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Penn state final product


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Penn state final product

  1. 1. “Penn State and The Scandal Within”How a CSR could have benefited Penn State. Brett Henderson Drur University
  2. 2. “Penn State and the Scandal Within” How much did Penn State officials know about an assistant footballcoach sexually molesting young children on their campus? Did theycommunicate their knowledge ethically? This is a question that can beanalyzed to determine if the people at the university responded to thesituation in an ethical manner. What exactly did they know? What actionsdid they take to make sure it would not happen again? Did they use thecorporate responsibility plan effectively to ethically communicate theinformation to ensure the safety of the children? Who did not take theright precautions to make sure it was taken care of? These are all validand important questions moving forward. The scandal that happened at Penn State was devastating to notonly the fans, but also the parents of young children who attended thenon-profit organization, Second Mile, that Jerry Sandusky ran on theuniversitys campus. In David Epstein’s article, the title says it all—“Missteps at Every Turn” (Epstein, D. Nov. 28, 2011). Epstein analyzes the“missteps” the Penn State officials took when handling this case. Hestates, “Even as Penn State’s faculty senate called on Friday for anindependent review of the university’s actions in the Sandusky case, andannounced the appointment on Monday of former FBI chief Louis Freeh tohead Penn State’s internal investigation, and the NCAA announced that itwould take up the question of institutional control in the Nittany Lion’s
  3. 3. football program, it was clear there’s plenty more to be done” (Epstein D.Nov. 28 2011). If all three organizations were conducting individual investigations,the chance that something went wrong in the communication process isprobable. In an article written by Brad Wolverton, he says, “Acommunication breakdown between senior officials and trustees at PennState University in reacting to the case against a former football coach,Jerry Sandusky, contributed to what some crisis-communications expertssay was a weak initial response by the institution” (Wolverton B. Nov. 25,2011). This obvious breakdown of communication needs to beexamined, and hopefully other people that come across this situation canlearn how to better handle such a tragedy. Looking at how Penn State officials handled the information theyreceived, the breakdown of ethics in communication that the officialsfailed to perform must be examined. It will also breakdown the CSR ofPenn State when looking at the firing of legendary coach , Joe Paterno,and whether they followed the correct steps or jumped the gun. First, the background story needs to be examined in order torealize the actions that resulted from it. In Brenda Medina’s article in theChronicle of Higher Education, she highlights a time line of whathappened. Starting in 1994, when Jerry Sandusky, an assistant footballcoach for Penn State, met a 10-year-old boy. For the next two years,
  4. 4. Sandusky touched the young boy inappropriately and showered withhim. From 1998-2000, Sandusky touched more children and made morepoor decisions with young boys. One of the children told his mother, andduring a phone call, Sandusky admitted to showering naked with the boy,and vowed to never shower with children again. Detectives were listeningto this phone call, and yet nothing happened to him (Medina B. Nov. 18,2011). In 1999, after being told he would not be the next head coach ofPenn State, Jerry Sandusky retired as an assistant coach. However, he wasgranted use of the facilities as part of his “emeritus status.” Just a yearlater in 2000, a janitor oversaw Sandusky performing oral sex on ayoung child, and although the janitor reported this to his supervisor, aformal report was never filed. In 2002, Michael McQueary witnessed Sandusky performing crudeacts and reported it to Joe Paterno. Paterno took the report to PennState’s athletic director, Tim Curley, and they were told that Sandusky’skeys were taken away from him. Paterno then informed Senior VicePresident, Gary Shultz, of the information he was given. The president ofthe University, Graham Spanier, was also informed of the situation andsaid, “I approve of how the situation was handled.” In 2011, Mr. Shultz and Mr. Curley testified in front of a jury andsaid the accusations toward Sandusky described to them by Mr. Paternoand Mr. McQueary “were not that serious” (Medina, B. Nov. 18, 2011).
