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Running head: Homelessness 1
Homeless Veterans
Brian Switzer
SOC 470/471
Dr. Greenwood
2
ABSTRACT
The purpose of this research is to examine the causes of veteran homelessness, mainly looking
at the cohort gro...
3
Introduction
In the 1980’s surveys conducted on homelessness, the high proportions of veterans
among the homeless was fo...
4
This research project is going to examine the homeless veteran situation through
literature review and with interviews o...
5
Mental disorder of anti-social disorder is also five to six times higher among veterans
(Rosenheck et al. 1994).
Another...
6
Other results showed white males were at greater risk of homelessness than black men
were, and as a male gets older into...
7
The factors involved in veterans reasoning for homelessness is multifaceted and
complex from the time period in which th...
8
from Continuum of Care facilities which produced the Annual Homeless Assessment Report
(AHAR), along with the VA creatin...
9
have over representation among the homeless population compared to their general
populations (Fargo et al. 2001).
A new ...
10
The study conducted used data collected from the Homelessness Screening Clinical
Reminder (HSCR) used to screen veteran...
11
the older group did report a risk, they did not show in the numbers and were at less risk than
those under thirty-five ...
12
concern was based on housing instability past ninety days to next ninety days (Montgomery et
al. 2014). Of the three hu...
13
Females had higher risk of becoming homeless from psychotic disorders but less for
substance abuse disorders than men (...
14
Physical and mental diagnosis will also be used due to these have shown a factor in veteran
homelessness.
The role used...
15
up in prison or dead. Even though two respondents were discharged with an Honorable
discharge it was still before their...
16
Society also plays a role in how veterans and homeless veterans are perceived. When
society supports the military servi...
17
References
Bachman, Jerald G., Segal, David R., Freedman-Doan, Peter., and O’Malley, Patrick M. (2000).
“Who Chooses Mi...
18
Tessler, Richard., Rosenheck, Robert., and Gamache, Gail. (2003). “Homeless Veterans of the
All-Volunteer Force: A Soci...
19
Appendix A
Concept Map
20
Appendix B
Veteran Questionnaire
Age____________ Sex_____________ Military
Service____________________
Married/Single/D...
21
Did you partake in the use of illegal drugs while in the military?
What was the alcohol use environment while you were ...
22
Appendix C
Codebook
Notes
Output Created 27-APR-2015 12:09:34
Comments
Input Data ClientJ$Senior SeminarVeterans.sav
Ac...
23
Sex
Value Count Percent
Standard Attributes Position 2
Valid Values 1 Male 7 87.5%
2 Female 1 12.5%
Race
Value Count Pe...
24
Discharge
Value Count Percent
Standard Attributes Position 5
Valid Values 1 Honorable 4 50.0%
2 Honorable
(Medical)
3 3...
25
Palcohol
Value Count Percent
Standard Attributes Position 9
Valid Values 1 No 3 37.5%
2 Yes 5 62.5%
Pdrug
Value Count P...
26
Tables
Table 1
Table 2
The multiple issues included alcohol dependence, drug dependence and mental illness. The
individ...
27
Table 3
Table 4
Military Drug
FrequencyPercent Valid PercentCumulative Percent
Valid No 5 62.5 62.5 62.5
yes 3 37.5 37....
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Homeless Veterans Research Paper

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Homeless Veterans Research Paper

  1. 1. Running head: Homelessness 1 Homeless Veterans Brian Switzer SOC 470/471 Dr. Greenwood
  2. 2. 2 ABSTRACT The purpose of this research is to examine the causes of veteran homelessness, mainly looking at the cohort group who joined the military after 1974. The particular cohort investigated are from peacetime military and the first enlisted under the all-volunteer military. The investigation looks at previous military life, military service and post military experience to try to explain the reasons this cohort is most affected with homelessness.
