Internet Literacy Project


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Internet Literacy Project

  1. 1. The Package Brennan Griffin, Mrs. Sandoval, 5/7/2008 9:45AM EST, Internet Literacy Project, BTT101
  2. 2. Part 1 History <ul><li>Today, most people have a computer in their home. They are an integral part of our everyday day lives and help us accomplish the most simple of tasks, right down to getting a needed phone number. Do we really appreciate and know how the computer was first developed and where it came from? </li></ul><ul><li>IT STARTED WITH THE TYPEWRITER… </li></ul><ul><li>Before the computer and electricity there was the typewriter. There were many contributors to this invention, so there can be no credit given to any single person. The history of the typewriter starts in 1714 with Henry Mill , British Inventor, who obtained a patent for what seems to be similar a similar invention to the typewriter. </li></ul><ul><li>From 1829 to 1870 many inventors tried to patent a typing device in both Europe and America. However, none of these patents / inventions went into commercial production. Some of these inventors include Henry Mill (a British Inventor) and William Austin Burt (American inventor, legislator, surveyor, and millwright). For a more complete list visit Wikipedia.Org . </li></ul><ul><li>In 1870 a Danish inventor Rasmus Malling -Hansen became the first person to commercially sell the typewriter in 1870 and in that same year Thomas Edison invented the first electric typewriter. </li></ul><ul><li>Inventors spent years working to perfect this, only to see newer technology make it obsolete. Just like the model T did to the horse and carriage. </li></ul><ul><li>THE FIRST COMPUTER DEVELOPED… </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Babbage , also know as “the father of computing”, originated the idea of a programmable computer. “Babbage’s engines were among the first mechanical computers, although they were not actually completed, largely because of funding problems and personality issues. He directed the building of some steam-powered machines that achieved some success, suggesting that calculations could be mechanized. Although Babbage’s machines were mechanical and unwieldy, their basic architecture was very similar to a modern computer. The data and program memory were separated, operation was instruction based, the control unit could make conditional jumps and the machine had a separate in/output unit.” </li></ul><ul><li>The Atanasoff Berry Computer (AKA ABC) was the first electronic computer which weighed more than 700 pounds. Work began on this computer in 1937 by John Vincent Atansaoff and Clifford Berry. This new machine was capable of solving up to 29 simultaneous linear equations. However, the input/output was unreliable and its inventors had to leave Iowa State University for World War II in 1942, leaving the progress of their project untouched. Because the inventors had left for war they were not widely known until the machine was rediscovered in the 1960’s which caused the controversy of the first computer. </li></ul><ul><li>“ The ABC first demonstrated in 1939 may not have been much of a computer, just as the Wrights’ model was not much of an airplane, but it opened the way,” said Allan R. Mackintosh , Professor at the University of Copenhagen. </li></ul><ul><li>The ENIAC was invented by John Mauchly and John Presper Eckert in 1943. The physical size of this machine is enormous compared to the computers we have today. According to Wikipedia the ENIAC “contained 17,468 vacuum tubes, 7,200 crystal diodes, 1,500 relays, 70,000 resistors, 10,000 capacitors and around 5 million hand-soldered joints. It weighed 30 short tons (27 t), was roughly 8.5 feet by 3 feet by 80 feet (2.6 m by 0.9 m by 26 m), took up 680 square feet (63 m²), and consumed 150 kW of power. Input was possible from an IBM card reader, while an IBM card punch was used for output.” </li></ul><ul><li>1973 the U.S. District Court invalidated the ENIAC patent and ruled that the ABC was th e first computer. </li></ul><ul><li>In an interview with John Presper Eckert conducted by Alexander Randall 5th , Professor of Communication at the University of the Virgin Islands, asked several questions pertaining to the ENIAC: </li></ul><ul><li>Randall : What could that machine do? </li></ul><ul><li>Eckert : </li></ul><ul><li>“ It could solve linear differential equations, but only linear equations. It had a long framework divided into sections with a couple dozen shafts buried through it. You could put different gears on the shafts using screwdrivers and hammers and it had “integrators,” that gave [the] product of two shafts coming in on a third shaft coming out. By picking the right gear ratio you should get the right constants in the equation. We used published tables to pick the gear ratios to get whatever number you wanted. The limit on accuracy of this machine was the slippage of the mechanical