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  1. 1. CALIFORNIA: A Map from 1650 (restored) depicting CaliforniaHISTORYBrandon Richards
  2. 2. Ch. 1Queen Calafia’s Island Early history of California began as myth Montalvo’s Las Sergas de Esplandian chronicled a race of black Amazons – Californians – under the control of Queen Calafia – The Californians rode griffins and fought with golden weapons; the area, itself, abound in precious stones and gold By the end of the story, Calafia, and the Californians, had become Christians; the Queen married a lieutenant and had further adventures
  3. 3.  While California appears quiet and serene from above, below it is a brewing of activity of clashing tectonic plates – which helped to give California the shape of its terrain Josiah Royce observed no lack of subtlety in California’s landscape: they proclaim a bold and heroic arrangement California houses 4 key ports: San Diego, San Francisco, Monterey, and Humboldt; the San Fran. harbor is considered amongst the top naturally formed harbors The dropping and rising of mountain ranges gives with it stark contrasts of the horizon
  4. 4.  More than 25 generations of Native Americans have made their history in California In 1492, with initial European contact with the U.S., an estimated 1/3 – more than 300,000 – Native Americans were living within the boundaries of what is now California Many, many tribes inhabited the state: Yuki, Tolowa, Karok, Hoopa, Pomo, Maidu – and many more. With this abundance of people, many linguistic/cultural features dot the state
  5. 5. Ch. 10 O Brave New World! California has been a hub of technology for decades Aviation technology was perfected in CA not long after its introduction; by the 30s, we were leading the way in atom-smashing; by the 50s, we helped to usher in digital technology via semiconductor breakthroughs At the top, CA reigns in Bio-Technology California has always been friendly and open to the pursuit of a truth or idea
  6. 6.  Ingenuity has been abound in California before, and following, the establishing of universities: the Pelton turbine – invented by Lester Pelton – helped to change waterwheel technology; Joseph Neri, after experimenting with electrical arc lighting, introduced electrical arc lights/reflectors on the Centennial July 4th, 1876 – demonstrating, for the first time in the world, public illumination via electricity; John Montgomery pioneered heavier-than-air flight, and was the first to ever record a flight: traveling a 600-foot distance at a 15-foot altitude; George Davidson, James, Lick, Richard Samuel Floyd, and George Ellery Hale helped to pioneer large-lens observatories; Lee de Forest, and Edwin Howard Armstrong pioneered amplifiers/oscillators to help broadcast music and voices; and many more inventions by many others
  7. 7.  One of the largest contributions technology-wise from California was from the Intel company, specifically Ted Hoff, who invented a processor chip that allowed programmed intelligence through software Hoff’s microprocessor was 1/16th of an inch long and had the calculating power of the ENIAC computer of 1945, which had to be housed across an expanse of 3,000-cubic ft. With this breakthrough of processing power/ability, people such as Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak, would help to lead the way to the mass market of personal computers
  8. 8. Ch. 12 Ecumenopolis Diversity has always been a large part of California’s history Native Americans and Mexicans were a primary force in the state; however, later, Spanish found its way in – people would claim to be “Spaniards,” but, only in reference to the crown The arrival of English, French, and Russian settlers helped the diversity flourish even more; the Gold Rush, also, brought with it a plethora of diverse peoples; also, the immigration of people from China, Japan, and Korea was, of course, mainly into California
  9. 9.  As diversity increases, so, too, does discrimination The Spanish were not too privy to the Natives when they arrived; in the late 19th century, growing anti-Chinese sentiment grew: crusades such as “Chinese Must Go”; anti-Japanese sentiment was also voiced in the vein of a “White California” – looking back, it now seems funny that these movement grew in San Francisco By the early 20th century, San Fran had the highest proportion of foreign-born residents relative to population than any other state Besides the anti-Asian movements in the 19th century, the largest discriminatory campaigns/events/what-have-you was standard white and black division Two major examples: Watts Riot (1965) and LA Riots (1995)
  10. 10.  The current problem facing California is that of illegal immigrants With it, of course, comes vast anti-illegal sentiment One issue faced – and still faced – is the debate regarding the inclusion – rather, catering to – Spanish-only teaching; however, the de facto language of California is English, and many consider it necessary for anyone entering and wishing to stay Allegiances to past culture should be somewhat shelved if one is to become a citizen; when one identifies as a citizen of California – and the U.S. – it shall be the prevalent identity if an immigrant is to become a part of the culture