  5. 5. Later in 2011, both stepped down from their positions and turnedthemselves into the police. Penn State’s Board of Trustees then fired Mr.Spainer and Joe Paterno (Medina, B. Nov. 18, 2011). This marked thebeginning of the fall-outs that resulted from the terrible situation thatJerry Sandusky brought upon the university. The firing of legendary coach, Joe Paterno, came as a surprise tothe avid fans of the coach and football program. Matt Millen, a formerplayer of Coach Paterno, told USA Today, “I am numb, forget the footballaspect. We just lost a great contributor to our society. He was more thana football coach. There are many living positive testimonies walkingaround because of Joe Paterno. He straightened out many lives” (Carey J.Jan. 26, 2012). Steve Shaffer, a season ticket holder who saw Paterno’sfirst win as a head coach, said, “the whole thing is like finding out therewas no Santa Claus” (Carey J. Jan. 26, 2012). The students gathered on Penn State’s campus to protest the firingof Joe Paterno and did not stay peaceful for long. According to an articlewritten by Emil Guillermo, “the football mentality took over as thegathering swelled into a full-scale riot with 2,000 people involved,numerous arrested and a television truck overturned” (Guillermo E. Dec. 82011). Without question, the decision to fire the longtime coach addedanother dim light to the university. Public outcry after his firing continued long after the riots hadfinished. Although his decision-making was called into question, he
  6. 6. communicated the information he received from McQueary ethically byreporting it to his superiors. Paterno said in a statement to the press, “Asmy grand jury testimony stated, I was informed in 2002 by an assistantcoach that he had witnessed an incident in the shower of our locker roomfacility. It was obvious that the witness was distraught over what he saw,but he at no time related to me the very specific actions contained in thegrand jury report” (Scott C. Nov. 7 2011). Paterno referred the incidentinvolving Sandusky, who had worked for Paterno for 23 years, to collegeadministrators (Scott C. Nov. 7 2011). The firing of the most winningcoach in football history was not only devastating to the Penn Statefamily, but the entire nation, as well. Continuing forth, there are two main issues worth examining whenit comes to the breakdown of communication involving this case. Thefirst issue is the official’s failure to communicate the information to theright sources in order to solve the problem from within the university.The second issue is how the president handled the situation with theboard once it leaked to the public. Both of these issues, if handledproperly, would have saved the university some heartache. The first concern to examine is the failure to communicateinformation. The first accusation on Penn State’s campus was in 1998,when a janitor witnessed Sandusky giving oral sex to a young boy in thelocker room showers. “The janitor was so upset he was moved to tears,and co-workers feared he might have a heart attack. They also feared for
  7. 7. their jobs” (Wertheim J. Nov. 21, 2011). No report was filed on thealleged events. The next event, and most publicly discussed, happened in 2002when McQueary witnessed Sandusky having anal intercourse with a youngchild in the showers on Penn State’s campus. McQueary then contactedJoe Paterno the next day, without interfering with Sandusky during theaction. Paterno contacted the athletic director, Mr. Curley, the next dayto inform him of the allegations. Curley relayed the information to VicePresident Schultz, who then passed the information on to PresidentSpainer. Although this can be analyzed as an ethical way of relayinginformation, the amount of people it traveled through diluted the detailsof the information. In the article This Is Penn State, Wertheim Curley said that passingalong the information “made a member of Curley’s staff uncomfortable”(Wertheim J. Nov. 21 2011). Mr. Curley contacted Second Mile, the non-profit Sandusky ran, and neither Curley, nor Second Mile, reported it tothe police. As a result, Sandusky was prohibited from bringing childrenon campus. This shows a complete breakdown in communication and wasnot handled in a way that would be deemed ethical. If any of the high-ranking officials, who, according to Jon Wertheim, includes Schultz andCurley, but excludes Joe Paterno, who is not classified as a “senior staffmember,” had called the police, maybe this situation would have nevercaused the harm to future children that it did.
