LenCD learning package on capacity development


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Current thinking is that capacity development is central to the aid effectiveness agenda. However, many people, especially at country and sector level, are struggling to understand what this means for them within the changing paradigm articulated in the Paris Declaration and Accra Agenda for Action. This package is intended to respond to the need for practical learning opportunities about capacity development: a freely available virtual resource, designed to help country and sector level practitioners expand their knowledge and skills for facilitating sustainable capacity development.

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LenCD learning package on capacity development

  1. 1. Learning Package on Capacity Development A joint LenCD – Train4Dev initiative
  2. 2. Information about the package
  3. 3. LenCDThe Learning Network on Capacity Development www.lencd.orgAim: to promote and facilitate sharing of lessons and learningon CD and promote changes for better practice at the global,regional and local levelsAn informal and open network of individuals and organisationssharing a common interest in improving CD practiceMany agencies involved in different ways, UNDP holds as aproject for management of funds www.LenCD.org & www.train4dev.net
  4. 4. Train4DevThe Joint Donors Competence Development Network (Train4Dev)www.train4dev.netObjective: to promote improved aid effectiveness for poverty reduction throughenhanced donor co-operation in the field of competence development andtrainingAn open forum for donor agencies and multilateral organizations. Participatingrepresentatives are senior officials from training departments, technicaldepartments or policy departmentsOperates by means of an annual meeting and Expert Groups working on prioritythemes or areas identified and endorsed by the annual meeting – e.g. publicfinancial management, CD www.LenCD.org & www.train4dev.net
  5. 5. Rationale for the Learning Package Many, especially at A freely available country and sector virtual level, are struggling The package is resource, designed Current thinking is to understand what intended to to help countrythat CD is central to this means for respond to the and sector level the aid them within the need for practical practitioners effectiveness changing paradigm learning expand theiragenda. However… articulated in the opportunities knowledge and Paris Declaration about CD skills for and Accra Agenda facilitating for Action sustainable CD www.LenCD.org & www.train4dev.net
  6. 6. Collaborative co-creationWorkshop at the LenCD General Assembly in Kigali in FebruaryPackage outline on the LenCD website (end March)Detailed working draft (end May)Workshop to review content and progress at Train4Dev annual meeting (1June)First phase content ready for field testing (end June)Piloting use in Nairobi, Phnom Penh and Bad Honnef (August and September)Revisions and review of first phase achievements (October)Joint Learning Journey started by GIZ in Bad Honnef (November to May) www.LenCD.org & www.train4dev.net
  7. 7. Links to and builds on …• Training and Beyond: Seeking better practices for capacity development Which documents the changing paradigm in CD and what is emerging as a consensus about good practice Jenny Pearson (2011) OEDC Development Co-operation Working Papers, No. 1, OECD Publishing http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/development/training-and-beyond-seeking-bette r-practices-for-capacity-development_5kgf1nsnj8tf-en;jsessionid=4ld21rkgpd5 gq.delta www.LenCD.org & www.train4dev.net
  8. 8. The limits of training and learning Results based management At the simpler/lower levels of systems and their capacity needs RBM approaches can be helpful. The relevance and usefulness of RBM decreases as the complexity of the system increases. Complexity www.LenCD.org & www.train4dev.net
  9. 9. Learning Package overview/sitemap Core concept The importance of context Capacity development How to … pages Trainer/facilitator’s guide www.LenCD.org & www.train4dev.net
  11. 11. Core concept section Synthesis and overview: levels, types of capacity and themes for application Capacity: definitions and discussion CD: definitions and discussion including • Where has it come from? • The relevance of culture and context Towards a shared understanding • Main current challenges: clarification of roles and responsibilities; results; supply vs. demand driven processes; and, starting with existing capacities www.LenCD.org & www.train4dev.net
  12. 12. - Core concept: Levels Levels are defined in various ways, including the following:Individual Organisational Sectoral Institutional* Global • This is the only • Some • Many • This is the • Currently level that is agencies, e.g. agencies, e.g. level of agencies common to all UNDP, call this the Swiss laws, policies concerned the different the Agency for and systems with climate definitions of institutional Development • This level change levels. level and exists consider it • Competencies, • Some include Cooperation sub-nationally essential to skills, linkages, (SDC) have , nationally, re work at global knowledge and networks, this level gionally and level because the abilities to partnerships • Some include globally of the complex use them, and sectors at linkages, • This is often inter- attitudes, values this level networks and called the connection of and culture can partnerships enabling many all be at this level environment environmental considered factors at the elements of an global level individual’s overall capacity. * Institutional means the legal, policy and environmental context. This is sometimes also referred to as the enabling environment. www.LenCD.org & www.train4dev.net
  13. 13. - Core concept: TypesTechnical – hard – tangible Systems and procedures: management, Laws, policies and strategies (enabling planning, finance, human resources, M&E, The ability to mobilise resources conditions) PCM, etc. Technical skills, explicit knowledge and Organisational structures methodologies (also called competencies at the individual level)Note: tangible resources like money, buildings, equipment and documentation can beconsidered as the material expression or product of capacity, but they are notcapacity in and of themselves. www.LenCD.org & www.train4dev.net