  3. 3. 3 Introduction In the 1980’s surveys conducted on homelessness, the high proportions of veterans among the homeless was found to be forty-one percent, where in the general population only thirty-four percent ever served in the military (Rosenheck et al. 1994). The homeless veteran’s largest proportions were from peacetime service, meaning they were not part of a conflict or war. Veterans that served after Korean War to the beginning of Vietnam Conflict and Post- Vietnam Conflict were the highest among the homeless veterans. What is the connections needed to understand why peacetime veterans are have a higher risk of homelessness, compared to veterans that serve during conflicts (Rosenheck et al. 1994)? The risk of becoming homeless is more likely to happen to someone who served in the military than someone who has never served (Gamache et al. 2001, Rosenheck et al. 1994). That is where understanding of what about the military veteran that makes them at more risk than other groups. The problem that needs understanding why are veterans permeating the homeless population at higher rates than those numbers in occur in the general society. If the society population means were the same as the homeless population then only roughly two percent would be homeless. The research question to answered is how can we prevent a repeat of higher veteran homelessness in the future, is their pre-military background, time in service or post-military factors that affect the veteran population?
  4. 4. 4 This research project is going to examine the homeless veteran situation through literature review and with interviews of veterans based on their life experiences before the military, military service and post military life to try and explain who and why veterans are at risk of becoming homeless. Review of Literature The literature on the research on veteran homelessness started in the 1980’s when society in general was concerned about homelessness. The original studies started by thinking most of the homeless were Vietnam Veterans but instead they found that the majority were post-Vietnam (Rosenheck et al. 1994). “The Proportion of Veterans among Homeless Men” (Rosenheck et al. 1994) examines homelessness and veterans high rate among homeless men. The largest cohort of veterans were not the ones that suffered from war trauma, but those were served in peacetime and volunteered for the military instead of conscription. Even those from a certain time of conscription that was peacetime after Korea and before Vietnam had higher rates of homelessness (Rosenheck et al. 1994). The main age groups affected at the time of the study was twenty years of age to thirty- five years and forty-five to fifty-four years old. Both of these groups were not part of combat operations and the first group was part of the first to be part of the all-volunteer military. The data showed that white veterans had higher rates of high school diplomas, married and also living alone in comparison to the nonveterans who were homeless of the same ages.
  5. 5. 5 Mental disorder of anti-social disorder is also five to six times higher among veterans (Rosenheck et al. 1994). Another research team decided to look at the veteran numbers among the homeless again to see if the original numbers were valid or just a one-time occurrence, and they found the same age groups from previous study had aged also by ten years. The demographic group of the original study of twenty to thirty-four year olds had aged to thirty to forty-four years of age (Gamache et al. 2001). In 1997, another research team looked at the phenomena about homeless veterans from the all-volunteer military led by Gail Gamache, which included the original member of the first research that found the cohort group. The research was not longitudinal because they did not have the original individuals from the first research (Gamache et al. 2001). Veterans were still over represented in this particular age cohort and the same hypothesis remained that “poorly adjusted young men” were admitted to the military (Gamache et al. 2001). The young men during July 1974 to 1984 were of lower socioeconomic backgrounds and had fewer family connections. The individuals seem to have more behavioral problems along with alcohol and drug issues. The same issues seemed from the 1987 research, be still relevant in 1997. All those who were part of the peacetime military still have a 1.38 odds ratio of becoming homeless with the cohort of thirty five to forty-four year olds at the highest of 2.90 odds ratio (Gamache et al. 2001).
