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Smart brain training in education

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How SMART brain training can be used in education and schools

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Smart brain training in education

  1. 1. Dr. Sarah Cassidy B.S. (Hons) Psychology, PhD Psych Science Cert. CBT Professional Member APA, ACAMH (Ireland), NEPS (SCPA Panel) Educational Psychologist Behaviour Therapist Lecturer in Educational Psychology and Child Development www.raiseyouriq.com
  2. 2. S.M.A.R.T Brain TrainingS.M.A.R.T Brain Training Strengthening Mental Abilities with Relational Training
  3. 3. What is SMART?What is SMART? SMART is a scientifically developed educational brain training programme that has been proven in published scientific research to raise intelligence levels (measured using standardised IQ tests) by 20 - 30 IQ points. That makes SMART training a breakthrough in psychological science.
  4. 4. What is SMART?What is SMART? SMART is based on the new scientific discovery that "relational skills" underlie most forms of intelligence. Our computer based online brain training programme helps people to enhance their relational skills and their intellectual skills go up as a result. Let’s see if you have got good relational skills....
  5. 5. Who is your father’s sister’s sister-in-law ?
  6. 6. Some background information....Some background information.... What is Intelligence?What is Intelligence? • “The ability to learn, understand and make judgments or have opinions that are based on reason” -Cambridge Advance Learner’s Dictionary (2006) • “Ability to adapt oneself adequately to relatively new situations in life.” -R. Pinter, quoted in Sterberg (2000) • “Intelligence measures an agent’s ability to achieve goals in a wide range of environments.” -S. Legg and M. Hutter (2006) • “Intelligence is a general factor that runs through all types of performance.” -A. Jensen
  7. 7. What is Intelligence??What is Intelligence?? “Viewed narrowly, there seem to be almost as many definitions of intelligence as there were experts asked to define it.” --RJ Sternberg In a nutshell, intelligence is a summary of a set of skills that allows us to interact successfully with our environments.
  8. 8. What is IQ?What is IQ? An Intelligence Quotient is the measure of your performance on an IQ test RELATIVE to people of your own age and sex.
  9. 9. IQ RangesIQ Ranges 67% 96%
  10. 10. WISC-IVWISC-IV
  11. 11. Problems with intelligence testsProblems with intelligence tests While the WISC-IV does measure g, it fails to take other possible intelligences into account
  12. 12. Intelligence tests do not reward novel, creative, or divergent responses
  13. 13. Intelligence tests may be culturally biased
  14. 14. More recent evidenceMore recent evidence IQ scores are often stable across time ◦ i.e., if two tests are taken a few months / years apart the results are likely to be quite similar particularly for older children and adolescents. Test-retest correlations typically range from .70 - .85 We also know that IQ scores are good predictors of academic success, career success, and even health and happiness.
  15. 15. Some factors that that are linked toSome factors that that are linked to increases in IQincreases in IQ  Quality parent-child interactions: ◦ Emotionally responsive ◦ Language-rich ◦ Complex, stimulating environment ◦ High expectations ◦ Operate in children's ZPD  Early intervention e.g. Head Start, Carolina Abecedarian Project
  16. 16.  Education: “A year in education most likely increases IQ by somewhere between 2 and 4 points” (Winship & Korenman, 1997)  Nutrition (e.g., Lynn)  Enriched environments -- Brain plasticity (e.g. Rosenzweig ). Studies have shown that intellectual stimulation in the form of “cognitive training” can help to slow down cognitive decline in the elderly and among those with dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (Belleville, Gilbert, Fontaine, Gagnon, Menard & Gauthier, 2006; de la Fuente-Fernandez, 2006; Spector, et al., 2003; Willis et al., 2006; Wilson, et al., 2002).
  17. 17. Brain Plasticity The big challenge is to show that such interventions do more than simply improve people’s skills at the very tasks at which they practice. What is needed is evidence that training at one task type generalizes at least to real-life situations (e.g., involving problem- solving or remembering) or to other aspects of cognitive functioning.
  18. 18. Behavioral Psychologists study the SKILLS underlying intelligent behaviour. … and we study how to best teach them
  19. 19. A behavioral approach assumesA behavioral approach assumes intelligence to be a malleable skill setintelligence to be a malleable skill set (Cassidy, Roche, & O’Hora, 2010).(Cassidy, Roche, & O’Hora, 2010).