  14. 14. Social - soft - intangible Ability to analyse and Ability and willingness toadapt. Change readiness learn and self-reflect. Tacit Leadershipand change management knowledge and experience Relational skills: Confidence, empowerment negotiation, teamwork, Political relationships and , participation and conflict resolution, functioning legitimacy to act facilitation, etc. Intercultural Organisational culture and communication values www.LenCD.org & www.train4dev.net
  15. 15. - Core concept: Themes for application Examples of themes for application according to need are: • Human capacity; human resource development; leadership • Fragile states (this is also considered to be a context) Examples of themes as drivers of change are: • Democratic governance; accountability and transparency; citizen participation; ownership • Institutional arrangements; systems and procedures; incentive structures; managing for capacity development results; organisational structures and interrelationships • Knowledge and knowledge management www.LenCD.org & www.train4dev.net
  16. 16. Examples of themes used to create CD frameworks Ethiopian Civil Service Reform Programme: • human capacity • systems and procedures • organisational structures and interrelationships Rwandan Public Sector Capacity Building Secretariat: • capacity creation • capacity utilization • capacity retention • each of which is applied at individual, organisational and institutional levels www.LenCD.org & www.train4dev.net
  17. 17. UNDP:• accountability• institutional arrangements• knowledge• leadershipNEPAD Capacity Development Strategic Framework:• leadership transformation• citizen transformation• knowledge and evidence based innovation• utilizing African potential, skills and resources• developing capacity of capacity developers• integrated planning and implementation for results www.LenCD.org & www.train4dev.net
  19. 19. Definitions of capacity The availability of That emergent resources and theCapacity is the ability of combination of individual efficiency andpeople, organisations and competencies, collective effectiveness with whichsociety as a whole to capabilities, assets and societies deploy thesemanage their affairs relationships that enables resources to identify andsuccessfully. OECD a human system to create pursue their development value. ECDPM goals on a sustainable basis. WBI
  20. 20. Capacity or “the ability to get things done” goes beyond formal qualifications and technical skills development to include the cultivation ofThe ability [of an organization] intangible or “soft” attributesto function as a resilient, such as the ability to drivestrategic and autonomous change and to build processes,entity. CDRA (NGO) organizations, and institutions which can deliver public services over the long term. President Paul Kagame of Rwanda:
  22. 22. - CD sectionDefinitionsWhere has it come from?• The origins of capacity development• The Paris Declaration and Accra Agenda for ActionThe relevance of culture and contextReflection questionsReferences for further reading www.LenCD.org & www.train4dev.net
  23. 23. Definitions of capacity and capacity developmentMany of the leading aid and development institutes have come to their own definition of capacity and capacity developmentHowever, the OECD definitions have been adopted by manyother agencies, for example EuropaAid, GIZ and ADB• Capacity is the ability of people, organisations and society as a whole to manage their affairs successfully.• Capacity development is the processes whereby people, organisations and society as a whole unleash, strengthen, create, adapt and maintain capacity over time.
  24. 24. Other definitions of capacity development WBI: A locally driven process of learning CIDA: The activities, approaches, by leaders, coalitions and other agents strategies, and methodologies which of change that brings about changes in help organizations, groups and sociopolitical, policy-related, and individuals to improve their organizational factors to enhance local performance, generate development ownership for and the effectiveness and benefits and achieve their objectives. efficiency of efforts to achieve a development goal. USAID: Approaches, strategies, or methodologies used by USAID and its ECDPM: The process of enhancing, stakeholders to change, transform, and improving and unleashing capacity; it is improve performance at the a form of change which focuses on individual, organizational, sector, or improvements. broader system level.
  25. 25. Where has it come from?• Capacity development builds on several previous approaches to aid and development. These are the building blocks of the current paradigm. PRACTICES STARTED ASSUMPTIONSInstitution building: to create the institutions needed to Developingmanage the flow of aid 1950s and 60s countries need moneyInstitutional strengthening/development: Shift fromestablishing to strengthening institutions 1960s and 70sDevelopment management/administration: Systems of public Developingprograms and capacity of government to reach target groups 1970s countries should justHuman resource development: Shift to thinking that modeldevelopment is about people with focus on education, health 1970s, 80s themselvesand population. after theNew institutionalism: Focus on shaping national economic developedbehaviour. Set the scene for the emergence of the ones 1980s, 90s‘governance’ focus that is now prominent
  26. 26. Capacity development has been emerging as a central approach withindevelopment for more than two decades, alongside continuing emphasison aid, technical cooperation and technical assistance.The result is a development paradigm that is very complex, with manydifferent – sometimes conflicting – components, agenda and priorities.The Accra Agenda for Action clearly set out the need for nationalownership and leadership together with increasing emphasis onapproaches such as South-South capacity development cooperation.The new approach is still emerging because it takes time to changeattitudes and behaviour, and for new practices and experience to informpolicy, practice and theory.