  8. 8. The second issue to examine is how the president shared the newsof the situation with the Board of Trustees. In Brad Wolverton’s article, hesays, “ [a] decision not to notify the full board about the state attorneygeneral’s investigation and the charges against Mr. Sandusky may havehastened the departure of President Graham B. Spainer according topeople with knowledge of the boards deliberations” (Wolverton B. Nov.25, 2011). The board of trustees did not receive official news of theallegations until the coach was arrested, although they had heard news ofthe allegations on the radio or through family members who had readabout the scandal on various news sites and other sources. KennethFrazier, chairman of the board, told reporters, “the board learned aboutthis situation when it became public” (Wolverton B. Nov. 25, 2011). Thepresident did not let the board know about what was going on, as theyhad no idea and were blindsided when they heard about it second-hand. Mr. Spanier took it upon himself, without deliberating with theboard, to release a statement describing his “unconditional support” forMr. Curley and Mr. Schultz. He also showed little to no sympathy for thevictims. This shows the communication avenue had missing links and theboard had little to no say on the statements made by the “university.”The whole Board of Trustees should have a say on how the university willrespond to a situation. Richard Chait said, “I do think presidents need toshare information of great weight or potential magnitude almostimmediately with some predetermined subset of the board.” Mr. Chait
  9. 9. also said in his statement, “the more urgent the situation, the moreswiftly leaders must decide how much to say and to whom. It shouldprobably lift toward more information sooner” (Wolverton B. Nov. 25,2011). Thomas McMillen, a member of the University System of Maryland’sBoard of Regents, said “it’s a problem when presidents and athleticdepartments don’t fully inform boards about trouble ahead. Presidentsand boards need to establish a whole new level of relationship wherethere’s much transparency, and not delayed transparency, so boards canweigh this stuff appropriately” (Wolverton B. Nov. 25, 2011). The actionstaken by the president of the board prove he did not ethicallycommunicate with the rest of the board. If there had been somediscussion about the case, what information had been gathered and adecision made based on the outcome, there might have been a betteroutcome in the public eye. The singular fact that the board learned aboutthe arrest of Sandusky through the press proves a breakdown incommunication. To examine the ethical perspectives applied, we need to look atsome ethical principals that should have been applied. For thebreakdown regarding the information that Mr. McQueary had, it couldhave been solved ethically a few different times. Any one of the fourpeople (McQueary, Paterno, Curley, Shultz) with the knowledge of whatwas going on, should have contacted police. Carolyn Atwell-Davis says,
  10. 10. “Anybody may report it. States want people who are in a position tobecome aware of child sexual abuse to report their allegation” (Scherer R.Nov. 17, 2011). According to Mrs. Atwell-Davis, McQueary, Paterno, Curley andShultz should have contacted police about the information they knew. Inthe article Penn State Has No Defense, Sean Gregory states, “By informinga superior that a graduate assistant had witnessed Sandusky’s allegedsexual contact with a 10-year-old boy, Paterno says he was not told itwas rape, the Penn State Coach met his legal obligation. But what aboutthat moral influence?” (Gregory S. Nov. 21, 2011) This statement madeby Gregory questions the ethics involved by Paterno. In the Handbook of Communication Ethics, it defines corporatesocial responsibility as “Social virtues such as fairness, responsibility,accountability and community have always informed and shaped humaninteraction and organization, not least in the area of economictransactions” (Christensen L. pg. 457). According to this definition, if Mr.Paterno and Mr. McQueary had followed the CSR that should have been inplace at Penn State, he would have had an ethical responsibility to thecommunity to take actions into his own hands and contact the police. Asfor Mr. Curley and Mr. Shultz, they had a legal obligation to contact thepolice. In Ron Scherer’s article he states “Almost every state lists specificprofessions, especially those licensed by the state, that are expressly