wheels on the integrator. That made me say, “Let’s built electronic integrators and stick them into this machine instead of those wheel things.” We added several dozen motors and amplifiers and circuits using over 400 vacuum tubes, which, as electronic things go, is not trivial. The radio has only five or six tubes, and television sets have up to 30. The Nova Chord organ was built prior to this and it has about 170 tubes. The Bush Analyzer was still essentially a mechanical device. That led me to examine if I could find some way to multiply pulse numbers together so I didn’t need gears — then I could do the whole thing electrically. There’s a theorem in calculus where you can use two integrators to do a multiplication. I talked with John Mauchley about it. Just who put in which part is hard to tell, but the idea of doing the integrations by counters was mine. The ENIAC was the first electronic digital computer and could add those two 10-digit numbers in 0.0002 seconds — that’s 50,000 times faster than a human, 20,000 times faster than a calculator and 1,500 times faster than the Mark 1. For specialized scientific calculations it was even faster.” </li></ul><ul><li>Randall : What did ENIAC’s room look like? </li></ul><ul><li>Eckert : </li></ul><ul><li>“ We built ENIAC in a room that was 30 feet by 50 feet, at the Moore School in West Philadelphia on the first floor.” </li></ul><ul><li>Randall : How many people were working on ENIAC? </li></ul><ul><li>Eckert : </li></ul><ul><li>Total count was about 50 people, 12 of us engineers or technical people. Mauchley was teaching part-time, others had part-time jobs. I was on it full-time as chief engineer. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to this interview Randall discussed the controversy of who built the first computer. This is what Eckert had to say: </li></ul><ul><li>“ In the course of a patent fight, the other side brought up Atanasoff and tried to show that he built an electronic computer ahead of us. It’s true he had a lab bench tabletop kind of thing and John [Mauchley] went out to look at it and wrote a memo, but we never used any of it. His thing didn’t really work. He didn’t have a whole system. That’s a big thing with an invention: You have to have a whole system that works. John and I not only built ENIAC. It worked. And it worked for a decade doing what it was designed to do. We went on to build BINAC and UNIVAC and hundreds of other computers. And the company we started is still in operation after many name changes as Unisys, and I am still working for that company. Atanasoff may have won a point in court, but he went back to teaching and we went on to build the first real electronic programmable computers, the first commercial computers. We made a lot of computers, and we still are.” </li></ul><ul><li>TODAY, COMPUTERS SMALL ENOUGH FOR YOUR HOME… </li></ul><ul><li>The Apple Macintosh debuts in 1984. It features a simple, graphical interface, uses the 8-MHz, 32-bit Motorola 68000 CPU, and has a built-in 9-inch B/W screen. </li></ul><ul><li>THE PORTABLE COMPUTER… </li></ul><ul><li>Early scientists said “computers will never be small enough to be portable” </li></ul><ul><li>The Epson HX-20 was considered first portable computer (AKA Laptop, Notebook) was developed in 1981. It was the size of a sewing machine and was not battery operated. </li></ul><ul><li>TODAY’S TECHNOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>Computers were once looked upon as a unimportant piece of technology “I think there is a world market for maybe five computers” – Thomas Watson , Chairman of IBM, 1943, “There is no reason anyone would want a computer in their home” – Ken Olsen , President, Chairman and Founder of Digital Equipment Corporation, 1977, now inventors have been trying to perfect and improve the core operating functions of the computer. Computers that were initially built for calculation purposes has now led us into the twenty first century of portable laptops, handheld PDA’s, desk tops, robotics (self-cleaning vacuum, robot toys, etc), animated films, GPS Systems, world wide web, and so much more. </li></ul><ul><li>As our technology continues to advance rapidly, I wonder what inventions will created in the near and distant future? Will desktops become obsolete and replaced by another form of technology? Will newer advances in electronic technology replace the need for paper? One thing that frightens me a little is computer technology replacing the need for human interaction. For example, the use of cameras in traffic lights, radar equipment to detect speed without a police officer ever pulling you over, GPS devices to track you where ever whenever, machinery replacing labor in the construction fields, and so many other areas that have been taken over the by the computer. Will these advances in technology eventually control us and replace people in the work field? These are questions we need to ask ourselves as we move into the next century. </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of future do you want for yourself and your kids? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Part 2 Page 1 Index <ul><li>Define </li></ul><ul><li>Validity </li></ul><ul><li>Bias </li></ul><ul><li>Confidentiality </li></ul><ul><li>Usefulness </li></ul><ul><li>Source: </li></ul>
