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Ohio Pollinators Presentation at LIA Meeting May 2016

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Ohio Pollinators Presentation at LIA Meeting May 2016

  1. 1. Creating and Improving Pollinator Habitat in the State of Ohio
  2. 2. Problem  Nectar sources and their dependent species are in decline.  native bees  butterflies  Need Spring, Summer, Fall Blooms.  The Monarch host plant, is lacking on the landscape.
  3. 3. Purpose  Create and improve pollinator habitat across the State of Ohio.  Increase and improve pollinator conservation awareness for all Ohioans.
  4. 4. Past Year  Monarch Listing Petition  White House Strategy Directive  FWS/USGS Monarch Map  New Highway Bill
  5. 5. Monarchs  Need Nectar plants blooming July – Sept.  Need Host Plant – Milkweed sp.  Undisturbed Milkweed in Aug.  Connectivity – We need gas stations that are closer than five hundred miles apart. How far can YOU go on a tank of gas?
  6. 6. Monarch Life Cycle Photo sources: Michelle Solensky, Denny Brooks, Mary Holland, Dave Astin, Wendy Caldwell
  7. 7. 7 Instar: Period between larval molts. Monarchs have 5 instars. Egg First Instar Fifth Instar Karen Oberhauser
  8. 8. 8 Larva in the ‘J’ Stage New Monarch Pupa Mary Holland
  9. 9. 9 Monarch ready to eclose A new adult monarch! ARKive Video Mary Holland
  10. 10. Monarch Life Cycle and Migration Monarch Lab, Journey North
  11. 11. Monarch Life Cycle and Migration Monarch Lab, Journey North
  12. 12. Monarchs  No one wants to see the Monarch listed.  Landscape Level Effort  Create and protect enough habitat to prevent listing.  If everyone does all they can, the effort to increase Monarchs will be successful.
  13. 13. Monarch and Pollinator Habitat Helps Other Wildlife Too!!
  14. 14. OPHI - One Year Old  ODOT – Pheasants & Quail Forever Projects  AEP Projects  USDA - NRCS  Statewide Network of Partners  Pilot Seed Program – 1.5 billion new stems needed nationwide!  Monarch Joint Venture Partners!!
  15. 15. • Honey Bees: Reduce honey bee colony losses during winter (overwintering mortality) to no more than 15% within 10 years. • Monarch Butterflies: Increase the Eastern population of the monarch butterfly to 225 milllion butterflies occupying an area of approximately 15 acres (6 hectares) in the overwintering grounds in Mexico, through domestic/international actions and public-private partnerships, by 2020. • Pollinator Habitat Acreage: Restore or enhance 7 million acres of land for pollinators over the next 5 years through Federal actions and public/private partnerships. NATIONAL STRATEGY TO PROMOTE THE HEALTH OF HONEY BEES AND OTHER POLLINATORS  Pollinator Health Task Force
  16. 16. Federal Highway Bill  Decreased Mowing Strategies  Supportive of pollinator habitat via ROWS and other strategic areas  Realize the importance of Milkweed “Monarch Flower”
  17. 17. ODOT - Federal Highway Bill
  18. 18. ODOT Projects – Auglaize Co.
  19. 19. Transmission Line Examples  New Albany Study Plots  Currently underway and will include:  Several plots representing beneficial vegetation for pollinators, song birds, game birds and wildlife and opportunities for public outreach and education.  Dawes Arboretum Transmission line  Licking County – US Rt. 36 Approx. 1/3 acre of native grass/forbs and beneficial vegetation for pollinators.  Pleasant Valley Wildlife Area  In planning phase:  Essential pollinator nectar, host plant and stop-over/nesting native grasses. Also will include introduction to alternative maintenance techniques geared toward pollinator health and longevity.
  20. 20. USDA Efforts  Farm Service Agency (FSA)  Natural Resources Conservation Services (NRCS)  NRCS - EQIP Bee Initiative – This past year, occurred in 24 Ohio counties… potential for Statewide 2016?  FSA CRP Pollinator Practice – CP42 1,300 acres in Ohio currently (room for more)  FSA CRP Monarch Safe Proposal in Approval Process  FSA CRP Mid-Contract Mgmt. – cost share incentives for landowners to create pollinator blocks or strips  NRCS 10 State Monarch Pilot Program
  21. 21. • Core committee established a milkweed seed banking program collecting common and swamp milkweed across central Ohio. • Collected seed has been separated from the silk, dried and is being properly stored to ensure germination. Seed will be tested by universities for viable germination. • The seeds will then be potted in late winter in time to ensure proper growth by time of distribution. • The established milkweed plugs will be distributed to OPHI recommended projects within the areas of the state where the initial pod collection took place and other strategic sites throughout the state in 2016. • The pilot project in central Ohio will allow for refinement of this project before it is initiated statewide. Milkweed Pod Pilot Project
  22. 22. All Hands On Deck  Urban  Suburban  Rural All you can – Where you can!
  23. 23. Opportunity Areas • CRP, WRP • Roads, Railroads, ROW’s • Schools, churches, businesses • Parks, golf courses, cemeteries • Prisons airports, fairgrounds • Backyards • More!
  24. 24. Partnerships OPHI is seeking partners to achieve the goals of creating pollinator & Monarch habitat and educate Ohioans on the importance of pollinators.
  25. 25. $2,000 from Darke County Pheasants Forever for Pollinator Public Relations efforts.  4 billboards throughout Summer  News Releases and PSAs  Pollinator Workshop in Shelby County
  26. 26. We’d like to thank our primary partners in this initiative: Thank You!

