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  • http://www.lao.ca.gov/2008/crim/inmate_education/inmate_education_021208.aspx
  • USDOJ:http://www.bop.gov/resources/pdfs/wsipp_cost-benefit_summary.pdf
  • USDOJ:http://www.bop.gov/resources/pdfs/wsipp_cost-benefit_summary.pdf
  • http://www.bop.gov/resources/pdfs/prep_summary_05012012.pdf
  • http://www.dc.state.fl.us/pub/annual/1112/reentry.htmlhttp://static.nicic.gov/Library/018190.pdf
  • Project

    1. 1. SHOULD FLORIDA ERADICATE ITS VOCATIONAL/EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS WITHIN ITS PRISONS? PRESENTED BY: LOIS KEEFE
    2. 2. INTRODUCTION  EDUCATION HAS BEEN A PART OF U.S. CORRECTIONS SYSTEM SINCE 1880’S  EDUCATION WAS RELIGIOUS FOCUS  SWITCHED TO A REHABILITATIVE FOCUS IN 1930’S  MANY PRISONS BEGAN OFFERING POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION IN THE 1960’S  POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION IS POST-GED/HIGH SCHOOL COURSE WORK  INTRODUCTION OF PELL GRANT  CURRENT FUNDING & INMATE ENROLLMENT RATES  INMATES HAVE LESS EDUCATION THAN THE U.S. POULATION AS A WHOLE (Spycher, 2014). POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION PREPARES THEM TO REENTER SOCIETY & REDUCES RECIDIVISM RATES
    3. 3. FLORIDA’S EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS  ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAMS (GED)  EXCEPTIONAL STUDENT EDUCATION  CLOSE MANAGEMENT EDUCATION  INMATE TEACHING ASSISTANT EDUCATION  LOCAL EDUCATION AGENCY (LEA)- OPERATED EDUCATION PROGRAMS  VOLUNTEER LITERACY PROGRAMS  MANDATORY LITERACY PROGRAMS  EDUCATION SERVICES  TITLE II OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT OF1998  CERTIFIED ACADEMIC TEACHERS PROVIDE MATH, READING LANGUAGE, & WORKFORCE READINESS INSTRUCTIONS  INMATES DEVELOP “SOFT SKILLS” SUCH AS WORKING IN TEAMS, VERBAL NEGOTIATIONS, BUILDING SELF-CONFIDENCE  FY 2011-12-2601 INMATES EARNED GED (Dept. of Corrections 2012)
    4. 4. VOCATIONAL EDUCATION  AUTO SERVICE TECHNOLOGY  PC SUPPORT SERVICES  CABINETMAKING  ELECTRICAL  PLUMBING  CARPENTRY  WELDING TECHNOLOGY  MASONRY  A/C, REFRIGERATION & HEATING TECHNOLOGY  COMMERCIAL FOODS/CULINARY ARTS  COSMETOLOGY  EQUINE CARE  CARL D. PERKINS CAREER AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION ACT OF 2006  PROVIDES INMATES WITH ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE,SKILLS AND ABILITIES TO SECURE EMPLOYMENT IN OCCUPATIONS IN DEMAND IN FLORIDA  33 DISTINCT VOCATIONAL TRADES  REENTRY PROGRAMS  PRIDE  PREPARES INMATES FOR REENTRY TO CIVILIAN LIFE (Dept. of Corrections, 2012)
    5. 5. POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS FLORIDA SHOULD NOT ERADICATE ITS VOCATIONAL/EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS WITHIN ITS PRISONS.  THE MAJORITY OF INMATES LACK BASIC EDUCATIONAL AND EMPLOYMENT SKILLS  INMATES WHO PARTICIPATE IN PRISON-BASED EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS CAN EARN HIGHER WAGES, PAY TAXES, AND BECOME PRODUCTIVE MEMBERS OF SOCIETY  INMATES WHO COMPLETE PRISON-BASED EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS HAD LOWER RECIDIVISM RATES THAN THOSE WHO DID NOT  IT COSTS APPROXIMATELY $30,000 A YEAR TO HOUSE AN INMATE. ANY REDUCTION IN RECIDIVISM RATES CAN RESULT IN MILLIONS OF TAXPAYER’S DOLLARS TO BE USED FOR OTHER STATE PRIORITIES
    6. 6. Why Florida should eradicate vocational programs • Too costly • Do inmates really deserve an education? • Even with an education, what are the chances that an employer will hire a exconvict? PRESENTED BY: Jonathan Castillo
    7. 7. • Cost should not be the only determining factor of whether or not inmates deserve an education. • Inmates do not deserve an education because of the type of offenses that they have committed. The chart shown on this slide gives a breakdown of the type of crimes that Florida inmates have committed. • Many believe that inmates are in prison for punishment and should not be rewarded with a free education.