  6. 6. 6 Other results showed white males were at greater risk of homelessness than black men were, and as a male gets older into the forty-five range the odds increase on chances of becoming homeless. With limited formal support from the VA due to non-wartime events, the assistance is not available for treatments for issues they may have suffered from either pre- military or from during their military experiences (Gamache et al. 2001). Theory of causes or reasons for veteran homelessness has been suggested to social selection (Tessler et al. 2003). Richard Tessler and his team examined the reasons for those who have joined the military after June 30, 1973 and what pre-existing issues that veterans could have had prior to joining the military. The pre-existing conditions help people sort themselves into groups or organizations they feel attuned to. The military provided those with low-skills, lower education and socioeconomic conditions an opportunity to escape their conditions of living (Tessler et al. 2003). However, unfortunately the individuals in question carried with them the same issues while in the military with them. The main purpose of the research was to examine was why veterans experiencing longer terms of homelessness compared to nonveterans are. Longer terms of homelessness are connected to those who from a certain cohort shares similar issues. One was the abuse of alcohol and drugs. Less family ties because of possible dysfunction in the homes of those who joined the military because those who at a younger age placed in foster care show lower rates of homeless periods compared to those who were not in foster care (Tessler et al 2003).
  7. 7. 7 The factors involved in veterans reasoning for homelessness is multifaceted and complex from the time period in which they joined, family ties, psychiatric illness, and alcohol abuse. Each one of these can contribute but veterans show more signs of these issues than nonveterans which leads to longer terms so homelessness (Tessler et al 2003). The National Center on Homelessness among Veterans with the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs in August of 2011 provided a report that explained the homeless situation for homelessness among veterans. The main issue was the age cohort from the post-Vietnam era, those who were part of the All-Volunteer Military and also provided data on women veterans which most of the initial research conducted not examine (Fargo et al. 2011). The investigated supported the theory on social selection for part of the reasoning behind the homeless issues for the age cohort from 1974 to 1984. The personal traits of those who joined the military of this time had issues with mental illness, weak family ties, and alcohol and drug problems before joining the military (Fargo et al. 2011). The research on female veterans is quite limited and not to the extent of the male research conducted. The information provided is contrary, females veterans are from the Vietnam era, they do not have the same age cohort effect that males have. But, female veterans that was examined are at greater risk of homelessness by up to four times the risks compared to other female nonveterans. The research conducted used data from Point-in-Time (PIT) survey conducted by Housing and Urban Development in 2011 along with tracking by Homeless Management Information System (HMIS) to calculate the number of homeless veterans. The sources were
  8. 8. 8 from Continuum of Care facilities which produced the Annual Homeless Assessment Report (AHAR), along with the VA creating the Vet-AHAR (Fargo et al. 2001). The overall assessment was with PIT was 75,609 homeless veterans on any given day with an overall status for the year being 136,334 homeless veterans. The information also gathered was based on sex, age, race/ethnicity and Poverty rates. The sex main demographic is ninety-two percent of homeless males, while females and married homeless veterans made up the last eight percent. Seventeen percent of males and almost three percent of females reported as veterans, where in the overall population, twenty percent of males and 1.4 percent of females are veterans (Fargo et al. 2001). This data is a reverse from earlier research that male veterans were over represented in the homeless population, which females now are being overrepresented. This information is a change from earlier research that showed males being over represented in homeless populations. The age demographics reveal that older a veterans get the higher the risks of being homeless increases. The current age with highest over representation are from fifty-one to sixty-one of age and the youngest group being from eighteen to thirty years old. The first group are from the age cohort after Vietnam and the second are from current military experiences both wartime and peacetime (Fargo et al. 2001). Race and Ethnicity did not provide any separation from general population in the main groups of White, Black and Hispanic, but Asians, Pacific-Islanders, and American Indians did
  9. 9. 9 have over representation among the homeless population compared to their general populations (Fargo et al. 2001). A new demographic used with this research was looking at the poverty rates and using them as a way to measure risks to homelessness. The data showed that veterans were underrepresented in poverty rates compared to general population. The poverty rates for veterans was 5.6 percent compared to general population at 10.9 percent. The data though is used to compare veterans in poverty to other veterans. This data is better to determine the actual risks of veterans becoming homeless (Fargo et al. 2001). By comparing poverty rates among the veterans population actual rates of being homelessness among veterans the risk of becoming homeless is 12.6 percent compared to general population at a risk of 6.5 percent. The veterans are double the risks of becoming homeless (Fargo et al. 2001). The overall results from this study provided the risks and demographics of today’s homeless situation among veterans. The most startling data shows female veterans have the highest risk of ninety-seven percent compared to men at forty-seven percent odds of being homeless (Fargo et al. 2001). Also provided was the first to participate in the AVF are still higher, but also in the general population also for the same age cohort. The demographics of veterans at risk of homelessness is also examined by Ann Montgomery and team by examining veterans that us Veterans Health Administration Homeless Program (VHA) for services (Montgomery et al. 2014). This study examines both male and female risks by those who use outpatient care over a three month period.
