aside from already being stigmatized by employers, the
economy that we live in makes it hard for individuals who do
have degrees and have no prior records to get jobs.
How much harder would it be for those who do have criminal
records with no degrees to get jobs that will help.
AL PROGRAMS WITHIN
PRESENTED BY: BRIDGETTE TURNER
2,930 inmates earned GEDs between
the Year 2010-11 through participation
in academic education
(Education Services at the Florida Dept. of Corrections, n.d.)
There are many possible positive outcomes of having
quality educational and vocational programs in our
Florida state prisons. Quality programs have been
motivate and boost inmate confidence
decrease recidivism rates
reduce inmate idle time
inflict a sense of willingness to cooperate
DID YOU KNOW
There are 48 State prisons and 7 private prisons in Florida.
As of 1/2014 the state of Florida houses 100,445 inmates serving prison
The average cost to house an inmate in a Florida prison is approximately
$47.50 per day or $17,338 per year.
From 2010-2011 70.7 percent had less than GED Prep skills (less than 9.0
grade level)(Inmate admissions, n.d.).
From 2010- 2011 About twenty five percent of the admissions were classified
as having functional literacy skills (6.0 to 8.9 grade levels)(Inmate admissions,
AS OF APRIL OF Service Technology,
2. Automotive 2012 THE
3. PC Support Services
OFFERED OVER 27 DIFFERENT
5. Turf Equipment Technology
7. Masonry, Brick and Block
8. Plumbing Technology
9. WEB Design Services
10.Auto Collision Repair & Refinishing
12.Computer Programming and Technology
13.Applied Welding Technology
15.Printing & Graphic Arts
16.AC, Refrigeration & Heating Technology
This program is required by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and is
currently being offered in 18 correctional facilities. The exceptional program is designed
for students who require special education and meet the following requirements:
Under the age of 22
Previous history of special education
No high school diploma
Posses a continuing need for special education to profit from involvement in an
Agree to receive special educational services
Has an up to date evolution plan/individualized learning plan
The Close Management Education program where certified
academic teachers supply close management inmates both
cell-front and correspondence-study instruction in
mathematics, reading, language, and workforce readiness
skills. This program is currently being offered at 5 correctional
Prison Educational /Vocational
Research demonstrates that inmates on average have lower educational
achievement than the general public.
As a counter measure, the government has created certain educational, vocational
programs within its prisons to increase the level of education of inmates and assure
their reintegration into the community, lower recidivism rate, and increase public
As shown in this chart, for example,
prison inmates nationally scored
significantly lower than the general
public on various measurements of
literacy in a recent study by the U.S.
Department of Education.
PRESENTED BY: ROY
The Costs and Benefits of Correctional
According to The Washington State Institute for Public Policy (WSIPP) evaluations of
Prison treatment programs can be highly effective in reducing recidivism and
associated costs to society.
Programs like residential drug treatment, in prison vocational training, adult basic
education, and correctional industries saves money by eliminating the costs for re-arrest,
conviction, incarceration, and supervision.
The Costs and Benefits of
Statistical cost benefits according to The Washington State Institute for
Public Policy. Net Cost Savings are based on statistical lowered
recidivism generated from this programs.
Net Cost Savings
Residential Drug Treatment
Prison Vocational Training
Adult Basic Education
Post‐Release Employment Project (PREP):
Designed to evaluate the impact of Federal Prison Industries and
Collected data for up to 12 years on more than 7,000 federal inmates.
Participants are 24% less likely to recidivate for as long as 12 years
following release. Additionally, they are 14% more likely than
non‐participants to be employed 12 months following release from prison.
Reintegration to Society:
Thinking for a Change: Evidence-based cognitive behavioral program
from the National Institute of Corrections.
• Cognitive Restructuring
• Social Skills Development
• Development of problem-solving skills
• Interpersonal communication skills development
• Confront thought patterns that can lead to problematic behavior
A study of this program showed that ex-offenders who completed the
program were 33% less likely to commit new crimes than ex-offenders
who had not completed the program.
Should vocational and educational programs be eliminated?
What are possibly policy recommendations to fix the issue at hand?
PRESENTED BY: MAYDELIN GUTIERREZ
SOME OF THE NEGATIVE
• $36.6 million spent on
programs in 2011-2012
• Increases household
expenses for taxpayers
• Paying for college vs.
free prisoner education
• Privilege not a right
SOME OF THE POSITIVE
Increase level of education for inmates
• Literacy rates have increased
• Better educated population
Reducing risks to society
• Lower recidivism rates = more safety for the
SO, WHAT SHOULD BE
Vocational and educational programs should not be eradicated
These programs are rewarding, motivating and can actually
benefit our society
Budget can be seen as a concern but the ultimate reward is far
Provide specific educational and vocational programs in major prisons
Monitor the success rate of prisoners in these programs
Provide quality instructors and motivational support
These programs, once implemented, should not be available to all
prisoners (for examples: offenders with serious crimes)
Chappell, C., & Shippen, M. (2013). Use of technology in correctional education. Journal of Correctional Education, 64(2), 22+. Retrieved from
Department of Corrections State of Florida http://www.dc.state.fl.us/pub/annual/1112/AnnualReport-1112.pdf
Spycher, D. M., Lee, J. B., & Shkodriani, G. M. (n.d.). The Other Pipeline: From Prison to Diploma Community Colleges and Correctional Education
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Palmer, S. M. (2012, November). Adult Learning Quarterly. Retrieved February 14, 2014, from
Education Services at the Florida Dept. of Corrections. (n.d.). Retrieved from Florida Department of Corrections:
Inmate admissions. (n.d.). Retrieved from Education Levels - Inmate Admissions, 2010-2011 Agency Annual Statistical Information:
Beane B.(2007). From prisoner to Payroll: Ex-Prisoners’ Challenge to find a job.
Skorton D., Altschuler G. (2013). College Behind Bars: How educating Prisoners Pays off. www.forbes.com
Average Salary for a Corrections Officer. (n.d.). Correctional Officer Salaries. Retrieved February 14, 2014, from
Copy & Paste | Parenthetical
2013 Poverty Guidelines. (n.d.). ASPE. Retrieved February 13, 2014, from
Crews, M. (n.d.). Florida Department of CorrectionsMichael D. Crews, Secretary. Budget, 2011-2012 Agency
Annual Report. Retrieved February 14, 2014, from http://www.dc.state.fl.us/pub/annual/1112/b
Education vs prison costs. (n.d.). CNNMoney. Retrieved February 14, 2014, from
Lockard, J., & Rankins-Robertson, S. (2011). The Right to Education, Prison-University Partnerships, and Online Writing
Pedagogy in the US. Critical Survey, 23-39.
Ward, M. (2011, March 22). Texas spends millions on college for prison inmates: Program targeted by budget-cutting
lawmakers, but supporters say it helps ex-cons suceed. Retrieved from Stateman: www.stateman.com
Henson, K. (2014, Febreruary 8). Prison inmates should not receive free college education: Middletown High School's
Student Media Experience. Retrieved from The Round Table: www.mhsroundtable.com
Education Services at the Florida Dept. of Corrections. (n.d.). Retrieved from Florida Department of Corrections:
Inmate admissions. (n.d.). Retrieved from Education Levels - Inmate Admissions, 2010-2011 Agency Annual Statistical