    8. 8. Some believe that receiving an education while incarcerated increases the likelihood that an inmate can obtain a job once they are released from prison. In a study conducted in 2008, a total of 740 prison inmates from the state of Ohio, Illinois, and Texas were surveyed after their release to find out how many of them were able to obtain a job after release. In this chart you can see that only 31% were currently employed after 2 months since release and 45% were currently employed after 8 months since release. Most of the income that inmates received were from family and friends and not from legal employment.
    9. 9.  According to the Florida Department of Corrections, Florida housed 100,455 inmates in the month of January 2014.  In 2011-2012 educational and vocational programs made up $36,659,409 of the state’s $2,138,519,208.  Although this may seem like a small portion of the budget, it is a significant amount of money that can be used to fund the state’s below national average salary for correctional workers.  National average wage of correctional employees: $39,020 per year.  Florida average wage of correctional employees: $28,280 - $30,160 Graph displaying the budget breakdown for the Florida Department of Corrections in the fiscal year 2011-2012
    10. 10. • Each inmate costs an average of $47.50 a day to house in our state prisons, averaging a sum of $17,338 a year. • To put this into perspective, according to National Poverty Center, the poverty threshold for an individual is $11,490 while the threshold for a family with one child is $19,530. • Hosting a vocational program in our prison system increases the cost per inmate an additional $2,000 per year. Chart Displaying the 2013 poverty level thresholds. Graph obtained from: http://aspe.hhs.gov/poverty/13poverty.cfm
    11. 11. SHOULD INMATES RECEIVE A FREE COLLEGE EDUCATION? PRRESENTED BY: ANA LEON
    12. 12. EDUCATION IS NOT A HUMAN RIGHT In United States prison education-including reading and writing activities- is considered a privilege rather than a human right: • • US courts traditionally have stressed that there are not constitutional right on education in prisons. Therefore, post-secondary prison education in the US rest on public and political attitudes.
    13. 13. FACTS: The current feeble situation of post-secondary education in state, federal and private prisons derives from the eradication of Pell grants for prison inmates:  First in 1988, inmates with drug convictions were barred;  Then, in 1992 those sentenced to death or life without parole were deprived of educational funding.  Finally, in 1994 grants were eliminated for all state and federal prisoners, notwithstanding their insignificant presence at less than a half percent of Pell grant funding.
    14. 14. FACTS: Before 1994 legislative injunction, there were hundreds of higher education programs within prison walls. However, that amount decreased rapidly to a few. • Of some 350 post-secondary programs in the United States, all but eight closed. • The only programs steadily available in US prisons are legally mandated GED equivalency classes, vocational training, and workforce re-entry courses. • State-funded prison arts programs, such as the extremely popular but nowdefunct Arts in Corrections program in California state prisons, are almost nonexistent. • Only a few prisoners, whose families can afford tuition, pay for mail correspondence academic courses from community colleges.
    15. 15. PUBLIC POLICY ALTERNATIVES IN THE US REGARDING HIGHER EDUCATION AND PRISONS Public policy alternatives in the US regarding higher education and prisons conclusively accentuate negative retributive functions over education. ✔As of 2007, five states spent more in prisons than on higher education ✔Another 13 spent at least seventy per cent as much on prisons as education. Political leaders at state and federal levels possibly have a precise estimate of public opinion when they view higher education for convicted felons as an unwarranted reward. ✔In Texas, current spending legislation would prohibit any public expenditure for post-secondary education in prisons.
