Verbalizing the unverbalizable: Exploring tacit human cognition.

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  • Disclaimer - I get really excited about my research and talk too fast. Please ask me to slow down or re-explain anything
  • I ’m starting big picture. One of the best big picture people in science is Albert Einstein.
  • I ’m starting big picture. One of the best big picture people in science is Albert Einstein.
  • Declarative vs. nondeclarative memory/cognition It is a definition the negative. I ’m a positive guy. I want to reframe the question in the positive.
  • Continuing being inspired by dead white guys. 1958 “Personal Knowledge: Towards a Post-critical Philosophy” critique of positivist conception of scientific knowledge knowledge are not represented as system of statements some knowledge embodied in the knower (or in the cognitive system) pre-logical phase of knowing as 'tacit knowledge'. Tacit knowledge comprises a range of conceptual and sensory information and images that can be brought to bear in an attempt to make sense of something (see Hodgkin 1991). “ knowing what” vs. “knowing how” Many bits of tacit knowledge can be brought together to help form a new model or theory.
  • I ’m psychologist and philosopher. I am more interested in facts and experiments. That reminds of an old joke. Maybe it is so old, it is new again: “Search committee was hiring one position. It was a small school and they narrowed down between a theoretical psychologist and philosopher. The theoretical psychologist said I don’t need much just a small office, with standard stuff, I.e. desk, bookshelf, white board, and waste basket. The philosophy candidate replied I doesn’t need the waste basket.” I ’m interested in the process and actions. Difference with a distinction I ’m still developing this concept. But it is start and proposing a direction. I’m studying what something is. Not what something is not. The current study only addresses cognition not learning. Tacit learning is acquiring tacit knowledge. I might cover my research in that if we have time.
  • Right tools improper tasks proper tasks Most Tasks can be accomplished with a aariety of strategies Pick a task that is best/only solved with a tacit strategy Right methods improper methods proper methods certain bevharioral fMRI TMS
  • Right tools improper tasks proper tasks Most Tasks can be accomplished with a aariety of strategies Pick a task that is best/only solved with a tacit strategy Right methods improper methods proper methods certain bevharioral fMRI TMS
  • Right tools Intro Tacit explicit unless you ’re a musical theoris or a critic Universal but particular Learned via environment exposure Steal from ted talk about music cognition
  • Right methods improper methods proper methods certain behavioral fMRI TMS no need for a response My personal tacit about exploring tacit knowledge humans are rule making machines if you ask them to do a task then will make up a verbal explicit story about why?
  • Now that I told why. I ’m going to tell what and how Current Study 15 Musical pieces Classic, Bach, Based on European lullabies Each with 4 different endings Standard Deceptive Modulation Atonal
  • I ’m not going to dance about architecture or talk about music
  • Music>silence baseline superior XXXXXXX
  • All endings > Music baseline ignore motor activation task related more anateor
  • standard ending > Music baseline subcortical (The nature of tacit cognition would predict subcortical activity)
  • Apoiri Anatomical ROIs We defined a linear parametric analysis
  • betas
  • Betas Wild conjunction Cortical can still process atonal music cognitive stratery Subcortical doesn ’t learned patterns in the envirnoment it doesn ’t fit with patterns
  • What does this study tells us about tacit cognition? right tool manipulate it a verbalizable strategy makes the task difficult/impossible/ right tool we are able to look at the regions associated with the task that is first step
  • More analysis Follow-up experiment tacit - nonmusicans nontacit - musicans Develop a computational model brain basis a corpus of research about neuro signitures
  • Some tasks can be accomplish via multiple strategies e.g. Weather prediction Inherit limiter and turned into the focus of the next series of the experiments (Switching may be also form of tacit cognition)
  • Fundamental cognition universal but particular Definitions making groups Many to one, reduction
  • My personal numbers
  • basketball
  • Surfing Learning to connect perception with action lots of waves (in fact, every one is different) you have put them into the category of surfable or not
  • fMRI No single study has looked put it all together Research Questions? #1 each one separately Each of the task is best accomplished using a different strategy that relies on a different brain system #2 switching between
  • Boring What they lack in style they make up for in substance 2 orthogonal perception separate dimensions
  • Disc stimuli
  • Disc stimuli
  • Disc stimuli
  • More subjects more power for switching trials More analysis switching feedback jitter trick
  • Tacit cognition Music Categorization comparing tacit to nontacit
  • Verbalizing the unverbalizable: Exploring tacit human cognition.

    1. 1. Verbalizing the Unverbalizable: Exploring Tacit Human Cognition Brian Spiering Laboratory for Cognitive Neuroscience
    2. 2. “The formulation of a problem is often more essential than its solution which may be merely a matter of mathematical or experimental skill.” Albert Einstein
    3. 3. What Is Tacit Human Cognition?
    4. 4. Preview My Definition of Tacit Human Cognition My Current Research Future Directions Q & A
    5. 5. The fractionation of long-term memory proposed by Squire (1988)
    6. 6. “We can know more than we can tell.” Michael Polanyi
    7. 7. Tacit Knowledge
    8. 8. Tacit Knowledge _______________ Tacit Cognition
    9. 9. Tacit cognition is the process of applying tacit knowledge
    10. 10. How do you study tacit cognition? Appropriate Tools
    11. 11. How do you study tacit cognition? Appropriate Methods
    12. 12. How do you study tacit cognition? Music
    13. 13. How do you study tacit cognition? fMRI
    14. 14. My Current Study Music cognition in the fMRI scanner Expectancy violation in cadence perception Standard Ending Deceptive Ending Modulation Ending Atonal Ending
    15. 15. Standard
    16. 16. Deceptive
    17. 17. Modulation
    18. 18. Atonal
    19. 19. Music > Silence Baseline
    20. 20. All Endings > Music Baseline
    21. 21. Standard Ending > Music Baseline
    22. 22. Anatomical ROIs Defined a linear parametric analysis
    23. 23. What does this study tell us about tacit cognition?
    24. 24. What is next? More analysis Follow-up experiment Develop a computational model
    25. 25. Interaction Between Tacit & Nontacit Cognition
    26. 26. Categorization
    27. 27. Unstructured
    28. 28. Rule-based
    29. 29. Information-integration
    30. 30. My Current Study Categorization in the fMRI scanner Switching between systems Unstructured Rule-based Information
    31. 31. Stimulus
    32. 32. Unstructured
    33. 33. Rule-based
    34. 34. Information-integration
    35. 35. Training
    36. 36. Training
    37. 37. Transfer
    38. 38. Transfer
    39. 39. Transfer
    40. 40. Transfer
    41. 41. Transfer
    42. 42. Behavioral Results
    43. 43. US > Baseline
    44. 44. RB > Baseline
    45. 45. II > Baseline
    46. 46. Switching Results
    47. 47. What is next? More subjects More analysis
    48. 48. Summary Tacit cognition Music Categorization
    49. 49. Acknowledgements Carol Seger Graduate Students Kurt, Dan, & Erik Undergraduate Students Ana, Alex, Sarah, & Cattie Support NIH Grant R01MH079182
    50. 50. “Problems cannot be solved at the same level of awareness that created them.” Albert Einstein
    51. 51. Questions?

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