EHOH 6614
Dana Baillet, Marisol Cruz, Ethan
Jamison, Breanna Kawasaki, and Meredith
Warman
April 2, 2014
• What is Lead?
• History of Lead Use
• Exposure
• Consequences of Exposure
• Case Studies
• Reforms
• How to Protect Your...
• Divalent cation (2 ions)
• Toxic substance
• Enzymes and proteins are distorted
• Various toxic properties
• Competes wi...
• Second Century B.C.: Lead
used to sweeten wine
• The sweetness of lead used to
balance the natural tannic
flavor of wine...
• Late 19th Century: Lead based paint found to have
toxic effects on children
• Brisbane, Australia 1904: Lead paint used ...
• Most lead poisoning in children now is due to dust
and chips from deteriorating paint
• Dust and soil from airborne lead...
• Early symptoms
• Chronic fatigue
• Irritability
• Loss of appetite
• Stomach discomfort/constipation
• Low attention spa...
• Brain and nervous
system damage
• Reduced IQ
• Learning disabilities
• Mental retardation
• Behavioral problems
• Hypera...
• Deficits found at blood lead
levels (BLL) of <7.5 μg/dL
• More severe deficits occur at
lower BLL
• No apparent threshol...
Impact of Low Blood Lead Concentrations on IQ
and School Performance in Chinese Children
• Objective: Relationship between blood lead
concentrations, children’s IQ, and school performance
• Overview:
• 1341 chil...
• Conclusion:
• Blood lead concentrations in early childhood, even
<10 μg/dL, have a long-term negative impact on
cognitiv...
Case Study 2
Early Childhood Lead Exposure & Academic Achievement:
Evidence From Detroit Public Schools, 2008–2010
• Objective: Long-term effects of early childhood lead
exposure on academic achievement among children in
Detroit Public S...
• Conclusion:
• High blood lead levels before age 6 were strongly
associated with poor academic achievement in
grades 3, 5...
• Key of protection: preventing or eliminating exposure
• Know the history of your home (constructed before
1978?)
• First...
• Lead abatement can be done by contractors to
reduce lead sources in your home
• Parents should work at reducing childhoo...
• The Colorado Department of Public Health and
Environment has in-state authority to regulate lead
under the Clean Air Act...
• Lead poisoning in children continues to be an
important global public health issue
• CDC considers lead poisoning the mo...
• Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Managing Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Young Children: Recommendations Fr...
11 lead poisoning presentation final 2014 03 26
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Lead Poisoning and Child IQ

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11 lead poisoning presentation final 2014 03 26

