The American Revolution Unit Plan Brian Conroy Social Studies 8th grade June 23, 2008
Title Statement Growing up in this country, we celebrate the 4th of July and talk about special people,such as George Washington and Thomas Jefferson. But even though you hear of these peopleand are happy for holidays, you probably wonder to yourself, “Why do we celebrate thesepeople?” “What did they do that was so important?” “How do they matter in my life?” In thisunit, we will discuss the time period of early America, the formation of the United States, andhow these times have affected all of us and the world. You will learn the important eventsleading up to, during, and after the fight for independence from British rule, and during that time,keep in mind those holidays you hold dear and try to see the connection to what we are learningin class. Towards the end, you will also have to choose a subject in what we are discussing anddo research, and then present it to the class and explain why it is important. So enjoy ourjourney through the American past and be prepared to be amazed at how much wasaccomplished, and yet remained so fragile. Unit Introduction This unit is designed as an introduction to the American Revolution. The main goal is toshow students the many events that led to the formation of the country and our government sothat they may start to understand the present day. It is the job of the teacher to illustrate theimportant concepts of the unit, while the students need to try and understand how all the piecesfit together into a coherent system that explains the American Revolution. We will be discussing events leading up to the war, the war itself and contributions of thepeople, and the short few years after the war that began to mold the nation. These concepts willshow the evolution of the colonists through their transformation from loyal British subjects tocountrymen independent of a mother country and on a path to establish a new country. The
ideals that these Americans had to form this new country and government are the basic idealsthat are held today, and to know these is to know how the United States formed. We will also discuss international views of the war, how the country viewed itself andwas viewed by other nations, and international consequences of the American Revolution (i.e.French Revolution). We will also examine the many people involved in the conflicts and howthey were affected and how they affected the country. These viewpoints of both Americans andother nations show how we became somewhat accepted by different countries, and alsoimportant is how the many peoples inside and outside the country dealt with Americanindependence. It will be an interesting few days with hopes that students will come to more fullyunderstand and respect the origins of the country, and use this information to further inspect thepast.
Unit ObjectivesContent objectives 1. Identify the geographical area of the American colonies 2. Explain the reasoning behind the American Revolution 3. Recognize importance of documentary evidence 4. Contrast the war viewed from American and British viewpointsValue and Disposition objectives 1. Point to how political self-reliance and the Revolution affected the shift in government in America 2. Study the many different viewpoints of the war on an international viewAbility objectives 1. Locate the battle sites of the American Revolution 2. Demonstrate and understanding of the causes and outcomes of the Revolution 3. Construct maps and documents portraying their views of the war
Prerequisite SkillsStudents should be able to:1. Read a map of early America2. Indicate a basic understanding of early American history3. Participate in group discussions4. Write grammatically correct basic reports
Content OutlineI. Leading to War A. Life in the Colonies i. Colonies largely neglected and have self reliance ii. Britain expected economic interests to be protected a. Mercantilism b. East India Trading Company B. British policy changes i. Britain sought tighter control over colonies after 1763 ii. Acts passed to collect income worsened relationship a. Proclamation of 1763 b. Sugar Act c. Quartering and Stamp Acts d. Townshend Acts e. Tea Act f. Intolerable Acts C. Colonial Acts of Defiance i. Boston Tea Party ii. Boycott on English goods iii. Harassment of English soldiers and officials a. Sons of Liberty in New York and 40 British soldiers b. Thomas Hutchinson home attacked c. Boston Massacre
iv. Circular Letter of Samuel Adams v. Illegal importation of goods a. Wine from Liberty D. Political actions a. First Continental Congress b. Olive Branch PetitionII. Conducting the War A. American forces i. Undisciplined colonial militias ii. Poor and slave soldiers iii. Washington aimed to turn militias into disciplined army B. British forces i. Well trained and disciplined soldiers ii. Hessian mercenaries iii. Loyalists iv. Indians C. Political Actions a. Olive Branch Petition b. Declaration of Independence c. Second Continental Congress D. Military confrontations and preparations for war a. Northern theater: 1775-1778 i. Massachusetts
ii. New York iii. New Jersey iv. Pennsylvania b. Southern theater: 1778-1783 i. Georgia ii. Virginia iii. South Carolina iv. North CarolinaE. International alliances i. France ii. Spain iii. Netherlands iv. Germany (Hesse-Kassel)F. Persons of interest i. George Washington ii. Benedict Arnold iii. Charles Cornwallis iv. Sir Henry ClintonIII. End of the War A. Surrender at Yorktown (1781) i. French and American forces forced surrender of 8,000 British ii. British feared further loss of empire’s holdings with continuing war a. Peace talks begin 1782
B. Treaty of Paris i. Treaty approved by Congress Apr. 15, 1783, signed Sept. 3, 1783 ii. Recognized independence of the United States and established borders to Mississippi River, the Atlantic Ocean, Canada, and Florida iii. Recognized fishing rights off Newfoundland and Nova Scotia iv. Ceded Florida to Spain v. Recommended that Congress restore property taken from Loyalists C. Results of the War i. Establishment of the United States as a sovereign nation a. Constitution of 1788 provided Congress with power to tax b. Articles of Confederation ii. Greater trade and economic recovery between Britain and America iii. Establishment of basic rights for Americans spread political reforms around the world iv. French bankruptcy and revolution of 1789Skills to be taught 1. Recognize differences between Britain and colonies (cognitive) 2. Argue who was right about actions that led to war (cognitive) 3. Identify the major events of the war (cognitive) 4. Reorganize thoughts of war after presentation of evidence (psychomotor) 5. Locate important events and positions on a map (psychomotor) 6. Recognize how historians analyze history through documentation (psychomotor)
7. Demonstrate an understanding of the effects of the war on colonies, Britain, world (psychomotor) 8. Design own documentation of war through first person point of view (psychomotor)Values and Attitudes 1. Assess the value of the material to yourself 2. Give your opinion about the class 3. Report violations of codes of conduct 4. Respect your teacher and fellow students 5. Study to understand the material 6. Use your own life to relate to the materialState Standards 16.A.3a Describe how historians use models for organizing historical interpretation (e.g., biographies, political events, issues and conflicts) 16.A.3b Make inferences about historical events and eras using historical maps and other historical sources. 16.A.3c Identify the differences between historical fact and interpretation. 17.C.3a Explain how human activity is affected by geographic factors. 18.B.3a Analyze how individuals and groups interact with and within institutions (e.g., educational, military). 18.B.3b Explain how social institutions contribute to the development and transmission of culture. 18.C.3a Describe ways in which a diverse U.S. population has developed and maintained common beliefs (e.g., life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness; the Constitution and the
Bill of Rights).18.C.3b Explain how diverse groups have contributed to U.S. social systems over time.