  11. 11. required to notify both the police and child welfare agencies” (Scherer R.Nov. 17, 2011). Both Curley and Shultz had a legal and ethicalresponsibility to turn this in to police. Christensen examines the recentuse of Corporate Social Responsibility and states, “Today, the adherenceto social virtues usually takes place under the banner of “CorporateSocial Responsibility.” CSR refers to activities through which companiescontribute to a presumed better society and a cleaner environment byincluding the public interest into its decision-making” (Christensen 457). If any of the people involved in this had followed the basicoutlines of a CSR model, they would have solved the situation before itgot out of hand. Proper use of CSR could have saved jobs, and would haveprevented the negative publicity for the university. Not only would it havesaved these things, it would have also prevented some of the childrenfrom getting sexually molested. If they would have simply followed theCSR model, all of this would have been prevented. That is why a CSRmodel is so important. Implications Through my analysis of the allegations of sexual child abusescandal that happened on Penn States campus, I found there was moreunethical behavior than I originally thought. When I first heard about thecase, in my opinion, I believed that Coach Paterno was wrongfully fired. Ibelieved before researching this case that Paterno did the right thing by
  12. 12. relaying the information he received. However, after studying the facts, Ihave come to the conclusion that Paterno should have been fired as headcoach of the Penn State University football program. He simply did notfollow the corporate social responsibility model of the university like heshould have. I also believe he had a responsibility to the community to takeaction against Jerry Sandusky and turn it over to the police. Sean Gregorysaid it best in his article Penn State Has No Defense, “Paterno, the biggestman on campus, chose to punt this problem to a Penn State Universitybureaucrat” (Gregory. S Nov. 21, 2011). I found through my analysis that there is a clear understandingthat a situation like this can be made more ethical in the future. I believeevery university, not only Penn State, should look at their CSR model andtake it seriously. Every employee should be trained on the company’s CSRmodel and should be held accountable for following it, due in large partto the crisis that it can help prevent.. I believe the role of a CSR modelcould have changed the outcome of this case drastically, and would havesaved Penn State and Joe Paterno’s reputation. Larry Henderson, an avid college football fan, had this to say aboutthe crisis, “It’s extremely ironic that the institution and image that JoePaterno worked his whole life to build, and tried to protect by doing theminimal legal thing, ended up being destroyed by not doing the ethicalthing. How untouchable they must have felt to hide the truth, and
  13. 13. underestimate the public’s ability to recognize and support the institutionunder turmoil created by doing the right thing. Now lives are destroyed,and it is even more difficult for the institution and supporters to recover,and the legacy Joe Paterno worked so hard to preserve is tarnishedforever.” The biggest communication phenomena that I took away from myanalysis was the important role a corporate social responsibility modelcan be to a company. I believe it’s in the best interest for everyone who isrunning a business to make sure the company’s model is being usedeffectively. My analysis made me realize that if Penn State would havefollowed their CSR model from the beginning, it would have saved themfrom the outcome that was seemingly forced upon them in the end. Conclusion The book Ethics in Human Communication, Johanssen speaks ofethics and personal character. According to this book, ethics andpersonal character include “emphasis on duties, obligations, rules,principles and the resolution of complex ethical dilemmas has dominatedthe contemporary philosophy of ethics” (Johanssen R. pg 10). In both cases analyzed, neither one used appropriate ethicalmeasures to communicate the information to solve the issue at hand.Communications addressing the CSR Model at Penn State University issomething that should have been taken very seriously. Each partyinvolved in the first case analyzed, Paterno, McQuery, Curley, Shultz, did
  14. 14. not follow the CSR. The result of this lack of ethical communicationballooned into a bigger issue than anyone ever imagined. The aftermathresulted in legendary coach Joe Paterno getting fired, Shultz and Curleystepping down from their position and turning themselves into the police,and McQuery being suspended from coaching. All of the aftermath couldhave been avoided and the reputation of the university saved bypracticing ethical communication and following the corporate socialresponsibility model. Through the training of CSR and ethical communication, thescandal that occurred at Penn State University involving Jerry Sanduskysexually molesting young kids, could have been avoided. The main focusof this paper was to understand how the repercussions could have beenavoided. It also serves as a different outlook on how a situation similarto this can be handled in a different manner in the future.