  10. 10. 10 The study conducted used data collected from the Homelessness Screening Clinical Reminder (HSCR) used to screen veterans for risks of homelessness accessing outpatient care (Montgomery et al. 2014). The time period covered was a total of three months of data that consisted only those actively accessing outpatient care. Those excluded included those not seen in six months, incomplete data and denial of doing survey (Montgomery et al. 2014). The demographics collected were age, race separated into three groups, marital status, and VHA enrollment priority groups, which indicates level of VA compensation and very whether the veteran is very low income (Montgomery et al. 2014). The study example consisted of 1,582,125 veterans with a further breakdown of 107,504 are females (Montgomery et al. 2014). The main information gathered is male veterans are 93.2 percent of the population using VHA, 69.9 percent are white and a third of the females were married compared to two/thirds males married (Montgomery et al. 2014). The females using VHA in which two/thirds are receiving VA compensation where only half of the men receive compensation. Also data revealed those using VHA outpatient care only 0.8 percent were homeless, and 1.1 percent were at risk of homelessness. The rest were negative of risks of homelessness (Montgomery et al. 2014). Females from the ages of forty-five to fifty-four had a higher risks of homelessness, as with those were not listed as white, but marital status was a large indicator of risk to homelessness and those not receiving VA compensation or Medicaid (Montgomery et al. 2014). Younger females were more likely to not report risk of homelessness where older females from the age of thirty-five to fifty-four did report risks, but those under age thirty-four. Even though
  11. 11. 11 the older group did report a risk, they did not show in the numbers and were at less risk than those under thirty-five years of age (Montgomery et al. 2014). Men over the age of fifty-five were less likely to report homelessness risks, where those younger than thirty-five were also less likely to report a risk of homelessness. The middle ages of thirty-five to fifty-four were more likely to report risks to homelessness. Black males were at a higher risks as with those not receiving VA compensation. Marital status as single also had higher risks than married (Montgomery et al. 2014). The risks of being homeless using VHA outpatient care shows that females older than thirty-five to fifty-four were at greater risks but also had fewer supports than younger female veterans, who listed may be living at parents’ home. When compared by race black females are also at greater risks than white females. The same can be said for black men compared to white men (Montgomery et al. 2014). Other data not collected by reviewed by researchers dealt with women issues of homelessness, which included other social factors as violence, lack of housing, child rearing as a single parent and low wage employment (Montgomery et al. 2014). Another research project by Ann Elizabeth Montgomery was the ‘Development and Validation of an Instrument to Assess Imminent Risk of Homelessness Among Veterans” (Montgomery. 2014). The sole purpose was to devise a way to assess the risks to veterans to homelessness. The study consisted of looking at three parts of the problem, first, how to identify those at risk, second, what households are at risk and third, what causes the particular issues of homelessness of those surveyed(Montgomery et al. 2014). The main focus and instrument of
  12. 12. 12 concern was based on housing instability past ninety days to next ninety days (Montgomery et al. 2014). Of the three hundred and seven nine veterans surveyed at outpatient clinics and included into their medical records, fifty four percent were listed as moderate to high risk of homelessness (Montgomery et al. 2014). The newest cohort of veterans to be examined are those who served in Iraq and Afghanistan Conflicts. Stephen Metraux and team examine the “Risk Factors for Becoming Homeless Among a Cohort of Veterans Who Served in the Era of the Iraq and Afghanistan Conflicts” (Metraux. 2013). The methods involved was a five year study of those who separated from the military during the period of July 1, 2005 to September 30 2006 (Metraux. 2013). The subjects followed who used VA services and tracked for incidences of homelessness. The demographic information collected was ages, sex, race/ethnicity, type of discharge, military branch. Also collected was physical impairment along with mental issues fromserving in either operations in Iraq or Afghanistan. What was found is those who are the lowest paygrades (E-1 to E-4) and also the group with higher ratings for TBI and post-traumatic stress disorder (Metraux. 2013). The male population being in the highest risks due to being in both conflict operations, but other information from the tables is most of the individuals at the highest risks also served in the Army. The Air Force had lower rates as with the Navy, but those who served in active combat zones had a greater chance of developing both psychotic disorders and substance abuse issues (Metraux. 2013).