Learning Activities Introductory Activity The purpose of this activity is to educate the students on the American Revolution and itsimpact during the time period it happened, as well as its lingering effects on the world up to thepresent day. We will be learning about the relationship between the American colonies and theirmother country of Great Britain, and what life was like in those countries. We will then proceedto investigate the reasons which led to degradation of the relationships between the two, andwhat led to the cutting of ties by the colonies, which led to the American Revolution from whatthey saw as British tyranny. The political and military theaters of battle will also be examined,and what international participation there was also. Towards the end, the defeat of the Britishmilitary in America and the end of the war which produced a new sovereign nation, along withthe outcomes of the war, shall be examined.
Developmental ActivitiesKWLH chart Can help to determine student knowledge about the Revolution. The teacher can use thisto gauge existing knowledge and possible future learning opportunities.PowerPoint presentation on trade between Britain and America Helps students to understand the dependence that existed between England and thecolonies. PowerPoint provides notes for a future quiz or test and reference information for futuretopicsCompare and contrast British and American views of the war Students divide into pairs and take the side of a British or American living in theirrespective countries. They will then try to convince the other of why their view of the war iscorrect.Discussion of Acts passed by Parliament and effects on American lives and views Students examine each of the Acts passed by Parliament (Stamp, Intolerable) and willparticipate in an in-class discussion on why they were passed and what the effects on thecolonists were. This activity will help students think critically about whether or not the lawswere just, and if the colonists acted correctly or could have done something differently.Founding fathers Students will research one of the founding fathers talked about in class and write a 1 ½ -2page essay on their person. They will then present this person to the class and answer anyquestions presented.
Military tactics of Britain and America This activity will show the military strength of both sides from before the war through tothe war’s end. It will also show the tactical similarities and differences in British and Patriotforces, and how these changed over the years of the war.Colony maps and important information The teacher will assign a colony to the students, and they will draw a picture of theircolony and provide information on their history, economy, and reasons for joining the rebellionagainst England. Students will present their findings to the class, and the information will beanalyzed and discussed in class.Examining international participation in the war Students will read about international participation in the war from European powers, andwhat effect their participation had on the war. The ulterior motives for their participation willalso be researched.Historical Sites Research different Revolutionary war historical sites and parks on the Internet, and howthe sites are interpreted as compared to what has been discussed in class. Create a small tourplan for a trip to your site as if you were the tour guide bringing the rest of the class.Revolutionary Documentation Sections of these important documents will be passed to students so they can be read athome. Students will write a short answer of what their document means to their understanding,and the student will also read to the class the document and their thoughts, and an in-classdiscussion will follow.
Map of early North America and possible problems A map with European and Indian geographic boundaries will be shown in class, alongwith valuable information of each culture, such as religion, politics, and economy. The students’class will then discuss what possible problems could stem from any ideological differences.Native American outlook Students will examine Native American lives before and during European expansion inAmerica. They will investigate the major cultural and ideological changes that stemmed fromthis arrival, and how these tribes exist in the present day. This information will be discussed in-class.Tory vs. Patriot Imagine yourself as either a Tory (loyal to England) or Patriot, and have discovered thatyour family is deeply divided along these lines. Become a mediator and try to settle the disputein a peaceful manner, even though it is apparent that war along these lines is imminent. Theclass will divide into three groups, and all will try to persuade the other to their ideals.Common immigrant citizenry Have students imagine themselves as a newly arrived immigrant (choice of nationalityfrom a list) who have arrived in America to start a new life but find war looming. Research theirnational backgrounds and how others of their nationality are responding to the impendingconfrontation.Historical interpretation Historical interpreters will come to class and provide stories as first person interpreters.Class will ask questions, analyze characters, and present research on different characterspresented.
Daily journals The class will have a question posted on the board each morning concerning that day’sdiscussion. The students will respond to the question after the class has finished and turn it inthe next morning, and at the end of the unit they will reflect on all their journals and write asummary based on their journal writings.Research revolutionary concerns and compare with present day problems The class will find a modern problem or crisis facing the nation and compare it with asimilar problem or crisis facing the early American republic. The class will present its findingsand compare to each other and discuss the validity and truth to presentations.Were the founding fathers patriots or traitors? Students will discuss an alternate ending to the Revolution, in which they discuss whetheror not the leaders were traitors or patriots. They may also choose to hold a mock trial andthrough first person scenes, try the founding fathers and their ideals.Map of North America after the Revolution Examine a map showing post-Revolutionary America and the differences from a map ofpre-Revolutionary America. Discuss the changes that took place with the defeat of Englishforces in the colonies, and the formation of the United States and its expansion westward.Document Analysis Assign students different documentation from colonial, Revolutionary, and post-Revolutionary America and have them analyze these documents using the attached worksheet.http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/worksheets/document.html
Culminating Activity This unit has been designed to inform students about how colonial America became theUnited States, and also to inform them on how to look at multiple angles of the impact onAmerican and European powers. To conclude the unit, students will choose either a British orAmerican outlook on the colonies, and will write their own article to be submitted to a magazineas a historical article. They will defend their position on why their side had the right to do asthey did, and provide supportive claims from class and alternate sources, as well as contest orsupport international aid based on their usage of it. All of their information should tie together all the aspects of what have been covered inclass, and also relate to the interaction which the two nations experience in the modern day. Itshould show an understanding of colonial America and the events leading up to and through theRevolution, and how they impact society in the present day.