  27. 27. The relevance of culture and contextIn general terms acountry’s culture is Culture can be very influential in terms of thethe beliefs, norms achievement of development goals.and practices of itssociety, includingreligious andtraditional beliefs, An example is the belief in some cultures that it is moreand they vary a greatdeal from one important to educate boys than girls.country to another.Context describesthe combination of Context changes constantly, for example through thefactors in a place or election of a new political party, new legislation, or thesituation at any giventime including: loss of important trade with a neighbouring country.political andinstitutional Sometimes the context can change very quickly, as insystems, regionalrelationships, econo several Asian countries in a matter of hours following themic and physical tsunami of 26th December 2004.factors.
  28. 28. Culture and context define therelevance and limits of any type ofcapacity development intervention.Both are significant for scale up andtransfer of good practice.
  29. 29. Approaches to CD Growing recognition that CD calls for multiple approaches, depending on type of need For soft skills • Coaching and mentoringFor technical knowledge and • Communication techniquesskills • Experiential learning• Academic study programmes • Exposure to good practice• Blended learning • Leadership development• Didactic or participatory training• Distance learning For organisation and system• E-learning level needs • Knowledge management • Organisational strengthening • Partnerships and networks www.LenCD.org & www.train4dev.net
  31. 31. Why is agreement needed?The challenges now are how to operationalise what is known to be goodpractice in order to achieve sustainable capacity and development results.There is a big need for a shared language and understanding, underpinnedby some shared principles and values, of what capacity development is, whyit is needed, and how to approach it.The point is not to try to make everyone think and work in exactly the sameway: it is about having everyone operate within the same general frameworkso that we can be more effective in finding solutions relevant to each cultureand context.
  32. 32. What is agreement needed about?Capacity development as a locally driven processStart from and build on existing capacitiesShift from supply to demand driven initiativesDefining and measuring results
  33. 33. Capacity development as a locally driven processLocal ownership is a prerequisite for sustainable capacitydevelopment.Donors are external actors, with a role to support the process ofachieving local defined objectives and tasks.Ownership implies true and realistic commitment from thepartner countries as well as flexibility from the donor’s side tofollow local leadership.More transparency is needed for joint accountability toachieving capacity development results.
  34. 34. Start from and build on existing capacitiesThis is about the recognition of existing capacities and how touse them as the basis for moving forward.The shift to starting with an appreciation of what already existsand how to build on endogenous processes is not yet complete– too often the focus is on the ‘gap’ which can be a verynegative starting point for action.All actors can do a lot to make this shift by changing the waythey approach capacity assessments and the formulation ofcapacity goals and assessments before designing interventions.
  35. 35. Shift from supply to demand driven initiativesThe Accra Agenda for Action recognised that the ownership andcommitment of the partner countries is a prerequisite forsustainable capacity development.This means that local actors need to learn how best to definewhat capacity they need, how they think it can be developed intheir culture and context, and how to negotiate and manageappropriate support from development partners.This also involves shifting towards longer term, programmaticapproaches linked to locally formulated capacity developmentstrategies.
  36. 36. Defining and measuring resultsWhile development results are relatively easy to define, there are manydifferent ideas about how to define and measure capacity results withinspecific contexts.Capacity development is a long-term process tied to politicalagenda, without a predictable, linear path. Contexts like large urban systemsor post-conflict countries are multi-dimensional, multi-level andmulti-sectoral and require responses of similar complexity.In such circumstances the overall expected results can only be defined inbroad terms and formats that do not always fit easily to current demands formeasurement of results.The challenge is not so much about ‘what’ do we want to achieve, as about‘how’ do we measure the effectiveness of our efforts to achieve it in waysthat are meaningful for all stakeholders, not just donors.
  38. 38. The importance of context• Resource listings on: – Definitions, frameworks and theories – General CD resources – Internal agency learning resources – Useful CD websites – Useful books – Other useful websites
  39. 39. ‘How to …’ pages, for practical ideas• Map and influence • Establish partnerships and stakeholders to get started networks for scale up• Define and map a change • Formulate capacity goals and process objectives• Work with incentives to • Formulate capacity indicators stimulate change for different contexts and• Assess change readiness, levels including analysis of the • Measure capacity outcomes political economy and results for different levels• Assess existing capacity and and contexts capacity needs • Develop M&E processes to• Design the overall CD foster learning approach and an evolving mix of ‘best fit’ methods and tools All available on the LenCD website, under the learning package section
  40. 40. Example: How to map stakeholders to get started• What are the capacity issues you need to work on?• Who are the other stakeholders with an interest?• How - which methods, tools or approaches will be most effective?• Gives a worked example of a provincial department where individuals have capacity but can’t use it because of party political power struggles in senior management. The CD intervention needed is NOT technical skills. www.LenCD.org & www.train4dev.net
  41. 41. Trainer-facilitator’s guide• Not a training manual• Guidance notes on how to use the resources• Sample workshop plans• Sample exercises and reflection-learning questions