  13. 13. 13 Females had higher risk of becoming homeless from psychotic disorders but less for substance abuse disorders than men (Metraux. 2013). The risks is also high for those discharged early with either Other than Honorable discharges to Bad Conduct Disorders (Metraux. 2013). The study was only using data available at the time from the VA health services and not all individuals that were discharged at this time use VA services and those who are discharged early with Dishonorable discharges and higher are not available for services from the VA. But, with the data and demographics we can conclude that those who are the youngest, lowest pay grade and served in the Army are the greatest risk of homelessness, but anyone that served in either area of operations do have a risk (Metraux. 2013). Research Plan and Methodology Method The methodological approach used in this research is direct interviews with veterans both homeless currently and those who were homeless in the past year. Both male and females will be asked to be interviewed. The questions of the interviews will be looking for similarities from their lives previous to joining the military, reasons for joining the military. The questions during their military experiences will include drug and alcohol use and reasons for leaving the military whether voluntary to involuntary discharge (Appendix A). Each participant identity will be kept confidential and only demographic information will be taken as identifiers such as age, sex, race/ethnicity and branch of service. Other data will be collected will be drug use before, during and after military service, along with alcohol use.
  14. 14. 14 Physical and mental diagnosis will also be used due to these have shown a factor in veteran homelessness. The role used during research is observer/participant due to the interaction from previous exposure to the veterans at Jackson Street Commons in which I worked to gain their trust and understanding that I am only there to help and understand their issues. Permission has been given by the staff of Jackson Street Commons and from Coordinated Assisted Ministries to conduct interviews and complete questionnaires to gain better insight on the homeless issues. The only issue of concern I had for conducting the research interviews was participation from enough individuals and especially those of the right cohort that is of interest. Presentation of Observations Observations made while performing research are as such eighty-seven percent of respondents are male, and eighty percent are white males which is consistent with other studies that have presented demographic information, as with females due to only one respondent I cannot make the same comparison. The age ranges were from forty-one to sixty- seven years of age, ranging from Vietnam service to just prior to the post-Gulf War I (Table 1). The most relevant observation from interviews are those that leave the military before their commitment is over, are at higher risks than those who do not. Also alcohol and drug use before military service and family ties did play a factor in those choosing military life, and in once instance the individual chose military over becoming a statistic of his friends that all ended
  15. 15. 15 up in prison or dead. Even though two respondents were discharged with an Honorable discharge it was still before their commitment was over. Mental health in several respondents does constitute issues that have led to their periods of homelessness. Alcohol abuse mainly being the main issue, but other mental health issues included were anxiety, PTSD, and bipolar disorder with schizophrenia. Drug use also for six respondents post military service, and four during military service also may have played a part in the situation of becoming homeless also (Table 2). Social selection for joining the military and during and after military service do make a difference but also those who choose military service are at risk because of lower family ties, but mainly due to mental disorders that include alcohol abuse need to focused on. Other observations of social selection is how the residents of Jackson Street Commons associate themselves with others of the facilities. The age cohort from the ending of Vietnam to early 80’s group themselves, older African Americans group themselves and the younger veterans from first Gulf War to present keep to their rooms. Those who have refrained from drinking do not associate with the drinkers. Interpretations and Conclusions The issues with homeless veterans is very complex and ultimately comes down to personal choices from what they do as teens and high school, why and what they want from the military upon enlistment, to their choices and decisions after they leave the military.