  15. 15. Annotated Bibliography1. Scott, D. (2011, November 7). Jerry Sandusky: What did Penn States Joe Paterno know about him? (video). Christian Science Monitor. p. N.PAG. a. In this article, author David Scott writes about what hall- of-fame coach Joe Paterno knew about the Jerry Sandusky case. The article talks about when Joe Paterno received this information, and what he did about it. It also talks about what Paterno said in a press release after the incident was made public. It has quotes from the athletic director, the senior vice president for finance, as well as Penn State’s president. This article is from the point-of- view of “What did Joe Pa know and when did he know about it.”2. DeKay, S. H. (2011). Doing What’s Right: Communicating Business Ethics. Business Communication Quarterly, 74(3), 287- 288. doi:10.1177/1080569911413813 a. This article is about doing what is right in communication ethics. This will help me understand what ethics really is and how Penn State followed or didn’t follow the rules. I think that this article is great for a deeper understanding on how to communicate within the business world.3. Barnes, M. C., & Keleher, M. (2006). ETHICS IN CONFLICT. Business Communication Quarterly, 69(2), 144-157. a. This paper is about the ethical steps that people need to take in a communication setting. The biggest issue is dealing with conflict and how to do it ethically. This will help me because I feel the way Penn State treated Joe Paterno in the firing was not ethical.4. Joe Paterno. (2011). Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition, 1. a. This is an article about Joe Paterno’s life and information about his life. This gave me a look into his life prior to his legendary coaching career. I liked this article because it gave me solid facts about his personal life, which will allow me to get a better look at what he was about.
  16. 16. 5. Guarino, M. (2012, February 14). Do ex-daughter-in-laws allegations change Jerry Sandusky case?. Christian Science Monitor. p. N.PAG. a. This article is written about Jerry Sandusky’s ex-daughter- in-law. She has allegations against him, saying he sexually molested one of her children. This gives me more insight about what kind of person Jerry Sandusky continues to be.6. Wolverton, B., Stripling, J., & Hebel, S. (2011). An Icon Falls, and a President With Him. Chronicle Of Higher Education, 58(13), A1-29. a. This article is written about how an “Icon Falls and a President with Him.” The title explains a lot because it’s about how Joe Paterno and the president of the university both got fired. They were let go because of the actions that Jerry Sandusky, and two big members of the university, suffered from his actions. It also goes on to talk about the trail of accusations that is going to be pressed up Sandusky. b. c. Rieder, R. (2011). Making a Statement. American Journalism Review, 33(3), 2. d. The article discusses the story in the "Patriot-News" newspaper of the Penn State scandal involving allegations that former football coach Jerry Sandusky abused young boys during his tenure with the university. He was a longtime assistant coach to Joe Paterno. He got a lot of people in trouble, a lot of high ranking officials including head coach, Joe Paterno. The author commends the Harrisburg, Pennsylvania newspapers front page editorial, calling for the resignations of Paterno and University President Graham Spanier, and the decisions of editor Jeanette Krebs.7. Friedman, M. S., Marshal, M. P., Guadamuz, T. E., Wei, C., Wong, C. F., Saewyc, E. M., & Stall, R. (2011). A Meta-Analysis of Disparities in Childhood Sexual Abuse, Parental Physical Abuse, and Peer Victimization Among Sexual Minority and Sexual Nonminority Individuals. American Journal Of Public Health, 101(8), 1481-1494. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2009190009 a. This article is written about what childhood sexual abuse is, how to detect it and the harm it does to children. It has