    16. 16. PUBLIC OPINION Some people argue that: ● “Free college education is a privilege taken for granted by the inmates who are receiving it.” ● “Those who have chosen to commit a crime have chosen to limit their opportunities and freedoms.” ● “Inmates have been given an opportunity that lawabiding citizens have not.”   Why should innocent, law-abiding citizens be forced to pay for those who have done wrong?
    17. 17. VOCATIONAL TRAINING IN PRISON WHAT TO THINK ABOUT? PRESENTED BY: AARON ROBERTS
    18. 18. ATTENDANCE  Statements have been made that there are not as many vocational programs as there should be within the prison system, however statistics show that a very low percentages of inmates actually show up to the classes.  What would be the use of spending hundreds of thousands of dollars on a program that only a fraction of the the inmates it was assigned for actually showed up?  If opportunities are given to improve future lifestyles and only a few can and will participate in these opportunities then why should we continue these programs?
    19. 19. AGE DEMOGRAPHIC  While having vocational training in prisons looks like a great idea only those inmates who are serving long term sentences and are generally older attend the programs that are available. The existing programs seem to be less and less attractive to the newer influxes of inmates.  The younger inmates don’t seem to care much about whether opportunities are available or not. Once again diminishing the the pool of inmates who have the potential to gain knowledge.  It is actually the younger inmates who need the training most of all many of them are incarcerated because they did not have skills that could help them get jobs.
    20. 20. ACTUAL RETURNS  According to a 2005 analysis from Forbes.com, « on average reincarceration rates for particiapants in vocational training programs were 46 percent less than non-participants.»  However there are few studies or results to show the reasons for why the inmates dont actually recidivate. According to a study from Prison Fellowiship.com, «about 80 percent of parolees cannot find a job once released.» Not to mention employers are far more reluctant to hire former convicts regardless of vocational skill.
    21. 21. POST LOCK UP LIFE  With the statistic that about 80% of parolees cannot find a job once they are released. It is safe to say that spending hundreds of thousands of dollars on teaching men and women skills they cannot use is a waste.  Aside from already being stigmatized by employers, the economy that we live in makes it hard for individuals who do have degrees and have no prior records to get jobs.  How much harder would it be for those who do have criminal records with no degrees to get jobs that will help.
    22. 22. SHOULD FLORIDA ERADICATE EDUCATIONAL/VOCATION AL PROGRAMS WITHIN ITS PRISONS? PRESENTED BY: BRIDGETTE TURNER
    23. 23. FACT 2,930 inmates earned GEDs between the Year 2010-11 through participation in academic education (Education Services at the Florida Dept. of Corrections, n.d.)
    24. 24. There are many possible positive outcomes of having quality educational and vocational programs in our Florida state prisons. Quality programs have been proven to: motivate and boost inmate confidence decrease recidivism rates  reduce inmate idle time inflict a sense of willingness to cooperate
    25. 25. DID YOU KNOW  There are 48 State prisons and 7 private prisons in Florida.  As of 1/2014 the state of Florida houses 100,445 inmates serving prison sentences.  The average cost to house an inmate in a Florida prison is approximately $47.50 per day or $17,338 per year.  From 2010-2011 70.7 percent had less than GED Prep skills (less than 9.0 grade level)(Inmate admissions, n.d.).  From 2010- 2011 About twenty five percent of the admissions were classified as having functional literacy skills (6.0 to 8.9 grade levels)(Inmate admissions, n.d.).