Daily Lesson Plan Outline #1Name: Date: Subject: Grade Level: Time Needed:Brian Conroy 6/23/08 Social Studies 8th grade 2 days Preliminary PlanningTopic/Focus: Colonial AmericaObjectives: Students will be able to: 1. Locate all thirteen colonies, as well as Great Britain (cognitive) 2. Describe the relationship between the colonies and Britain (affective) 3. Discuss the laws passed by Parliament and opposed by the colonies (cognitive) 4. Question the actions of both sides (affective) 5. Try and understand the background to both the British and American arguments (psychomotor)Materials 1. Copies of the Olive Branch Petition and the Declaration of Independence 2. Tea 3. Sugar 4. Molasses 5. Notebooks 6. Writing utensils 7. Map of colonial America 8. PowerPoint presentation
Preparation Prepare copies of the Olive Branch Petition and the Declaration of Independence forstudents. Prepare examples of the tea, sugar, and molasses to be passed around the room. Installthe colonial map at the front of the classroom. Have the PowerPoint cued and ready to begin.Classroom Setting Desks will remain in the traditional arrangement of rows and will be changed for smallgroup work. At the end of this group work the students will replace the desks in their traditionalarrangement.Key Behavioral Reminders 1. Students will remain seated until the end of class 2. Students will raise their hand to be called upon; callouts are not tolerated 3. Students will refrain from reaching over to or touching other students 4. Students may not touch the examples brought into class; only looking is allowedState Standards1.C.3a Use information to form, explain and support questions and predictions.3.C.3b Using available technology, produce compositions and multimedia works for specifiedaudiences.4.B.3a Deliver planned oral presentations, using language and vocabulary appropriate to thepurpose, message and audience; provide details and supporting information that clarify mainideas; and use visual aids and contemporary technology as support.14.C.3 Compare historical issues involving rights, roles and status of individuals in relation tomunicipalities, states and the nation.15.C.3 Identify and explain the effects of various incentives to produce a good or service.
15.D.3a Explain the effects of increasing and declining imports and exports to an individual andto the nation’s economy as a whole.15.D.3a Explain the effects of increasing and declining imports and exports to an individual andto the nation’s economy as a whole.16.A.3b Make inferences about historical events and eras using historical maps and otherhistorical sources16.B.3b (US) Explain how and why the colonies fought for their independence and how thecolonists’ ideas are reflected in the Declaration of Independence and the United StatesConstitution.16.C.3a (US) Describe economic motivations that attracted Europeans and others to theAmericas, 1500-175017.A.3b Explain how to make and use geographic representations to provide and enhance spatialinformation including maps, graphs, charts, models, aerial photographs, satellite images. Instructional PlanAnticipatory Set To begin the class, I ask the students as I hold up each item, “Does anyone in here drinktea?”; “Does anyone in here enjoy sugar in their cereal?” I expect most if not all student handsare raised and then lead into asking if they could afford it if the government started charging somuch more. This would surely grab their attention as I continue with, “Well today, we will bestudying the colonial period of America and how these are only two products which brought usto be a sovereign nation.”
Sequence of Learning Activities 1. Pull out map of colonial America (1) 2. Have students locate the colonies and Great Britain (1) 3. Divide colonies into New England, Mid-Atlantic, Southern colonies (1) 4. Examine effects of the French and Indian War in North America (2, 9) 5. Study how neglect from Britain brings political self-reliance (5) 6. Explain how Britain wanted its economic interests protected; colonists agree to mercantilism (4, 8) 7. Define mercantilism 8. Britain starts tightening control (2, 8) 9. Acts passed by Parliament that angered colonists (2, 3, 8) 10. Give examples of each and ask if students would agree to them (4, 8) 11. Political action by colonists (2, 4, 5, 8) 12. Ignored by King George III and Parliament (2, 3, 4, 6, 8) 13. Military actions taken by both colonists and British (1, 2, 4, 7, 8) 14. Declaration of Independence (4, 5, 6, 8) 15. Ties cut with mother country and independence declared (2, 4, 5, 6, 8) 16. Convene students into groups for discussion on if would have done differently (3, 4, 5, 6)Discussion Questions Why did people immigrate to the colonies? What was the result of British victory in the French and Indian War in North America? What was the effect on the colonists? Why did Britain start to clamp down on the American colonies after the war?
What was the colonial response to the Acts passed by Parliament, both military and political? Was there any way the colonies and Britain could have avoided war?Closure The American colonies saw themselves as British citizens, but as time went on and theydealt with further taxation and oppression, in the end they felt there was no way to avoid war.When politics failed to bring back their rights, military action seemed their only course. Thislesson helped students find out what the reasons were that have led up to the War forIndependence, and hopefully will bring them further anticipation of the next lesson.Assignment Have students answer the journal question for turning in the next day. Review notes fortomorrow’s lesson.Modifications For visually impaired learners, a copy of PowerPoint lecture can be provided in a largerfont. For students who are physically impaired, transcribed notes can be provided by the teacherduring the first class, and then the student can be paired with a buddy who can copy notes forboth students.Rationale Studying the Revolutionary war is important due to the fact that American history can bea large part of a student’s future academic and professional life. The founding fathers sawthemselves as translating Christian morals into a law code that would make for a great nation.Knowing that they saw America as a God fearing country helped them to mold what weexperience today as fairness and morality.