  17. 17. useful information regarding studies on how it can affect the children and what it means to the victims. It is a well written article and will help me describe what actions Sandusky performed and how it damaged the children.8. Solomon, G. (2011). Slow to React. American Journalism Review, 33(3), 28-51. a. The article discusses the reporting in the "Patriot-News" newspaper of the Pennsylvania State University sex scandal involving allegations that former football coach Jerry Sandusky abused young boys during his tenure with the tacit consent of other officials including head coach Joe Paterno. The author commends the Harrisburg, Pennsylvania newspapers front page editorial calling for the resignations of Paterno and University President Graham Spanier, and the decisions of editor Jeanette Krebs.9. Jonsson, P. (2011, November 15). Bob Costas interview: Did Jerry Sandusky make things worse for himself?. Christian Science Monitor. p. N.PAG. a. This article is about an interview with famous sports journalist, Bob Costas, and Jerry Sandusky. The article talks about if Jerry Sandusky’s lawyer made things worse by letting the former Penn State coach talk about the case. The interview was supposed to make Sandusky look better to the public by denying that he was a pedophile, and clear up the actions that took place. What happened is it made him seem guilty and “Sandusky’s words and behavior bore striking similarities to the kind of coping strategies that sexual predators use to deflect guilt and psychologically survive being confronted with their crimes.” That quote from lawyer Jeff Anderson, who represents cases of victims of child abuse and sexual assault, pretty much breaks down the whole article and what Sandusky said compared to other sexual offenders.10. Wolverton, B., Stripling, J., & Hebel, S. (2011). An Icon Falls, and a President With Him. Chronicle Of Higher Education, 58(13), A1-29. a. This article, written by Brad Wolverton, is broken into different sections describing events and outlooks from the situation. The first sections talks about the trial of accusations, where it discusses what happened and what
  18. 18. Jerry Sandusky has been charged with. The next section talks about unanswered questions, whether it’s who to blame, what Mike McQueary told the coaches and if moral requirements can be brought up in a court of law. The next three sections of the article are talking about the president, the closing of the program that Sandusky ran and finally a section on Joe Paterno.11. Wood, D. B. (2011, November 8). How rage over Jerry Sandusky sex-abuse scandal engulfed Joe Paterno. Christian Science Monitor. p. N.PAG. a. This article is about the reaction that Joe Paterno had over the information he received regarding the Jerry Sandusky case. The article also talks about how he was forced out of coaching as well as what was going to happen to the university. This article also talks about the graduate student who turned Sandusky in. Mark Tatge has a lot of input in this article, as he is a journalism professor at DePauw University.12. Wertheim, L., & Epstein, D. (2011). THIS IS PENN STATE. (Cover story).Sports Illustrated, 115(20), 40-53. a. This article in Sports illustrated is called “This is Penn State.” This talks about how the college in State College Pennsylvania reacted. The first quote of the article tells a lot about what the article is about. “Had Sandusky not been so brazen, had he simply restricted himself to the football facilities, there is little to suggest he would have been caught. For Sandusky, if not for the boys, Penn State was a safe haven.” This article talks about how Penn State was seen as a University before and after the situation occurred.13. Bissinger, B. (2011). Penn States New Villain. Newsweek, 158(22), 4-5. a. Titled “Penn State’s New Villain” this article goes into detail about Jerry Sandusky’s life and how he affected the University with his crude actions. It goes into detail about how the grand jury works and how it will choose the outcome of the case. The main point that comes out of this article is that the investigation started long before it came to the public, and Tom Corbett, who is the Pennsylvania governor and was the attorney general, investigated him.