  20. 20. Relational Frame Theory and human intelligence A modern behavioral research programe has been designed specifically to understand how the skills associated with high intelligence might be established in educational interventions. In a nutshell, RFT is a functional-analytic behavioural theory of human language and cognition. RFT claims that the foundational skill for most intellectual abilities is Derived Relational Responding.
  21. 21. RFT and human intelligence What is Derived Relational Responding?? DRR is the skill of relating objects to each other in accordance with a small family of mathematical relationships (e.g. symmetry, equivalence, opposition, more-than, less- than). Equivalence is the most basic of the relations that can be trained.
  22. 22. Dog(spoken) “Dog”(written) Taught Derived “New” Verbal response
  23. 23. Multiple Exemplar Training Relations are taught by caregivers across multiple exemplars in normal language interaction (whether the caregiver realizes it or not). Equivalent
  24. 24. Multiple Exemplar Training By giving a child multiple exemplars, a caregiver is teaching a child skills that become more and more abstracted over time. From RFT perspective - all language for humans involves being able to use words in this abstracted way - that is use and respond to words whose meaning has been derived through equivalence. So according to RFT - language and deriving relations involve the same process.
  25. 25. What do we know so far??What do we know so far?? Relational skills are foundational to language. Language and intelligence are highly correlated. We can train language through MET.
  26. 26. Empirical evidence Relational skills are foundational to language (Lipkens, Hayes and Hayes, 1993, Devany, Hayes & Nelson, 1986; Barnes, McCullagh & Keenan, 1990). There is a correlation between WAIS subtests and a complex relational skill (O’Hora, Pelaez & Barnes-Holmes; 2005).
  27. 27. Relational skills are foundational to language O’Toole and Barnes-Holmes (2009) found that fluency at a complex relational task correlated with IQ as measured by the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test Gore, Barnes-Holmes and Murphy (2010) found significant correlations between performance on a test for deictic relations (i.e., perspective taking relations involving “I” and “You”, and “here” and “there” relations) and Full Scale (r = .43), Verbal (r = .45) and Performance IQ (r = .45; p.12) as measured by the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI; Psychological Corporation, 1999).
  28. 28. Related Experimental Work Barnes-Holmes, Barnes-Holmes, Smeets, Strand & Friman (2004). Barnes-Holmes, Barnes-Holmes & Smeets (2004). Berens & Hayes (2006). Gomez, Lopez, Martin, Barnes-Holmes & Barnes-Holmes (2007). These studies all showed that MET was an effective means of developing relational responding skills and these relational responding skills then successfully generalized to novel stimuli.
  29. 29. Implications…… If there is a connection between language, intelligence and relational skills (as all of the foregoing research has shown that there is) then improving relational skills should improve intelligence (as measured by commonly used IQ tests such as WISC, WAIS). Barring this research body, no other study to date has attempted to use MET to improve general cognitive abilities.
  30. 30. Cassidy, Roche & Hayes, (2011) researchCassidy, Roche & Hayes, (2011) research Experiment 1Experiment 1 Found mild and modest correlations between almost all subtests of WISC-IIIUK and speed of deriving symmetrical and transitive relations. Found that providing intensive relational skillsFound that providing intensive relational skills training to normally developing children raises theirtraining to normally developing children raises their IQ by more than one standard deviation and in someIQ by more than one standard deviation and in some cases by as much as 2 standard deviations.cases by as much as 2 standard deviations. Also found increases of as much as 30 points in full scale IQ scores in a small sample of normally functioning children who participated in a MET intervention designed to raise IQ score.
  31. 31. Cassidy, Roche & Hayes (2011) Experiment 2 8 children presenting with learning difficulties were administered a comprehensive psychometric assessment (IQ and attainment test) and a baseline test of relational abilities. All children then took part in an intensive relational training intervention programme over the course of an academic year. All children showed increased relational abilities and increased performance on an IQ test following the research programme. Mean IQ rise was 13 points. Many children moved from the categorisation of “LD” to the categorisation of “normal range”.