Post-Instructional ReflectionEvaluation of Student Teaching:Evaluation of Student Learning:
Daily Lesson Plan Outline #2Name: Date: Subject: Grade Level: Time Needed for Lesson:Brian Conroy 6/23/08 Social Studies 8th grade 2 days Preliminary PlanningTopic/Focus: Conducting the RevolutionObjectives: Students will be able to: 1. Compare the differences in American and British forces (affective) 2. Locate the many battlefields of the Revolutionary war (cognitive) 3. Explain the importance of international alliances (affective) 4. Answer why the colonies were able to secure alliances with major powers (cognitive) 5. Point to a defining moment of the war for the colonials (cognitive) 6. Name persons of interest on both sides of the conflict (cognitive)MaterialsPowerPoint and projectorWorksheet with British and European empiresBritish and European empires map on PowerPointIllustrationsQuizPreparation Set up PowerPoint and presentation to be given. Make copies of maps and illustratedworksheets for students.
Classroom Setting Classroom desks are set up in the traditional arrangement of rows. They will be movedin accordance with model of battlefield during class, and will be returned to the traditionalarrangement afterward.Key Behavioral RemindersStudents will stay in their seats unless given permission to be otherwise.Students will be respectful of their neighbors and keep their hands to themselves.Students will be quiet and talk when called upon; callouts will not be tolerated.State Standards3.C.3b Using available technology, produce compositions and multimedia works for specifiedaudiences.4.B.3a Deliver planned oral presentations, using language and vocabulary appropriate to thepurpose, message and audience; provide details and supporting information that clarify mainideas; and use visual aids and contemporary technology as support.16.A.3b Make inferences about historical events and eras using historical maps and otherhistorical sources.16.B.3b (US) Explain how and why the colonies fought for their independence and how thecolonists’ ideas are reflected in the Declaration of Independence and the United StatesConstitution.17.A.3b Explain how to make and use geographic representations to provide and enhance spatialinformation including maps, graphs, charts, models, aerial photographs, satellite images.17.C.3a Explain how human activity is affected by geographic factors.
18.B.3a Analyze how individuals and groups interact with and within institutions (e.g.,educational, military). Instructional PlanAnticipatory Set As the class enters the room and sits down, I ask them if any had any aspirations tobecome landlords or even business owners. No matter if there are none, a few, or a lot of handsraised, I tell them to “imagine themselves in charge of millions of employees and tenants whoprovide you with labor and goods to enjoy.” Now, I tell them, “imagine there are a few thousandwho decide they are not going to be under your thumb and rebel from you, and even with thesuperior power you still lose. “And today, we are going to study that same situation, which KingGeorge III of England was in when the American colonies rebelled and were able to break awayfrom the mother country.Sequence of Learning Activities 1. Review the previous day’s lesson with a KWLH chart (2, 5, 6, 8) 2. Distribute copies of maps of British empire (4) 3. Illustrate, with the help of the class, different areas of the map (1) 4. Explain the importance of the holdings and place the American colonies occupied (1, 2) 5. Use PowerPoint to talk about (1, 4, 6, 7, 8): British and American forces International alliances and importance Location of major battlefields Theaters of war and strategies Persons of interest
6. Review information of the day with in-class quiz worked on with self and then in pairs with neighbor (9)Discussion Questions What were the differences in British and American forces? Similarities? What were American forces comprised of? What were British forces comprised of? How important were international alliances to the American cause? What countries joined on the side of the Americans? Why? Name one battle from each theater of war. What was its importance? What was American strategy at these battles? British? What was the outcome? What was the British advantage? Disadvantage? What was the American advantage? Disadvantage? Who was the British commanding officer? Who was the American Commanding officer? What was one of the largest morale crushers to the Americans? Why? What happened to this person?Closure The Americans were greatly outnumbered by the British army, and it looked gloomy fora few years, until a turn of events brought in allies that benefited the American cause. And evenwith a morale disaster that had the country wondering why, the Americans came rallying backand astounded the world. This lesson has shown how hard the war was fought, especiallyconsidering the differences in the two forces and how the British should have been easily
victorious. Therefore, this lesson ends on a brighter note than it began with, as we look towardsthe end of a long and bloody conflict that will redefine the world.Assignment Complete the journal for the next class period. Have the students think about the changesin their understandings of why and how the war was fought, and write a few sentences.Modifications For visually impaired learners, a copy of PowerPoint lecture can be provided in alarger font. For students who are physically impaired, transcribed notes can be provided by theteacher during the first class, and then the student can be paired with a buddy who can copynotes for both students.Rationale Studying the Revolutionary war is important due to the fact that American historycan be a large part of a student’s future academic and professional life. The founding fathers sawthemselves as translating Christian morals into a law code that would make for a great nation.Knowing that they saw America as a God fearing country helped them to mold what weexperience today as fairness and morality. Post-Instructional ReflectionEvaluation of Student Teaching:Evaluation of Student Learning:
Daily Lesson Plan Outline #3Name: Date: Subject: Grade Level: Time Needed for Lesson:Brian Conroy 6/23/08 Social Studies 8th grade 2 days Preliminary PlanningTopic/Focus: End of the American RevolutionObjectives: Students will be able to: 1. Discuss reasons for the end of the war (cognitive) 2. Recognize the impact of the Treaty of Paris (cognitive) 3. Identify the international impacts of the Revolution (cognitive) 4. Debate the treaty terms from British and American viewpoints (affective) 5. Exhibit an understanding of the war’s impact on a national and international level(cognitive)MaterialsCopies of the Treaty of Paris and U.S. ConstitutionPowerPoint presentationMaps of American and British possessionsPreparation Create copies for students of the Treaty of Paris and the Constitution. Create PowerPointto show to class. Create overhead maps of territorial possessions from before and after theAmerican Revolution that are color coded and ready to be overlaid to show changes.Classroom Setting The desks will be set up in traditional row formation, with changing of desk positions forgroup activities.