  16. 16. 16 Society also plays a role in how veterans and homeless veterans are perceived. When society supports the military service members during their time in service and after then the support network is there to keep the veterans from being homeless, but those from dysfunctional families also play a role for the reasons people join the military (Lutz. 2008). Blacks and Hispanics seemto have better support along with reasons to join the military to change their socioeconomic situation. White males seem to be from lower socioeconomic situations but take their habits with them into the military to just do something with no real goal (Bachman. 2000) The government is trying to eliminate veteran homelessness. They have lowered the number of homeless veterans on the streets, there are still those who are homeless due to poor decisions, lack of VA assistance due to their service discharge classification or prison incarceration.
  17. 17. 17 References Bachman, Jerald G., Segal, David R., Freedman-Doan, Peter., and O’Malley, Patrick M. (2000). “Who Chooses Military Service? Correlates of Propensity and Enlistment in the U.S. Armed Forces”. Military Psychology. 12(1):1-30 Gamache, G., Rosenheck, R., and Tessler, R. 2001. “The Proportion of Veterans among Homeless Men: A Decade Later”. Social Psychiatric Epidemiol. (36):481-485 Lutz, Amy. (2008). “Who Joins the Military? A Look At Race, Class, and Immigration Status” Journal of Political and Military Sociology. (36) Winter: 167-188 Metraux, Stephen., Clegg, Limin., Daigh, John D., Culhane, Dennis P., and Kane, Vincent. 2013. “Risk Factors for Becoming Homeless among Cohort of Veterans Who Served in the Era of the Iraq and Afghanistan Conflicts”. American Journal of Public Health. 103 (Supp 2): S255-S261 Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth, PhD., Dichter, Melissa E, PhD, MSW., Thomasson, Arwin M. PhD., Fu, Xiaoying, MS., Roberts, Christopher B. MPH. (2015). “Demographic Characteristics Associated with Homelessness and Risk Among Female and Male Veterans Accessing VHA Outpatient Care”. Women’s Health Issues. (25-1):42-48 Rosenheck, Robert., Frisman, Linda,. and Chung, An-Me. (1994) “The Proportion of Veterans among Homeless Men”. American Journal of Public Health. (84) March, 3:466-469
  18. 18. 18 Tessler, Richard., Rosenheck, Robert., and Gamache, Gail. (2003). “Homeless Veterans of the All-Volunteer Force: A Social Selection Perspective”. Armed Forces & Society. Summer.29 (4): 509-524
  19. 19. 19 Appendix A Concept Map
  20. 20. 20 Appendix B Veteran Questionnaire Age____________ Sex_____________ Military Service____________________ Married/Single/Divorce Drafted/Enlisted Discharge Type____________________ Ethnicity_____________________ Type of Duty/MOS______________________ Prior Military Before you joined the military, were you involved in any behavior that may have been considered criminal from minor misdemeanors or higher? Did you graduate high school or get a General Education Diploma? What was your family life at the time of your enlistment, such as your parents married or divorce? Before your enlistment, did you partake in the use of alcohol or illegal drugs? Why did you join the military? Were you given the option at the time by a Judge to join the military or serve time in jail? Military While serving in the military did, you have problems during service?