  32. 32. Some demographicsSome demographics Specific learning difficulty in reading Mild General Learning Disability, borderline general learning disabilities Mild to moderate delay in comprehension and expression of language, mild to moderate delay in vocabulary development, Specific learning difficulties in reading, writing and spelling ADHD ADHD, Specific learning difficulty in reading and mathematics Dyspraxia
  33. 33. Involvement with other professionalsInvolvement with other professionals Psychiatrist Clinical Psychologist Educational Psychologist Speech and Language Therapist Occupational Therapist Learning Support Teacher Resource Teacher SNA
  34. 34. •Children were re-assessed 4 years later andChildren were re-assessed 4 years later and it was found that no child returned to theirit was found that no child returned to their previously lower than average IQ score.previously lower than average IQ score. All IQ rises were largely maintainedAll IQ rises were largely maintained and in many instances, the IQ scoresand in many instances, the IQ scores (particularly verbal and reasoning(particularly verbal and reasoning skills) continued to rise.skills) continued to rise.
  35. 35. Read this again pleaseRead this again please IQ RISES WERE MAINTAINED FOUR YEARS LATER!
  36. 36. Cassidy et al. (2011, Experiment 2)... Baseline Post-Intervention Four-year Follow-up Mean SD Range Mean SD Range Mean SD Range Full Scale IQ 82.9 8.3 70-92 95.9 10.6 76-111 102.57 12.19 91-126 Verbal Comprehension 82.3 7.3 73-93 92.4 9.2 83-110 100.86 6.91 90-112 Perceptual Reasoning 82.1 10.3 65-96 94.5 6.7 84-106 103.14 16.12 83-123 Working Memory 94.9 16.6 59-116 97.5 12.3 77-116 88.14 14.78 65-103 Processing Speed 91.0 9.8 83-109 107 15.6 78-121 98.86 10.33 86-114 ✔ ✔ ✔ ✖ See Roche, Cassidy & Stewart, 2013 for more on four year follow-up ✖
  37. 37. Recent Study in a SchoolRecent Study in a School Replication of Cassidy et al (2011), using anReplication of Cassidy et al (2011), using an online relational skills training intervention asonline relational skills training intervention as offered at RaiseYourIQ.comoffered at RaiseYourIQ.com Fifteen mainstream school children (normal IQs)Fifteen mainstream school children (normal IQs) Administered the WISC-IV UK, standardAdministered the WISC-IV UK, standard scholastic tests, and a specially designedscholastic tests, and a specially designed Relational Abilities IndexRelational Abilities Index (RAI).(RAI). Twice weekly training sessions in Same,Twice weekly training sessions in Same, Opposite, More-than/Less-than relationalOpposite, More-than/Less-than relational responding.responding. Standardised tests re-administered followingStandardised tests re-administered following trainingtraining
  38. 38. Recent StudyRecent Study 55 training and testing stages55 training and testing stages 100% accuracy and high speed100% accuracy and high speed required on each block of training andrequired on each block of training and testingtesting 16-20 weeks to complete16-20 weeks to complete All stimuli were nonsense syllablesAll stimuli were nonsense syllables Every training and testing trial wasEvery training and testing trial was unique – only the FORMAT of derivedunique – only the FORMAT of derived relational responding was taughtrelational responding was taught
  39. 39. 40 Sample trial from one level ofSample trial from one level of training….training…. Relational Statements Relational Question 30s to Respond
  40. 40. Q: Which of these two coins is bigger? The size relation between these coins is non-arbitrarynon-arbitrary A: The 5c.
  41. 41. Which of these two coins is more valuable? “is greater than” In the context of value the relation between the coins is ARBITRARY. Kids must learn the ABSTRACT nature of “More than”
  42. 42. RAI ScoresRAI Scores Increase in relational abilities was significant (t=7.235, df =14, p<0.000).Increase in relational abilities was significant (t=7.235, df =14, p<0.000). Effect size (Cohen’sEffect size (Cohen’s dd) = 1.89 (very large).) = 1.89 (very large).
  43. 43. 46 Full Scale IQ ScoresFull Scale IQ Scores The increase in IQ from baseline to follow up was significant (t=19.18, df =14, p<0.000). Effect size = 4.96 (Cohen’s d, very large)
  44. 44. 47 Increase in IQ Percentile Rank
  45. 45. IQ Rises by Diagnostic CategoryIQ Rises by Diagnostic Category
  46. 46. Sigma T Sten ScoresSigma T Sten Scores Sigma TSigma T test measures standard mathematical ability in Irishtest measures standard mathematical ability in Irish SchoolsSchools. 49 Increase in Mathematical ability was significant (t=1.87, df=14, p<0.05, one-tailed) The Effect Size (Cohen’s d) was 0.5 (medium).