Key Behavioral RemindersStudents will stay in their seats unless given permission to be otherwise.Students will be respectful of their neighbors and keep their hands to themselves.Students will be quiet and talk when called upon; callouts will not be tolerated.State Standards4.A.3a Demonstrate ways (e.g., ask probing questions, provide feedback to a speaker,summarize and paraphrase complex spoken messages) that listening attentively can improvecomprehension.4.B.3a Deliver planned oral presentations, using language and vocabulary appropriate to thepurpose, message and audience; provide details and supporting information that clarify mainideas; and use visual aids and contemporary technology as support.4.B.3b Design and produce reports and multi-media compositions that represent group projects.14.E.3 Compare the basic principles of the United States and its international interests (e.g.,territory, environment, trade, use of technology).16.A.3a Describe how historians use models for organizing historical interpretation (e.g.,biographies, political events, issues and conflicts).16.A.3b Make inferences about historical events and eras using historical maps and otherhistorical sources.16.B.3b (US) Explain how and why the colonies fought for their independence and how thecolonists’ ideas are reflected in the Declaration of Independence and the United StatesConstitution.17.A.3b Explain how to make and use geographic representations to provide and enhance spatialinformation including maps, graphs, charts, models, aerial photographs, satellite images.
17.C.3a Explain how human activity is affected by geographic factors. Instructional PlanAnticipatory Set I will ask the students to try and think about all the freedoms they have today, and if theythink that if they were taken away, would they fight back for them? They will then think aboutwhat they would not like to be without after having it all their lives, and how would they copewith the loss. I let them think about it and tell them, “Today we will discuss how many of thecolonists rights were almost lost to them permanently, and what the result of their war forindependence brought them. We will also discuss how these freedoms they came about affect usto this day.”Sequence of Learning Activities1. Review the previous day’s lesson with a KWLH chart (2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9)2. Ask questions about material that may not be understood (1, 2, 8)3. PowerPoint presentation to discuss the end of the Revolution (3, 8, 9)4. Pass out copies of the Treaty of Paris and the U.S. Constitution (5, 9)5. PowerPoint map showing changing of territorial hands (1, 4, 6, 8, 9)6. PowerPoint to illustrate how changes affected international relations (4, 6, 8)7. Organize students into already assigned groups of either British or American (4, 6, 8)8. Have students discuss views on the Treaty of Paris and the new United States (4, 5, 6, 8, 9)9. Bring British and American groups together to debate the issues (2, 3, 4, 6, 8)10. Class discussion on opposing views (2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9)11. Reorganize students into standard rows and set them to writing a short essay on both views(2, 4, 6, 8)
12. Class discussion about other international views and impacts of the war and treaty(1, 2, 4, 6, 8)Discussion Questions What was the impact of the surrender at Saratoga on British and American forces? How can the snub of French mediators for the Treaty of Paris be seen? What were the effects from the terms of the treaty? How did the United States treat its allies after the war? How did it treat Loyalists What were the strengths of the Articles of Confederation? Weaknesses? Why were they replaced by the Constitution? What were international relations between America and Britain like after the war?Closure The American Revolution was a very long and costly war in finances and people. But inthe end, a newly democratic republic was born into a world of superpowers. America begansmall, but its people and founders had the will to endure and forge a new nation.Assignment No assignmentModifications For visually impaired learners, a copy of PowerPoint lecture can beprovided in a larger font. For students who are physically impaired, transcribed notes can beprovided by the teacher during the first class, and then the student can be paired with a buddywho can copy notes for both students.Rationale
Studying the end of the Revolutionary war is just as important as studying the eventsleading up to and during the war. The postwar era showed the many changes that happened tothe colonies as they became states, and the states as they became somewhat unified into acountry under the Constitution. The beliefs and ideals of this era helped to shape the nation in itsformative years, and helped brings the ideals of democracy and personal freedom to the rest ofthe world. Post-Instructional ReflectionEvaluation of Student Teaching:Evaluation of Student Learning:
Assessment PlanInformal Assessment As a teacher, it will be my job to observe my students learning and interaction skills withboth myself and the other students around them during my informal assessments. Assessmentsof my students are important because they will help me in finding out the amount of backgroundinformation and any needed extra attention or assistance with the information presented, in orderto help them pass out of my class according to state required standards, as well as my ownstandards of learning. Throughout class discussions, lectures, and group interactions, andparticipation, I will use both well-defined and ill-defined problems try and bring my students intothese participation areas, while watching how they respond to these investigations andstimulations. “These variations are important because they influence learning and motivation as well ascognitive development” (Kauchak and Eggen, 2007) is an important statement because it showsthat there are various types of informal assessment that can be used to find out the informationstudents may know or need to know in class. It will be important for me to learn the varioustechniques of assessment, both from reported assessments and personal experience, if theclassroom is to be successful and the students learn what they need to. Research is needed whenlooking at different types of assessment, because “…the classroom assessment field routinelyadvocates new and improved approaches to assessment” (Frey and Schmitt, 2007). Thisinvestigation into assessment methods would help me and my students by experimenting withdifferent types of testing student knowledge and backgrounds Research is also important in planning how to evaluate if your planned learning forstudents is proceeding along with how you would like it to be. I would personally enjoy seeing
my students understand the material that has been presented and use that understanding to thinkoutside of their mental “box” and think deeper into the material. Critical thinking is quiteimportant for students, and research into ways many school districts and teachers are trying tobring these skills into the classroom can help my students with higher level thinking. “If we areto succeed in achieving instructional objectives related to the development of higher orderthinking skills, we need to (a) plan and present quality educational experiences that developthose skills and (b) use classroom assessments that match the objectives and instructionalexperiences provided to students” (Stiggins, Griswold, Green, & associates, 1987). Overall, my informal assessments of my classroom should be of observation of classparticipation and student interaction, along with how they respond to various types ofquestioning and work that shows their background knowledge and the information that needs tobe addressed. Any students with special needs to be assisted as soon as possible so that they maykeep up with class work, as well as other students, and research of multiple ways to conductstudent assessments should be continuous.Formal Assessment Note taking Notes will be turned in for review and passed back with comments about what concepts are necessary and which are not. It is hoped that students will learn which concepts should be focused on, and which should be noted but not extensively. Worksheets Homework will provide students with terms to be defined and maps to be studied.