Editor's Notes

  • Monarchs go through what is called metamorphosis. From egg to adult, there are many changes that take place throughout the life cycle of a butterfly. They have specific habitat requirements in each stage.

    It takes about a month for an egg to grow and change into an adult butterfly.
  • There are 5 caterpillars here. Does anyone know what an “instar” is?

    An instar is the period between larval molts. Monarchs have 5 instars. Each instar lasts about 2-3 days.

    Each new instar grows and expands until the outer skin splits, the head capsule falls off, and the new larva is able to crawl out of its skin. Monarch larvae are eating machines, growing to 2000 times their original mass.
  • When a monarch larvae is ready to form a chrysalis it crawls several meters away from the plant it was eating to find a sheltered area. It then spins a silk button with the spinneret located beneath its mandibles (jaws). Once the button is spun, it turns back around and hangs upside down from it’s abdomen for 12-18 hours.

    When ready, the monarch larvae molts, one last time, skin splitting at the back of the head/neck area. Once this starts, it only takes about 30 seconds for molt to finish. The shiny green pupa below is still soft. Within 30 minutes the pupa will reshape itself into what most people recognize as a monarch pupa. The casing will completely harden within the next 24 hours.
  • 10 to 14 days after pupation, the pigmentation of the adult butterfly begins to show through the transparent casing of the pupa. Pigment is the last thing to form before a monarch is ready to eclose (emerge) from the pupa casing.

    It is a myth that butterflies and moths turn to soup inside the pupa – if you look carefully, even a newly formed chrysalis will show wing veins beneath the surface.

    It takes about 30-60 seconds for a monarch to open up the casing and make it’s way out. Its wings look small and deformed at first, but the monarch will soon pump its abdomen, releasing liquid into the wings to make them expand to their full size. The adult will hang upside down for 4-5 hours after it emerges to let its wings dry and harden into their shape. The adult is still very fragile for the first 24-48 hours after eclosion, but they can fly as soon as their wings harden. This link is a video of a monarch eclosing.
  • Monarchs spend November to Mid- March in Central Mexico (or southern California, though they leave mid-February in CA). When the sun begins to get stronger and the days grow longer, the monarchs that have survived the winter begin to leave, mating along the way north. This graphic shows the stages of their journey North.

    Monarchs follow the milkweed, laying eggs along the way. These eggs take about 4 weeks to turn into adults and they will continue the migration north, as conditions in the southern parts of the US become too hot and dry for monarchs (and milkweed) to tolerate. Most of the monarchs end up in the corn belt of the Midwestern states. These monarchs will go through another 2-4 generations over the summer growing season. That last generation is the next migratory generation that will make the journey to Mexico.

    These monarchs have NEVER been to Mexico before, and yet they find the same forested peaks year after year!
  • Monarchs have your typical butterfly life cycle (metamorphosis), but they have something else: Migration!

    The monarch migration is one of the largest animal migrations in the world. Monarchs fly from the northern US and southern Canada all the way to central Mexico every fall: up to 3,000 miles! The population west of the Rocky Mountains migrates to the coast of California, which is not as far, but no less spectacular.

    As you can see in this graphic, migration begins in September and monarchs have usually reached the overwintering sites by November 1st (Dia de los Muertos – The Day of the Dead – in Mexico).

    Monarchs that migrate are part of the super generation – they will live 7-9 months, migrating to the overwintering site, living through the winter, and then migrating part of the way north again in the spring.