  47. 47. Micra T Sten ScoresMicra T Sten Scores Micra TMicra T test measures standard reading ability in Irish Schools.test measures standard reading ability in Irish Schools. 50 Increase in Reading ability was not significant (t=1.45, df=14, p>0.05) The Effect Size (Cohen’s d) was 0.37 (medium).
  48. 48. 51
  49. 49. If a woman were to marry her own adopted Son… What relation would she be to herself?
  50. 50. School Principal has noted....School Principal has noted.... “The kids enjoyed the training.  They were challenged by the varying sets of tasks and seem to have benefited from the programme in terms of their general intelligence.  There were marked improvements in IQ scores, but also in terms of their ability to concentrate in school, in their reading and in their mathematics.  We would definitely be interested in seeing all kids at the school benefit from this product.”
  51. 51. Resource Teacher has noted....Resource Teacher has noted.... “Having worked with some of the kids who have completed SMART, the improvements I have observed as a result of using this programme include increased confidence, increased ability to problem-solve, and greater speed and accuracy in completing tasks.  I believe the repeated practice of a set of skills in a staged manner enables a student to gain these improvements.  It is a type of 'brain training' that we, both adults and children, all can avail of to improve our cognitive abilities.”
  52. 52. Class Teacher has noted....Class Teacher has noted.... “I have been working with many of these kids since they were in Junior Infants.  I have seen the results of this programme in the last month and it is powerful.  Not only have the children's IQ's risen, but many of them have improved significantly in their reading, spelling and mathematics.”
  53. 53. What kids have said about SMART...What kids have said about SMART... P1/11 year old boy. I really liked the SMART training programme. It has helped me in school because I notice that it is easier to answer questions in maths. I’m also quicker to understand new stuff we haven’t learned before.   P2/12 year old boy. Maths are easier for me now and I am quicker at figuring things out in all my subjects. I feel like I am faster at everything in school now. I have definitely benefitted from this IQ programme. My reading and writing have improved too.  
  54. 54. What parents have said about SMARTWhat parents have said about SMART  I have noticed that my child’s problem solving skills are stronger since using the SMART programme. He seems to be using his head more. He is thinking more practically and approaching things more sensibly. For example, he is using concrete strategies to figure out why the SKY box wasn’t working. He thought of things that had never even crossed my mind. He also quickly rearranged some furniture in the office for me so that I could plug my phone charger in and use it at my desk while I worked. It was a silly thing that I should have probably thought of myself, but I didn’t and he did! He was not that type of child before. In fact, I would have described him as “flighty”. That’s why these things surprised me so much. He is also more settled into his work and he seems to be taking it more seriously now. His concentration and attitude toward his homework have improved. He also really enjoyed working at the programme so that was a relief to me because I really wanted him to do it.
  55. 55. Why Should This Matter toWhy Should This Matter to You??You?? SMART training helps people to....  Reach Intellectual Potential  Improve Problem Solving Skills  Enhance Creative Thinking  Increase Mental Processing Speed  Improve Ability to Learn
  56. 56. Why Should This Matter toWhy Should This Matter to You?You? The relational skills we train form the very building blocks of intelligence and teaching these skills will increase student’s abilities to access the curriculum in all subject areas, incl. mathematics, reading and spelling, science, etc THIS WILL MAKE YOUR JOB EASIER!!!
  57. 57. Implications Now we can! Perhaps for the first time in the history of psychology we have an educational technology with which we can literally nurture genius as well as supporting the students that most need our help, but for whom we very rarely have enough resources to properly support their needs.
  58. 58. Get a free two week trial for your school here: https://secure.raiseyouriq.com/schools See some of our media coverage here: https://secure.raiseyouriq.com/media-coverage Like us on Facebook here and listen to radio interviews: https://www.facebook.com/RaiseYourIQ Sign up for our newsletter here: https://secure.raiseyouriq.com/users/sign_up

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