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Emperor leo iii (1)

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Emperor leo iii (1)

  1. 1. Brianna Campbell
  2. 2. Introduction  Leo III also known as Leo the Isaurian was born somewhere between 675 & 680 in Germanicia, Commagene, Syria. He became an attendant to Emperor Justinian II after assisting him in the recovery of his throne in 705. Leo became Emperor on March 25, 717. Leo’s first task as emperor was the organization of the defense of Constantinople against the Arab troops under Maslamah ibn ʿAbd al-Malik. Leo was a very strategic military ruler and very energetic. Leo’s wife, Maria, bore him a son, Constantine, whom he crowned in 720. An able diplomat, Leo married Constantine in 733 to a daughter of the Khagan of the Khazars; the marriage brought Leo a valuable military alliance with the Khazars in the trans-Caucasus against the Arabs.
  3. 3. The Empire  Iconoclastic crisis occurred during Leo III reign. Leo prioritized keeping Islam from influencing his Empire. Forceful resettlement of many Christians of the East was a result of a deal struck between the Byzantines and the Arabs. That happened because large numbers of the Christian zealots were removed and dispersed around the Byzantine Empire, away from the boarders between the Byzantine Empire and the Arabs. These Christians were originally supported by the Byzantines themselves but got scapegoated for politics. That was accomplished through an hefty payoff-agreement between the Emperor and the Umayyad Caliph. These Christians were what is known as the Jarjamites, the Maronites/Maradaites, Jacobites and others. They were a thorn in the side of the invading Arabs because they refused to convert to Islam and did not accept the Arab cause célèbre. Leo helped prevent the extinction of the Byzantine Empire.
  4. 4. Government  Leo defended Constantinople against the last Arab siege (717–18), and although he had to contend with Arab attacks in Asia Minor, he succeeded in ending serious Arab threats for nearly two centuries and reorganized the military provinces ( themes ) of the empire for greater efficiency. His civil code, the Ecloga, written in Greek rather than in Latin, was a practical handbook that had considerable influence in Byzantium. He is also credited with issuing military, maritime, and rural codes.
  5. 5. Art  The iconoclastic controversy prevented further religious images from being created. The worship of iconic images was banned and those who did were persecuted.
  6. 6. Architecture  Leo III destroyed religious images in churches. Leo isnt known for the building of any spectacular buildings or churches. In fact, a lot of buildings were destroyed in the efforts of the iconoclasm.
  7. 7.  In January 730, following the deposition of the Patriarch who refused to adopt the new religious policies, the Emperor promulgated an edict ordering the destruction of all holy icons. The Imperial edict had deep consequences for the Byzantine Empire. Besides the divisions in society brought about by it, it also hurt relations with Rome. The new Pope, Gregory III, condemned in a Council the Iconoclastic policies of the Emperor. The latter, to punish Rome, wrested from the Pope's jurisdiction and ceded to the patriarchate of Constantinople the Greek provinces of southern Italy as well as Sicily and the Prefecture of Illyricum.
  8. 8.  Leo's attack (726) on devotion to holy images began the long struggle over iconoclasm. Riots often broke out in Greece and Sicily and Leo would attack these riots which upset pope Gregory II and Gregory III. Leo had help from countries like Bulgaria when it came to fighting the Arabs. Leo didn’t want Islam to be influenced in his empire. After a 12 month siege of the Arabs, the Arabs withdrew in August 718. The Arabs' menace to the empire did not end altogether; during the 720s and 730s they resumed their offensive into Asia Minor. Leo devoted further efforts against them, and in 740 he won a great victory at Akroinon which further crippled the Arabs' position, enabling his son and successor to take the offensive against them. Not only was the capital freed from danger, but the safety of Asia Minor, the empire's greatest source of manpower and revenue, was secured. Further, Leo advanced the system of the themes (administrative divisions of the empire) to a significant extent. He reconsolidated the system by dividing the original themes into smaller units and reorganizing them; he had learned from his own success how easy it was for a commander of a large territory to seize the throne.
  9. 9. Death  Leo III passed down his empire to his son. After a reign of 24 years, 2 months and 25 days, Leo III died on June 18, 741.
  10. 10.  name. "Leo III (Byzantine emperor) -- Encyclopedia Britannica." Encyclopedia Britannica. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 June 2013. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/336200/Leo-III>.  Emperors, zantium:. "Leo III, Byzantine emperor | Infoplease.com." Infoplease: Encyclopedia, Almanac, Atlas, Biographies, Dictionary, Thesaurus. Free online reference, research & homework help. | Infoplease.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 June 2013. <http://www.infoplease.com/encyclopedia/people/leo-iii-byzantine- emperor.html>.  Moslem, zantine navy succeded in destroying the Arab vessels. Meanwhile the. " The Iconoclastic Period (711-843) ." Hellenic Electronic Center. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 June 2013. <http://www.greece.org/romiosini/iconoclas  "Leo III, Byzantine Emperor who was one of us, and so was his dynasty of emperors." Phoenician Encyclopedia: A Bequest Unearthed, Phoenicia and the Phoenicians, Punic, Canaanites -- Encyclopedia Phoeniciana. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 June 2013. <http://phoenicia.org/leo.html>.  "Iconoclasm." Boundless. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 June 2013. <https://www.boundless.com/art-history/the-byzantines/early-byzantine-art/icons- and-iconoclasm/>.  zantine. "Iconoclasm - Smarthistory."Smarthistory: a multimedia web-book about art and art history. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 June 2013. <http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/ico  Forschungen, zantinische. "Roman Emperors - DIR Leo III."RomanEmperors - DIR--De Imperatoribus Romanis Roman History Roman RomanEmpire Imperator Basileus De Imperatoribus Romanis EncyclopediaByzantine. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 June 2013. <http://www.roman-emperors.org/leoiii.htm>.

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