  21. 21. 21 Did you partake in the use of illegal drugs while in the military? What was the alcohol use environment while you were in the military? What was the reasons for ending your enlistment in the military? Post Military After leaving the military, were you able to find employment? What was the problems you encountered upon leaving the military? What was main factor that effected your life to bring you to the position of homelessness or by the definition of being homeless? How long would you consider that you were homeless? Compared to last year how has your life changed to make changes in your life?
  22. 22. 22 Appendix C Codebook Notes Output Created 27-APR-2015 12:09:34 Comments Input Data ClientJ$Senior SeminarVeterans.sav Active Dataset DataSet1 Filter <none> Weight <none> Split File <none> N of Rows in Working Data File 8 Syntax CODEBOOK Age [s] Sex [n] Race [n] Branch [n] Discharge [n]Talcohol [n] Tdrug [n] Mdrug [n] Palcohol [n] Pdrug [n] Mental [n] /VARINFO POSITION /OPTIONS VARORDER=VARLIST SORT=ASCENDING MAXCATS=200 /STATISTICS COUNT PERCENTMEAN STDDEV. Resources Processor Time 00:00:00.02 Elapsed Time 00:00:00.10 Age Value Standard Attributes Position 1 N Valid 8 Missing 0 Central Tendency and Dispersion Mean 53.00 Standard Deviation 9.986
  23. 23. 23 Sex Value Count Percent Standard Attributes Position 2 Valid Values 1 Male 7 87.5% 2 Female 1 12.5% Race Value Count Percent Standard Attributes Position 3 Valid Values 1 White 7 87.5% 2 Black 1 12.5% 3 Hispanic 0 0.0% 4 Other 0 0.0% Branch Value Count Percent Standard Attributes Position 4 Valid Values 1 Air Force 0 0.0% 2 Army 4 50.0% 3 Marine Corps 1 12.5% 4 Navy 2 25.0% 5 Reserves/National Guard 1 12.5%
  24. 24. 24 Discharge Value Count Percent Standard Attributes Position 5 Valid Values 1 Honorable 4 50.0% 2 Honorable (Medical) 3 37.5% 3 Other Than Honorable 0 0.0% 4 UnHonorable 1 12.5% 5 Bad Conduct Discharge 0 0.0% Talcohol Value Count Percent Standard Attributes Position 6 Valid Values 1 No 1 12.5% 2 Yes 7 87.5% Tdrug Value Count Percent Standard Attributes Position 7 Valid Values 1 No 4 50.0% 2 Yes 4 50.0% Mdrug Value Count Percent Standard Attributes Position 8 Valid Values 1 No 5 62.5% 2 yes 3 37.5%
  25. 25. 25 Palcohol Value Count Percent Standard Attributes Position 9 Valid Values 1 No 3 37.5% 2 Yes 5 62.5% Pdrug Value Count Percent Standard Attributes Position 10 Valid Values 1 No 2 25.0% 2 Yes 6 75.0% Mental Value Count Percent Standard Attributes Position 11 Valid Values 1 Alcohol Dependence 0 0.0% 2 Drug Dependence 0 0.0% 3 Mental Illness 1 12.5% 4 Multiple Issues 5 62.5% 5 None 2 25.0%
  26. 26. 26 Tables Table 1 Table 2 The multiple issues included alcohol dependence, drug dependence and mental illness. The individuals that reported multiple issues had a combination of two or more of the issues listed. Mental Health Issues Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Mental Illness 1 12.5 12.5 12.5 Multiple Issues 5 62.5 62.5 75 None 2 25 25 100 Total 8 100 100
  27. 27. 27 Table 3 Table 4 Military Drug FrequencyPercent Valid PercentCumulative Percent Valid No 5 62.5 62.5 62.5 yes 3 37.5 37.5 100 Total 8 100 100 Discharge Type Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Honorable 4 50 50 50 Honorable (Medical) 3 37.5 37.5 87.5 Unhonorable 1 12.5 12.5 100 Total 8 100 100

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