  19. 19. 14. Bennett, J., & Berstein, J. (2011). Complicit Wives. Newsweek, 158(24), 28. a. This article written in Newsweek is all about Jerry Sandusky’s wife. In this article, the author wonders about if Dottie Sandusky knew about what was going on and didn’t try to stop it. There is a lot of research used in it about other cases, such as Syracuse’s coach Bernie Fine and his wife, as well as other pedophiles and their situations. The research says that males are more likely to be able to live a double life and not show any signs of the crimes they are committing.15. Gregory, S., Webley, K., & Dodds, E. (2011). PENN STATE OF MIND. Time,178(23), 48-51. a. This Time Magazine article written by Sean Gregory is about the impact these crude acts has on the football team as a whole. It talks about the recruits, the players and the coaching staff. This also talks about the impact it has on the financial side of the college game and how it taints that. It also discusses how the safety of the college town feels not as safe now and is a problem for the students. This article is very interesting to me on how this not only affected the campus, the sport and the town, but also the students, the family’s and the players.16. Wolverton B., & Sander, L. (2011). Failure to Alert Board Cost Penn States Leadership Dearly. (Cover story). Chronicle Of Higher Education, 58(14), A1-A9. a. In this article, it discusses the communication process for this incident and how it cost the boards leadership in a negative manner. It also talks about the board of trustees and the communication breakdown that went on between the senior officials and trustees at Penn State. It talks about the governing board as part of the president’s job and how he needs to speak openly with them. This article is all about the board and how the communication breakdown lead them down a bad path.17. Solomon, G. (2011). Slow to React. American Journalism Review, 33(3), 28-51. a. In the “Slow to React” article, it’s all about how the other news outlets were late to cover the story. “Back in March, the Patriot News in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, broke the story of the grand jury investigation that triggered the
  20. 20. massive Penn State child abuse scandal. But other news outlets were slow to follow.” This article was all about how this one news paper in Harrisburg leaked the story about the investigation but no one else wanted to believe it.18. Bissinger, B. (2011). Open Secrets. Newsweek, 158(21), 4. a. This article was not only written about Jerry Sandusky but college athletics as a whole. This article talks about how coach’s know to much, participate in illegal activities and have low moral values when it comes to recruiting players. In the case of Jerry Sandusky there was no ethical value when it came to the communication of the known information by the coach’s and the board as well as the president. This article talks about the ethics in college athletics.19. Gregory, S. (2011). Penn State Has No Defense. Time, 178(20), 17. a. This article is mainly talking about the football team and, more importantly, about Joe Paterno and what he meant to the university. The article talks about JoePa and how he coached, what he did for the community and his records and how everyone at Penn State looked up to him like he was their godfather. It also explains his side of the story and about how he felt he fulfilled his legal obligation with the information that he knew. This article evaluates the leadership of the coach, to president, to Sandusky to the assistant that turned him in.20. Epstein, D., & Wertheim, L. (2011). Missteps at Every Turn. Sports Illustrated,115(21), 24-25. a. In this article written in Sports Illustrated, they discuss the missteps that Penn State had on every level. They breakdown into a timeline of each event in order to get a better understanding on what happened and when it happened. They also breakdown the communication process and how it could have changed the outcome of the investigation and the event. It also talks about other colleges that have gotten in trouble for other issues and comparing the way they were handled to the way Penn State handled its situation.
  21. 21. 21. Koller, D. L. (2011). Its a Guy Thing at Penn State, and Thats a Problem.Chronicle Of Higher Education, 58(15), A17. a. This article is about the differences between men and women in this situation. Dionne Koller talks about how women are more likely to have been victims than men, so they have a different out look on the situation. They also have more emotions and act differently and more mother- like when it comes to sensitive situations. She also talks about the leadership would have taken a different path if they were women who were on the board. She says “At heart, the Penn State story shows why representation of women in athletic programs is not just about statistics or abstract notions of “equality.” A different voice, shaped by a different gender experiences, might have seen the situation not from the position of a “brotherhood” attempting to preserve the power and image and revenue that were propping up Peen State’s football franchise, but instead by recognizing the gravity of the victimization that may have been taken place.”22. Blumenstyk, G., & Stripling, J. (2011). Anger Darkens Mood on Campuses.Chronicle Of Higher Education, 58(15), A1-A9. a. This article speaks of the anger, darkness and bad moods on the campus of Penn State University. This talks about controversial leadership decisions that lead to a campus full of skepticism and gloom. This also discusses the politics of today teamed up with the power of social media, as well as the vast majority of media outlets have hurt the program as well. This article also targets Penn State and says they are in the media cross-hairs and have to do everything correct to keep their name out of the media and get credibility back.23. Troop, D. (2012). An Opaque Stop on the Penn State Presidents Transparency Tour. Chronicle Of Higher Education, 58(20), A9. a. This article is an “Opaque Stop on the Penn State President’s Transparency Tour.” This is the title of the article written by Don Troop, but it also explains what the article is about. In this article, it talks with Rodney Erickson and the direction that Penn State University is going when choosing a new president. This article goes through and talks about how they are going to take it slow, and open as they chose a new president to take over during a situation like this in which they got themselves in.
