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Biology Presentation from Ms. Priya. Sec 3S1

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  1. 1. Living organisms are arranged in different groups due to their similarities and differences. This grouping is called CLASSIFICATION. or Classification means to put things intogroups according to theircharacteristics.
  2. 2.  Binomial nomenclature is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a binomial name (which may be shortened to just "binomial"), a binomen or a scientific name; more informally it is also called a Latin name.
  3. 3.  Each species has two names. These are used together to give a precise reference to this species.  Genus is given first and is always written with an upper case letter. e.g. Homo  Species follows the genus and is written in lower case e.g. sapiens  Therefore the species name for humans is Homo sapiens
  4. 4.  There are many different types of animals in the world. Many animals are quite similar to each other. Others are quite different.  Invertebrates  Animals without a Backbone or Spinal Column  Vertebrates  Animals with a Backbone or Spinal Column
  5. 5.  No body layers rather there is an aggregate of different cell types.  Support is from either silica or calcium based spicules which link together to provide some support.  Body plan is built around water canals that circulate nutrient through the sponge for ingestion by specialised cells.  There is no mouth or anus
  6. 6.  These have 2 layers in the body  Jelly fish are mobile organisms. Sea anemones are sessile organisms.  These organisms are posses stinging cells with toxins called nematocysts to disable prey.
  7. 7.  3 layers in the body plan.  One entrance to 'gut' which can have many folds to increase surface area.  largely parasitic includes flukes
  8. 8.  3 layers to the body plan / bilateral symmetry  body divided into ringed segments with some specialization of segments  Mouth connected via gut to a separate anus.  Skin surface used for gas exchange.  Many marine forms but also terrestrial species usually soil burrowing
  9. 9.  Body plan has three major features:  Foot, a muscular structure used for movement and burrowing.  Central visceral mass containing all the organ structures (separate mouth and anus)  Mantle a folded membrane structure that can surround other tissues and create a cavity containing a gill.  The mantle frequently secretes a calcareous shell.
  10. 10.  Hard exoskeleton composed of chitin.  Jointed body segments.  Jointed appendages.  Some flying organisms in the class Insecta. ( 106+ species)  Separate mouth and anus.
  11. 11.  Design Principles:  Each question divides the group of organisms into two smaller groups based on a pair of alternative characteristics  Subsequent groups may focus on more minor detail  In most cases the characteristic will be readily observed or measurable  It is better to choose characteristics that are not influenced by the environment  Shape and number are often good characteristics on which to base alternative pairings of questions  A complete key will have each type of organism classified separated along with a final identifying name.
  12. 12.  Examples: earthworms, leeches, polychetes • coelomate • Ventral nerve cord • Two types of muscles - longitudinal & circular • Full utilization of coelom in movement, support •
  13. 13.  Examples: scorpions, spiders, insects  coelomate  Hardened chitinous exoskeleton  Specialized segmentation  Jointed appendages  Specialized respiratory organs (fully terrestrial)  Division of labor in life cycle
  14. 14.  Examples: snails, clams, octopus  coelomates  Mantle tissue - secretes shell  radula (chitinous tongue - used like a rasp)  advanced sensor organs & nervous tissue • Class Gastropoda - snails & slugsUsually have a coiled shell • Extremely diverse • Slugs = terrestrial gastropod which has lost shell
  15. 15.  Examples: sea urchins, starfish, sea cucumbers
  16. 16.  Water vascular system - system unique to this phylum ◦ Functions in movement, support, respiration, digestion  Decentralized nervous system  Rapid regeneration  Secondary radial symmetry ◦ Larvae are bilaterally symmetrical ◦ Adults are radially symmetrical
  17. 17.  Waterproof skin covered in scales  Ectothermic, cold blooded  Hard shelled eggs that are waterproof  Reptiles are mainly or partially carnivorous though there are some herbivorous species.