Quizzes (Written and map)Quizzes will be used to reinforce and review content information in small sections that have been covered by lecture and worksheets.Individual/Group PresentationStudents will pick a certain topic and present their information to the class.Students will be graded on their information, its relation to the class, and what they learned about it in addition to what they already knew.
Name _____________________Period______________________Quiz 1Multiple Choice1. Which of these laws was not passed by Parliament on the colonies?A. Tea ActB. Indigo ActC. Proclamation of 1763D. Quartering Act2. In 1764, how much tax was added to the cost of imported sugar, which angeredcolonists?A. 1 centB. 3 centsC. 4 centsD. 5 cents3. In December 1773, what act did the Sons of Liberty do in Boston harbor, to protesttaxes?A. Dumped tea overboardB. Dumped coffee overboardC. Dumped tobacco overboardD. Dumped sailors overboard4. In what city and year did the First Continental Congress meet?A. New York, 1773
B. Washington, D.C., 1774C. Philadelphia, 1774D. Boston, 17755. Which peace document was sent to King George III in July 1775 to try and avoid fullwar?A. Declaration of IndependenceB. Olive Branch PetitionC. Articles of ConfederationD. U.S. ConstitutionShort Answer6. Define mercantilism. Provide an example of what both America and Britain provided toeach other.7. Choose an Act passed by Parliament and briefly describe what it was for and how thecolonies responded to it.
8. Study the picture below of the Boston Massacre and describe what the picture is tryingto tell the reader.(Source: http://www.teachersparadise.com/ency/en/media/d/df/boston_massacre.jpg)
9. The Boston Tea Party had large and immediate consequences for the Massachusetts Baycolony. Tell what these were and how they became a major tipping point into revolution.10. Congress was important to the country before, during, and after the war. Discuss whyit was formed in the first place, and name a few of its members.Extra Credit: Name the black patriot who died during the Boston Massacre.
Name _____________________Period______________________13 colonies worksheetFor this activity, students will label: The thirteen colonies Reserved lands for Indian tribes Canada and other British territories
Name _____________________Period______________________Quiz 2Multiple Choice1. The majority of American forces in the Revolutionary war consisted mainly of:A. Colonial militiasB. Poor and slave soldiersC. Highly disciplined European troopsD. None of the above2. The first military action of the war occurred at:A. Bunker HillB. SaratogaC. Lexington and ConcordD. Trenton3. An American-French alliance occurred after which battle?A. TrentonB. Brandywine CreekC. SaratogaD. Yorktown4. British allies consisted of:A. ToriesB. IndiansC. Slaves
D. All of the above5. The peace treaty between America and Britain was:A. The Treaty of VersaillesB. The Treaty of ParisC. The Treaty of LondonD. None of the aboveShort Answer6. Congress sought international aid in achieving independence, namely with France.Name the problems which were seen by Britain and France if an alliance were made withthe colonists.7. Throughout the war, morale of the troops swung from low to high, depending oncircumstances. Describe the impact on troops with the treason of Benedict Arnold and thevictory at Trenton, New Jersey.8. Documents throughout the war were important for both British and Americans, with theAmericans creating those that were important to their survival. Give a brief description of
the Olive Branch Petition, Articles of Confederation, and the Declaration of Independence,and what they meant to the cause for independence.
Name _________________________Period ________________________Map Quiz 2This map quiz will be an interactive website activity. Click on the link:http://www.teachingamericanhistory.org/neh/interactives/americanrevolution/Here you will travel through the Northern and Southern phases of the American Revolution andexperience the major battles that took place in these theaters of war. As you proceed, keep trackof your score and how you did vs. how you thought you would do before beginning this exercise.Also, write down facts you found to be interesting, and any questions that you may haveconcerning the material. The next day, after having finished with the interactive element and having studiedovernight, you will be given a blank map and a list of battle sites, where you will mark down asmany locations as you can remember. For extra credit, any extra information you learned fromthe interactive map can be written down.
List of battle sitesLexington and Concord YorktownBoston Guilford Court HouseCharleston, S.C. CowpensTrenton, NJ CamdenBunker Hill CharlestonSaratoga SavannahFt. TiconderogaQuebecMontrealBrandywineTrentonPrincetonLong IslandNew York CityWhite PlainsMonmouth
Name _______________________Period ______________________Quiz 31. The Treaty of Paris was signed in what year?A. 1782B. 1783C. 1784D. 17852. Shay’s rebellion illustrated the need for a:A. standing professional armyB. strong centralized governmentC. reunification with BritainD. all of the above3. The 1787 Constitutional convention instituted a government based on:A. an oligarchical legislationB. a system of checks and balancesC. the British system of governmentD. none of the above4. Of the original thirteen colonies, __________ is the only one not to ratify the constitution:A. New YorkB. ConnecticutC. VermontD. Rhode Island
5. The first inaugural ball of the United States is for President _____________.A. JeffersonB. FranklinC. WashingtonD. AdamsShort Answer6. Describe why Shay’s Rebellion was a success for the fragile new republic7. Explain why the new Constitution was such a threat to the people so soon after the endof the war.8. Discern the difference between Federalist and Anti-Federalist outlooks on theConstitution. Provide examples.
9. Why was George Washington the unanimous choice to become President of the UnitedStates?10. With the makeup of the Constitutional Convention being such a mix of differentprofessions, how qualified were the delegates to create laws for the new country. Providejustifications for each profession you choose to tell about.