    26. 26. AS OF APRIL OF Service Technology, 2. Automotive 2012 THE 3. PC Support Services FLORIDA4.PRISONGraphic Communications SYSTEM Printing and OFFERED OVER 27 DIFFERENT 5. Turf Equipment Technology 6. Electricity VOCATIONAL PROGRAMS 7. Masonry, Brick and Block 8. Plumbing Technology 9. WEB Design Services 10.Auto Collision Repair & Refinishing 11.Business Supervision 12.Computer Programming and Technology 13.Applied Welding Technology 14.Carpentry 15.Printing & Graphic Arts 16.AC, Refrigeration & Heating Technology 17.Digital Design
    27. 27. EXCEPTIONAL STUDENT EDUCATION This program is required by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and is currently being offered in 18 correctional facilities. The exceptional program is designed for students who require special education and meet the following requirements:  Under the age of 22  Previous history of special education  No high school diploma  Posses a continuing need for special education to profit from involvement in an educational task.  Agree to receive special educational services  Has an up to date evolution plan/individualized learning plan
    28. 28. CLOSE MANAGEMENT EDUCATION The Close Management Education program where certified academic teachers supply close management inmates both cell-front and correspondence-study instruction in mathematics, reading, language, and workforce readiness skills. This program is currently being offered at 5 correctional facilities.
    29. 29. Prison Educational /Vocational Programs Research demonstrates that inmates on average have lower educational achievement than the general public. As a counter measure, the government has created certain educational, vocational programs within its prisons to increase the level of education of inmates and assure their reintegration into the community, lower recidivism rate, and increase public safety. As shown in this chart, for example, prison inmates nationally scored significantly lower than the general public on various measurements of literacy in a recent study by the U.S. Department of Education. PRESENTED BY: ROY
    30. 30. The Costs and Benefits of Correctional Education/Vocational Programs According to The Washington State Institute for Public Policy (WSIPP) evaluations of correctional programs:  Prison treatment programs can be highly effective in reducing recidivism and associated costs to society.  Programs like residential drug treatment, in prison vocational training, adult basic education, and correctional industries saves money by eliminating the costs for re-arrest, conviction, incarceration, and supervision.
    31. 31. The Costs and Benefits of Correctional Education/Vocational Programs Statistical cost benefits according to The Washington State Institute for Public Policy. Net Cost Savings are based on statistical lowered recidivism generated from this programs. Program Program Cost (per inmate) Net Cost Savings (Benefits) Residential Drug Treatment $ 3,100 $ 5,230 Prison Vocational Training $ 1,960 $ 12,017 Correction Industries $ 777 $ 4,394 Adult Basic Education $ 1,972 $ 9,176
    32. 32. Reintegration to Society: Employment Post‐Release Employment Project (PREP): Designed to evaluate the impact of Federal Prison Industries and vocational training. Collected data for up to 12 years on more than 7,000 federal inmates. Participants are 24% less likely to recidivate for as long as 12 years following release. Additionally, they are 14% more likely than non‐participants to be employed 12 months following release from prison. http://www.lao.ca.gov/2008/crim/inmate_education/inmate_education_021208.aspx http://www.bop.gov/resources/pdfs/wsipp_cost-benefit_summary.pdf http://www.bop.gov/resources/pdfs/prep_summary_05012012.pdf
    33. 33. Reintegration to Society: Public Safety Thinking for a Change: Evidence-based cognitive behavioral program from the National Institute of Corrections. • Cognitive Restructuring • Social Skills Development • Development of problem-solving skills • Interpersonal communication skills development • Confront thought patterns that can lead to problematic behavior A study of this program showed that ex-offenders who completed the program were 33% less likely to commit new crimes than ex-offenders who had not completed the program. http://www.dc.state.fl.us/pub/annual/1112/reentry.html http://static.nicic.gov/Library/018190.pdf
    34. 34. CONCLUSIO N Should vocational and educational programs be eliminated? What are possibly policy recommendations to fix the issue at hand? PRESENTED BY: MAYDELIN GUTIERREZ