  1. 1. EHOH 6614 Dana Baillet, Marisol Cruz, Ethan Jamison, Breanna Kawasaki, and Meredith Warman April 2, 2014
  2. 2. • What is Lead? • History of Lead Use • Exposure • Consequences of Exposure • Case Studies • Reforms • How to Protect Yourself • Resources Photo retrieved from: http://periodictable.com/Elements/082/pictures.html
  3. 3. • Divalent cation (2 ions) • Toxic substance • Enzymes and proteins are distorted • Various toxic properties • Competes with calcium for binding sites, can damage the central nervous system • Prevents calcium from entering cells • Hinder cellular respiration • Impact the integrity of the blood-brain barrier Needleman, H. (2004) Photo retrieved from: http://images-of-elements.com/lead.php
  4. 4. • Second Century B.C.: Lead used to sweeten wine • The sweetness of lead used to balance the natural tannic flavor of wine • Wine was an integral part of life for upper-class Romans • Early 19th Century: Used as an insecticide in orchards Needleman, H. (2004) Wolz, S., Fenske, R. A., Simcox, N. J., Palcisko, G., & Kissel, J. C. (2003).
  5. 5. • Late 19th Century: Lead based paint found to have toxic effects on children • Brisbane, Australia 1904: Lead paint used in playground equipment linked to poor health outcomes for children • Australia: Lead banned from household use • 1914: Lead poisoning in children first uncovered in the United States • Initial theory that lead exposure resulted in death or full recovery • 1970s: Further research links lead poisoning to impaired cognitive function in children Needleman, H. (2004)
  6. 6. • Most lead poisoning in children now is due to dust and chips from deteriorating paint • Dust and soil from airborne lead in gasoline and dust from paint (playing in contaminated soil) • Lead can cross the placenta and be in breast milk • Other possible sources Jacobs DE, Clickner RP, Zhou JY, et al. (2002); Lanphear, Matte, Rogers, et al. (1998); CDC (2002)
  7. 7. • Early symptoms • Chronic fatigue • Irritability • Loss of appetite • Stomach discomfort/constipation • Low attention span • Insomnia US EPA ( 2013)
  8. 8. • Brain and nervous system damage • Reduced IQ • Learning disabilities • Mental retardation • Behavioral problems • Hyperactivity • Developmental delays • Anemia • Liver and kidney damage • Hearing loss • Coma or Death (in extreme cases) US EPA ( 2014); NSC (2009)
  9. 9. • Deficits found at blood lead levels (BLL) of <7.5 μg/dL • More severe deficits occur at lower BLL • No apparent threshold for cognitive impairment • Prenatal exposure to lead impacts cognitive development Lanphear (2005); Meyer (2008)
  10. 10. Impact of Low Blood Lead Concentrations on IQ and School Performance in Chinese Children
  11. 11. • Objective: Relationship between blood lead concentrations, children’s IQ, and school performance • Overview: • 1341 children (738 boys and 603 girls) from Jintan, China • Blood lead concentrations were measured when children were 3–5 years old • IQ was assessed using the Primary Scale of Intelligence • School performance was assessed by standardized tests on 3 major subjects (Chinese, math, and English) when children were 8–10 years old Liu et al. (2013)
  12. 12. • Conclusion: • Blood lead concentrations in early childhood, even <10 μg/dL, have a long-term negative impact on cognitive development • Compared to children with blood lead concentrations <8 μg/dL, those with blood lead concentrations ≥ 8 μg/dL scored 2–3 points lower in IQ and 5–6 points lower in school tests • No significant differences in IQ or school tests between children with blood lead concentrations groups 8–10 and ≥ 10 μg/dL
  13. 13. Case Study 2 Early Childhood Lead Exposure & Academic Achievement: Evidence From Detroit Public Schools, 2008–2010
  14. 14. • Objective: Long-term effects of early childhood lead exposure on academic achievement among children in Detroit Public Schools • Overview: • Linked early childhood blood lead testing surveillance data from the Detroit Department of Health and Wellness Promotion to educational testing data from elementary and junior high school students • Used data to investigate the effect of early childhood lead exposure on academic achievement among these children • Data adjusted for grade level, gender, race, language, maternal education, and socioeconomic status Zhang et al. (2013)
  15. 15. • Conclusion: • High blood lead levels before age 6 were strongly associated with poor academic achievement in grades 3, 5, and 8 • Negatively associated with academic achievement in elementary and junior high school, after adjusting for key potential confounders • The control of lead poisoning should focus on primary prevention of lead exposure in children • Need for development of special education programs for students with lead poisoning
  16. 16. • Key of protection: preventing or eliminating exposure • Know the history of your home (constructed before 1978?) • First step: Getting your child’s blood lead levels tested • Next: Identify possible points of exposure • Paint, water, dust, soil, etc. CDC (2005); CDPHE (2013); Lanphear (1998)
  17. 17. • Lead abatement can be done by contractors to reduce lead sources in your home • Parents should work at reducing childhood exposure to paint chips or dust • Not allowing your child to eat dirt or mouth metal objects • Give children foods rich in iron, vitamin C, and calcium • Use only cold water from the tap for drinking and cooking • Home test kits: see paint section in hardware stores CDC (2005); Lanphear (1998
  18. 18. • The Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment has in-state authority to regulate lead under the Clean Air Act • The Air Pollution Control Division certifies lead contractors for abatement and home inspection • Federal regulations require all realtors to warn/notify new residents of lead hazards • Colorado state regulations require renovators to distribute an EPA-approved lead hazard information pamphlet prior to any work in homes built before 1978 CDPHE (2013)
  19. 19. • Lead poisoning in children continues to be an important global public health issue • CDC considers lead poisoning the most preventable environmental disease among young children • There are many way to test for lead and to protect your children from exposure
  20. 20. • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Managing Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Young Children: Recommendations From the Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2002. Available at:www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/CaseManagement/caseManage_main.htm. Accessed February 20th, 2014 • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Preventing Lead Poisoning in Young Children A Statement by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2005. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/publications/prevleadpoisoning.pdf Accessed February 26th, 2014 • Colorado Department of Health and Environment. Lead Safety Time. Colorado Department of Health and Environment Informational Pamphlet. Colorado 2013. Available at: http://www.colorado.gov/cs/Satellite/CDPHE-AP/CBON/1251594599618 Accessed February 26th 2014 • Jacobs DE, Clickner RP, Zhou JY, et al. The prevalence of lead-based paint hazards in U.S. housing. Environ Health Perspect.2002;110 :A599– A606 • Lanpher, Bruce P. Burgoon, David A. Rust, Steven w. Eberly, Shirley. Galke, Warren. Environmental Exposures to Lead and Urban Children’s Blood Lead Level. Environmental Research, Section A 78,120-130 1998. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9515067 Accessed February 26th, 2014 • Lanphear, Bruce P., Hornung, Richard, Khoury, Jane, Yolton, Kimberly, Baghurst, Peter, Bellinger, David C., . . . Roberts, Russell. (2005). Low-Level Environmental Lead Exposure and Children’s Intellectual Function: An International Pooled Analysis. Environmental Health Perspectives, 113(7), 894-899. doi: 10.1289/ehp.7688 • Lanphear BP, Matte TD, Rogers J, et al. The contribution of lead-contaminated house dust and residential soil to children's blood lead levels. A pooled analysis of 12 epidemiologic studies. Environ Res.1998;79 :51– 68 • Liu, J., Li, L., Wang, Y., Yan, C., & Liu, X. (2013). Impact of low blood lead concentrations on IQ and school performance in Chinese children. PLoS One, 8(5), e65230. • Meyer, P. A., Brown, M. J., & Falk, H. (2008). Global approach to reducing lead exposure and poisoning. Mutat Res, 659(1-2), 166-175. doi: 10.1016/j.mrrev.2008.03.003 • Zhang, N., Baker, HW.., Tufts, M., Raymond, R.E., Salihu, H. and Michael R. Elliott. Early Childhood Lead Exposure and Academic Achievement: Evidence From Detroit Public Schools, 2008–2010. AJPH: March 2013, Vol. 103, No. 3, pp. e72-e77. • National Safety Council. (2009). LeadPoisoning Fact Sheet. http://www.nsc.org/news_resources/Resources/Documents/Lead_Poisoning.pdf • Needleman, H. (2004). Lead Poisoning. Annual Review of Medicine, 55, 209-222. • United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2014, Feb. 20, 2014). Lead. Retrieved Feb. 2014, from http://www2.epa.gov/lead • Wolz, S., Fenske, R. A., Simcox, N. J., Palcisko, G., & Kissel, J. C. (2003). Reidential Arsenic and Lead Levels in an Agricultural Community with a History of Lead Arsenate Use. Environmental Research, 93, 293-300.

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