Name ___________________Period __________________Unit Presentation Students will choose a specific topic from the discussions and material covered in class They will research their topic and write a small report as to its relationship with the American Revolution Pose a question to the class They will also present this information to the class in a way that shares their learning and understanding (PowerPoint; Lecture Discussion; Role play, etc.) that answers their question to the class
List of ResourcesStudent Resources: Alsheimer, J. & Friedle, P. (2001). The Trouble with Tea. Raleigh, NC: Pentland Press, Inc. Bober, N. (2001). Countdown to Independence. New York: Simon & Schuster. Davidson, J. & Stoff, M. (2009). America: History of Our Nation. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Foster, G. (1940). George Washington’s World. San Luis Obispo, CA: Beautiful Feet Books. Hakim, J. (1993). From Colonies to Country. Cary, NC: Oxford University Press. Weir, Sarah, ed. (1992). Americas War of Independence 1763-1783- A Concise Illustrated History of the American Revolution. New York: Silver Moon Press.Teacher Resources: Boston National Historical Park. (1998). Merchants & Farmers in Battle, The Battle of Bunker Hill, curriculum packet. Free National Park Service Publication. Copeland, David A. (2000). Debating Issues in Colonial Newspapers: Primary Documents on Events of the Period. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Fischer, M. (1993). American History Simulations. Huntington Beach, CA: Teacher Created Materials, Inc. Moore, C. (1984). The Loyalists. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: McClelland & Stewart. Old State House. (2000). Prisoners of the Bar, What Really Happened on King Street on the Night of March 5, 1770, curriculum packet Boston: Bostonian Society.
Wheeler, W., & Decker, S. (1990). Discovering the American Past: A Look at the Evidence: Vol. 1: To 1877, Second Edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Instructional MaterialsTextbook: Davidson, J. & Stoff, M. (2009). America: History of Our Nation. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Maps:Class Zone. Outline maps. Retrieved June 26, 2008, fromhttp://www.classzone.com/cz/books/amer_hist_survey/get_chapter_group.htm?cin=1&ci=1&rg=map_center&at=outline_maps&npos=1&spos=1&var=outline_mapsWebsites: KidsKonnect. The American Revolution. Retrieved June 28, 2008, from http://www.kidskonnect.com/content/view/251/27/ National Park Service. The American Revolution. Retrieved June 28, 2008, from http://www.nps.gov/revwar/ PBS. LIBERTY!-The American Revolution. Retrieved June 28, 2008, from http://www.pbs.org/ktca/liberty/ The History Channel. American Revolution. Retrieved June 28, 2008, from http://www.history.com/minisite.do?content_type=Minisite_Generic&content_type_ id=697&display_order=1&sub_display_order=2&mini_id=1075 The History Place. American Revolution. Retrieved June 26, 2008, from http://www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/revolution/index.html
Multimedia The American Revolution: The Conflict Ignites. (2005). DVD (50 min). The History Channel.Other Materials Computer lab access Foodstuffs Maps Overhead projector PowerPoint equipment Quizzes Worksheets
Unit Alignment Learning Activity Unit Objective Number AssessmentIntroductory Activity Content: 2, 4 Informal: Student attention Value/Disposition: 1, 2 Formal: Lecture Discussion; Ability: 1, 2, 3 worksheets, quizzesKWLH chart Content: 1, 2 Informal: Student Ability: 2, 3 participation, attention Formal: Maps, worksheet, pre-testPowerPoint presentation on Content: 1, 2 Informal: Studenttrade between Britain and Value/Disposition: 1 participationAmerica Ability: 3 Formal: MapsCompare and contrast British Content: 1, 2, 4 Informal: Studentand American views of the Value/Disposition: 2 participation, interaction withwar Ability: 1, 2, 3 others Formal: PresentationDiscussion of Acts passed by Content: 2, 4 Informal: StudentParliament and effects on Value/Disposition: 1 participation, work with othersAmerican lives and views Ability: 2 Formal: WorksheetFounding fathers Content: 2, 4 Informal: Student Value/Disposition: 1, 2 participation Ability: 2, 3 Formal: Research, presentation, class interaction
Military tactics of Britain and Content: 1, 4 Informal: StudentAmerica Value/Disposition: 2 participation Ability: 1 Formal: WorksheetColony maps and important Content: 1, 2 Informal: Studentinformation Ability: 1, 2, 3 participation Formal: Research, maps and legendsExamining international Content: 1, 2, 4 Informal: Studentparticipation in the war Value/Disposition: 2 participation Ability: 1, 2 Formal: Maps, ResearchHistorical Sites Content: 1 Informal: Student Ability: 1, 3 participation Formal: Research, Presentation, MapsRevolutionary Documentation Content: 3 Formal: Critical thinking Ability: 2 skillsMap of early North America Content: 1, 2 Informal: Studentand possible problems Value/Disposition: 2 participation Ability: 1, 2, 3 Formal: Class discussionNative American outlook Content: 1, 4 Informal: Student Value/Disposition: 2 participation Ability: 1, 2, 3 Formal: Class discussion, research, documentation
Use of TechnologyPart One One of the most important technologies to integrate into my unit to help not only myself,but my students as well, would be use of the Internet. This tool helps in many aspects of theclassroom, such as research of topics, interactive learning, and visiting and learning about manyhistoric places, such as Valley Forge and Philadelphia. As it is said, “By providing a variety oflearning tools, the Internet and the Web are transforming the way teachers instruct and the waystudents learn basic skills and core subjects” (Shelly, Cashman, Gunter, Gunter, 2006, pg 99).The website http://www.teachingamericanhistory.org/neh/interactives/americanrevolution/provides students with an interactive map of the battles throughout the Revolution and allowsthem to view not only their location, but the paths the armies took and information of each battle. Technology itself has been a changing term over the course of human history, going fromstone tools to laser guided missiles, among others, and in a classroom setting, technology is animportant key to fulfilling educational goals that a teacher may not be able to provide for.Students can learn things on their own and present information to others in their class, and in myclassroom, technology will be of great importance to my students. They can organize andpresent reports using PowerPoint, or even research and plan a trip to historical sites concerningour subject area being studied. And as Kauchak and Eggen (2007) state, “Technologies ingeneral, and computers in particular, are being viewed as essential elements of instruction to helpstudents develop critical-thinking skills. Today’s teachers need to know how to use thesetechnologies to help students learn.” What they are saying, in effect, is that technology can havea great impact on classroom learning, and that while it does not solve all student problems, it is agreat tool for teaching students.