  22. 22. “Openness and communication are my guiding principles and watchwords.” That is the process that is going to be taken to choose a new person for this high-pressure position.24. White, C. R. (2012). YOUR VOICE MATTERS. Essence (Time Inc.), 42(9), 16. a. This article is written about a topic that could have saved the university, the coach’s, and more importantly, kids in the process. In this article called “Your Voice Matters,” it explains the need to speak up for yourself in a situation that needs it. But also in this article it explains that you need to speak up for people who can’t in order save lives. Children continued to get hurt for a long time because people chose not to step up and be a man and take on the challenge of what happened in Penn State.25. Jack, C., & Kelly, W. (n.d). Paternos final month marred by Sandusky scandal.USA Today. a. This article written in USA Today is about Joe Paterno’s final month on earth as one of the winningest coaches in sports history. As a legend to the game of college football and a godfather on Penn State’s campus, the allegations that have been brought to campus have tainted his status some. Everyone on campus and around the nation loves JoePa and what he had stood for. This article breaks down what JoePa thought was the right process of doing what he did.26. Guillermo, E. (2011). The Wrong-Way Protestors at Penn State. Diverse: Issues In Higher Education, 28(22), 9. a. This article is written about the way protesters at Penn State were protesting wrong. The peaceful gathering of 2,000 fans quickly turned into a physical protest where people became angry and arrested. This didn’t protest on the fact of what happened with the sex abuse scandal, but the firing of Joe Paterno. This was the wrong thing to protest and it shows a lack of communication from the university and the public.27. Medina, B. (2011). How Penn States Sex-Abuse Scandal Unfolded: a Timeline.Chronicle Of Higher Education, 58(13), A4- 30.
  23. 23. a. This article, written by Brenda Medina in the Chronicle of Higher Education, is about the Jerry Sandusky case in which children of his charity might have been sexually abused. This article is a timeline of how Penn State’s sex abuse scandal unfolded. This article walks through each incident that happened until the public was finally notified of the situation and it was brought out in the media. In this article it starts in 1994 where he meets his first boy, and continues all the way to 2011 where he gets turned in for sexual misconduct.28. Scherer, R. (2011, November 17). Penn State lesson: what to do if you suspect sexual abuse of a child. Christian Science Monitor. p. N.PAG. a. This article is written on how to react or what to do if you hear about a sexual abuse of a child or of any kind. This article breaks down the steps that Penn State should have followed in order to keep the kids out of future harm. In the article it says that in every state lists specific professions especially those licensed by the state that are required to notify both the police and the child welfare agencies. There were many steps that Penn State did wrong and this article is proof of that.29. Posnanski, J. (2012, January 30). The Final Days. Retrieved from Sports Illustrated website: Article a. This article is written in the months after Joe Paterno died. This was a tribute to his life and how he was a great coach who has been overshadowed by the situation that his long time assistant coach put him in. Joe Paterno was fired from Penn State, and in his final days after being released, he was dying with cancer. People would visit his house and visit the hospital until the very last breath.30. Arnett, R. C., Harden Fritz, J. M., & Bell, L. M. (2009). Communication Ethics Literacy. California: Sage. a. This is a comprehensive and engaging treatment of communication ethics combined with student application and theoretical engagement. Communication ethics literacy reviews classic communication ethics approaches and extends the conversation about dialogue and difference in public and private communication periods.
  24. 24. 31. Johannesen, R. L., Valde, K. S., & Whedbee, K. E. (2008). Ethics In Human Communication. Ilinois: Waveland Press. a. This book is broad but also very precise in explanation of the ethics that it teaches. It provides a thorough and comprehensive overview of philosophy perspective and contexts that pinpoint ethical issues that are common with human communication.32. Cheney, G., May, S., & Munshi, D. (2011). The Handbook of Communication Ethics. New York, New York: Routledge. a. The HCE serves as a comprehensive guide to the study of communication and ethics. It brings together analysis and applications based on recognized ethical theories as well as those outside the traditional domain of ethics, but which engage important questions of power equality and justice.