    35. 35. SOME OF THE NEGATIVE FACTORS  Budgetary costs • $36.6 million spent on prison educational programs in 2011-2012 • Increases household expenses for taxpayers  Social conflict • Paying for college vs. free prisoner education • Privilege not a right
    36. 36. SOME OF THE POSITIVE FACTORS  Increase level of education for inmates • Literacy rates have increased • Better educated population  Reducing risks to society • Lower recidivism rates = more safety for the community
    37. 37. SO, WHAT SHOULD BE DONE?  Vocational and educational programs should not be eradicated from prisons  These programs are rewarding, motivating and can actually benefit our society  Budget can be seen as a concern but the ultimate reward is far greater
    38. 38. POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS  Provide specific educational and vocational programs in major prisons  Monitor the success rate of prisoners in these programs  Provide quality instructors and motivational support  These programs, once implemented, should not be available to all prisoners (for examples: offenders with serious crimes)
    39. 39. REFERENCES  Chappell, C., & Shippen, M. (2013). Use of technology in correctional education. Journal of Correctional Education, 64(2), 22+. Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CA345617820&v=2.1&u=21955_fmbpl&it=r&p=AONE&sw=w&asid=a054ac9bf8d99a7e3c03cef55557ea2e  Department of Corrections State of Florida http://www.dc.state.fl.us/pub/annual/1112/AnnualReport-1112.pdf  Spycher, D. M., Lee, J. B., & Shkodriani, G. M. (n.d.). The Other Pipeline: From Prison to Diploma Community Colleges and Correctional Education Programs. Retrieved February 14, 2014, from https://advocacy.collegeboard.org/sites/default/files/11b_4792_MM_Pipeline_WEB_120416.pdf  Palmer, S. M. (2012, November). Adult Learning Quarterly. Retrieved February 14, 2014, from http://www.aaace.org/mc/page.do?sitePageId=66286&orgId=aaace  Education Services at the Florida Dept. of Corrections. (n.d.). Retrieved from Florida Department of Corrections: http://www.dc.state.fl.us/orginfo/education/index.html  Inmate admissions. (n.d.). Retrieved from Education Levels - Inmate Admissions, 2010-2011 Agency Annual Statistical Information: http://www.dc.state.fl.us/pub/annual/1011/stats/ia_grade_level.html  Beane B.(2007). From prisoner to Payroll: Ex-Prisoners’ Challenge to find a job. www.prisonfellowship.org  Skorton D., Altschuler G. (2013). College Behind Bars: How educating Prisoners Pays off. www.forbes.com  http://socialinnovationmn.com/educating-prisoners-pays-off/  http://cindysheehanssoapbox.blogspot.com/2013_09_01_archive.html  http://www.money.cnn.com/infographic/economy/education-vs-prison-costs/
    40. 40. REFERENCES  Average Salary for a Corrections Officer. (n.d.). Correctional Officer Salaries. Retrieved February 14, 2014, from http://www.insideprison.com/article_corrections_officers_salaries.asp  Copy & Paste | Parenthetical  2013 Poverty Guidelines. (n.d.). ASPE. Retrieved February 13, 2014, from http://aspe.hhs.gov/poverty/13poverty.cfm  Crews, M. (n.d.). Florida Department of CorrectionsMichael D. Crews, Secretary. Budget, 2011-2012 Agency Annual Report. Retrieved February 14, 2014, from http://www.dc.state.fl.us/pub/annual/1112/b  Education vs prison costs. (n.d.). CNNMoney. Retrieved February 14, 2014, from http://www.money.cnn.com/infographic/economy/education-vs-prison-costs/ ● ● ● Lockard, J., & Rankins-Robertson, S. (2011). The Right to Education, Prison-University Partnerships, and Online Writing Pedagogy in the US. Critical Survey, 23-39. Ward, M. (2011, March 22). Texas spends millions on college for prison inmates: Program targeted by budget-cutting lawmakers, but supporters say it helps ex-cons suceed. Retrieved from Stateman: www.stateman.com Henson, K. (2014, Febreruary 8). Prison inmates should not receive free college education: Middletown High School's Student Media Experience. Retrieved from The Round Table: www.mhsroundtable.com  Education Services at the Florida Dept. of Corrections. (n.d.). Retrieved from Florida Department of Corrections: http://www.dc.state.fl.us/orginfo/education/index.html  Inmate admissions. (n.d.). Retrieved from Education Levels - Inmate Admissions, 2010-2011 Agency Annual Statistical Information: http://www.dc.state.fl.us/pub/annual/1011/stats/ia_grade_level.html

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