Part Two Concerning the use of technology within the classroom, a good way of showing studentsthe ideas being presented in a textbook are PowerPoint presentations. The websitehttp://www.pppst.com/americanhistory.html is a source of many websites concerning manyareas of American History, including the Revolution. Students may use these as examples tocreate their own PowerPoint presentations to be presented to the class, and allows them toconnect the information given in class to a more exciting format DiversityPart One“Middle school educators see diversity every day…[and] middle school educators teachindividuals and provide experiences that meet particular learning and socialization needs.”(Manning) The above quotation describes a little bit of what educators deal with in the diversity oftheir classrooms, which also includes with learning and socialization, cultural, gender, and manyother differences found in society and schools. Understanding diversity is important because notonly do students understand the many differences around them, but teachers do as well inphysical, emotional, social, and learning differences; and to understand this helps in dealing withthe world around us. In relation to how I will introduce diverse teaching skills into myclassroom, as Herring (2008) instructs to do, is to use various types of teaching and learningwithin a lesson or set number of lessons to try and reach out to all students and their variouslearning abilities. Davis (1993) quotes Solomon (1991), who says, “There are no universal
solutions or specific rules for responding to ethnic, gender, and cultural diversity in theclassroom, and research on best practices is limited” (p. 1). This small bit of research reinforcesthe idea that in culturally diverse classrooms, as in all classrooms, every learner is different, andit is the job of the teacher to find the correct learning style for the student so they can put forththeir best ability.Part TwoLinguistically diverse classroom Another student who speaks both the language of the learner and English, who would assist the student in their understanding of the English language until their proficiency increases. Books and study aides in English and the student’s primary language so that they may understand how to translate their language and work into English and be able to turn in completed schoolwork. Provide extra time on work in order for them to fulfill the workload expected of them and allow for comprehension of the material. One on one time with the student is helpful for both the student and the teacher. It is beneficial to the student because they are able to receive further explanation and clarification about what is expected of them. It is also beneficial to the teacher so that they may learn more about the student and their culture, and therefore learn about the problems they may be having and trying to help them achieve their educational goals. Usage of language or vocabulary in native tongue of that student to help them and educate others so that student can understand the link between the languages and learn
English faster, while also teaching native speakers about another culture and its unique characteristics.Multicultural classroom Studying the American Revolution through a multicultural lens allows the view of other cultures to relate what they can see according to what they experience. Can examine different cultures of students in classroom and compare with others. Look at international view of the war from students’ cultural point of view. Build on different levels of knowledge. Brings many different ways of thinking and discussing information (discussion, presentation).Cultural acceptance Student interaction to promote understanding of others. Discuss differences with class. Show achievements of people from many backgrounds. Ask students what they want to understand.Special Needs Provide extra time and clarification of concepts. Pair with a “buddy” in the class that may be able to help understanding in ways I may not. Use technology for providing additional assistance. Ask more experienced teachers and professionals about further ways of helping special needs students.
Reflection According to Standard 1, it is my job as a teacher to “understand the central concepts,methods of inquiry, and structures of the disciplines and creates learning experiences that makethe content meaningful to all students.” To accomplish this, my outline shows the root causes ofthe Revolutionary War and the many political and military battles that happened before, during,and after the war, and the results of a new country being born. To show my understanding of themethods of inquiry, I have listed all my resources and the methods for my students to use in theirown historical inquiries about not just the revolutionary, but any time period. And then to showhow I intend to create positive learning experiences for my students, I have included myworksheets and activities that will help them in the classroom. This Unit Plan will be useful in the future due to the fact that I will most likely beteaching U.S. History at some point in my career, and this unit plan will either be used in class oras a reference in creating another unit or lesson plan. Its relevance is therefore of great value tomy teaching career. I believe that overall, this Unit Plan is a good job for my first time in creating somethingof its sort. I learned a great deal about further creating lesson plans, as well as seeing justanother small portion of how much work teachers put into planning for their classes. I also cansee that it does need further evaluation and as time progresses, so will my ability to create a morefinely tuned unit and lessons.
Resource PageDavis, B. (1993). Tools for Teaching. Retrieved July 1, 2008 fromhttp://teaching.berkeley.edu/bgd/diversity.htmlHerring, D. (2008). Diversity in the Classroom. Retrieved July 1, 2008 fromhttp://college.livetext.com/doc/806236Manning, M. (2003). Today’s Middle Schools Combining Education with LifeExperiences [Electronic version]. Qwest, 6(1).National Park Service. Suggested Reading List. Retrieved June 28, 2008, fromhttp://www.nps.gov/bost/forteachers/suggestedreading.htm.Susanne L. Hokkanen. History of the Islamic Empire Unit Plan. Retrieved June 18,2008, from http://portfolio.trnty.edu/sh17322/portfolio/Microsoft%20Word%20-%20AEDU%20380%20-%20Unit%20plan%20Final%20Production.pdfTimothy Gronholm. Edgar Allan Poe Unit Plan. Retrieved June 12, 2008, fromhttp://portfolio.trnty.edu/tg17774/portfolio/Edgar%20Allan%20Poe%20unit.pdf