  18. 18.  Feathers  warm-blooded (high metabolic rate)  hollow bones
  19. 19.  Examples: elephant, bats  Hair  mammary glands  teeth  warm-blooded
  20. 20.  1) They are aquatic vertebrates that live in water. They have representation both in fresh waters and in marine waters and are also represented in brackish waters.  2) Their body is invariably stream lined and they swim with the help of tail.  3) They have paired appendages in the form of fins. Unpaired fins are also present. Fins help in balancing during swimming.
  21. 21.  The five kingdom classification proposed by R.H.Whittaker  1. KINGDOM: MONERA (prokaryotic organisms)  2. KINGDOM: PROTISTA (primitive eukaryotic organisms)  3. KINGDOM: MYCOTA (exclusively fungi)  4. KINGDOM: METAPHYTA (advanced eukaryotic plants)  5. KINGDOM: METAZOA (all multicellular animals)
  22. 22.  This system of classification looks more scientific and natural because of the following considerations:  Separation of prokaryotes into an independent kingdom is justifiable because they differ from all other organisms in their general organization.  Grouping of all unicellular eukaryotes under the kingdom Protista has solved many problems, particularly related to the position of organisms like Euglena.
  23. 23.  Elevation of the group fungi to the status of a kingdom is justifiable since fungi totally differ from other primitive eukaryotes like algae and protozoans.  The five-kingdom classification has certain drawbacks also,  The kingdoms Monera and Protista include diverse, heterogeneous forms of life. In both the kingdoms there are photosynthetic (autotrophic) as well as non-photosynthetic (heterotrophic) organisms
  24. 24.  Both the kingdoms include organisms which have cells with cell wall as well as without cell wall.  Viruses have not been given proper place in this system of classification.  Due to the absence of a cellular organization viruses cannot be placed with either prokaryotes or eukaryotes. They are considered as intermediate between living and non-living systems. Viruses are active and show reproduction only inside the host cell. In the free state they are totally inactive. They may even be purified and crystallized like chemical substances. Viruses have a genetic material represented by either DNA or RNA, surrounded by a protein sheath. Viruses reproduce by using the metabolic machinery and raw materials of the host cell.
  25. 25.  The five kingdoms currently accepted by most (but not all) scientists are the Monera Kingdom, the Protist Kingdom, the Fungi Kingdom, the Plant Kingdom, and the Animal Kingdom.  The Five Kingdoms – Monera  The Monera Kingdom consists of unicellular lifeforms. Unicellular means that they only have one cell. Moneran cells are far simpler and more basic than the cells of other lifeforms.
  26. 26.  Monera are classified into two phyla, or groups, autotrophs and heterotrophs. Autotrophs are able to create their own food, similar to plants. Heterotrophs cannot create their own food, and so must rely on autotrophs as their food source.
  27. 27.  Bacteria are commonly placed in the Monera Kingdom. Monera are considered by many scientists to be the oldest lifeforms on Earth, and the ancestors of all the other types of life that have since evolved.
  28. 28.  The Protista Kingdom consists of unicellular lifeforms (lifeforms with only one cell) who have a nucleus. The primary difference between protists and monera is that protists are more complex, having a nucleus.
  29. 29.  The Fungi Kingdom is made up of a variety of different fungi. For many years, it was believed that fungi were plants. Today we know that fungi are different from plants in some very important ways.  unlike plants, fungi cannot make their own food.
  30. 30.  The Plantae Kingdom is made up of all the plants that you see each day. Most plants are multi-cellular, meaning that they consist of many cells. Different types of plants include trees, grass, flowers, and some types of algae.  Plants use the light from the Sun to produce their own food.
  31. 31.  Like many other lifeforms, animals are multi-cellular. These cells come together, forming tissues, organs and organ systems, that help sustain the life of the animal. From elephants to snails, animals come in many shapes and sizes, and can be found all over the world.  Animals cannot make their own food. They must rely on other living things, such as plants, fungi, and other animals to sustain them.
  32. 32.  genetics/genetics_1.php