  4. 4. Part 2 Page 2 Define, Validity & Bias <ul><li>A definition is a statement of the meaning of a word or phrase. The term to be defined is known as the definiendum (Latin: that which is to be defined ). The words which define it are known as the definiens (Latin: that which is doing the defining ). </li></ul><ul><li>The term validity as it occurs in logic refers generally to a property of deductive arguments, although many logic texts apply the term to statements (where a &quot;statement&quot; is something that has a truth value , such as true and false). For the purposes of this article, an argument is a set of statements, one of which is the conclusion and the rest of which are premises . The premises are reasons intended to show that the conclusion is, or is probably, true. </li></ul><ul><li>Bias is a term used to describe a tendency or preference towards a particular perspective , ideology or result. All information and points of view have some form of bias. A person is generally said to be biased if a reasonable observer would conclude that the person is markedly influenced by inner biases, rendering it unlikely for them to be able to be objective . </li></ul>
  5. 5. Part 2 Page 3 Confidentiality <ul><li>Confidentiality has been defined by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) as &quot;ensuring that information is accessible only to those authorized to have access&quot; and is one of the cornerstones of Information security . Confidentiality is one of the design goals for many cryptosystems , made possible in practice by the techniques of modern cryptography . </li></ul><ul><li>Confidentiality also refers to an ethical principle associated with several professions (eg, medicine, law, religion, professional psychology, journalism, and others). In ethics , and (in some places) in law and alternative forms of legal dispute resolution such as mediation , some types of communication between a person and one of these professionals are &quot;privileged&quot; and may not be discussed or divulged to third parties. In those jurisdictions in which the law makes provision for such confidentiality, there are usually penalties for its violation. </li></ul><ul><li>Confidentiality of information, enforced in an adaptation of the military's classic &quot; need-to-know &quot; principle, forms the cornerstone of information security in today's corporates. The so called 'confidentiality bubble' restricts information flows, with both positive and negative consequences (Harwood, 2006). </li></ul>
  6. 6. Part 2 Page 4 Usefulness <ul><li>In economics , utility is a measure of the relative satisfaction from or desirability of consumption of goods . Given this measure, one may speak meaningfully of increasing or decreasing utility, and thereby explain economic behavior in terms of attempts to increase one's utility. For illustrative purposes, changes in utility are sometimes expressed in units called utils . </li></ul><ul><li>The doctrine of utilitarianism saw the maximization of utility as a moral criterion for the organization of society. According to utilitarians, such as Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) and John Stuart Mill (1806-1876), society should aim to maximize the total utility of individuals, aiming for &quot;the greatest happiness for the greatest number&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>In neoclassical economics, rationality is precisely defined in terms of imputed utility-maximizing behavior under economic constraints. As a hypothetical behavioral measure, utility does not require attribution of mental states suggested by &quot;happiness&quot;, &quot;satisfaction&quot;, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Utility is applied by economists in such constructs as the indifference curve , which plots the combination of commodities that an individual or a society requires to maintain a given level of satisfaction. Individual utility and social utility can be construed as the dependent variable of a utility function (such as an indifference curve map ) and a social welfare function respectively. When coupled with production or commodity constraints, these functions can represent Pareto efficiency , such as illustrated by Edgeworth boxes and contract curves . Such efficiency is a central concept of welfare economics . </li></ul>
  7. 7. Part 3 Computer Shopping Links <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>http:// </li></ul>
  8. 8. Part 4 Information Links <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>http:// / </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>