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1
Cambridge
iGCSE
Paper 2
(Extended)
Revision Booklet
Exam: 8th
May
2 hours
2
Contents
5) How to answer Question 1
6) Question 1 checklist
7) How to answer Question 2
8) Question 2 checklist
9) How ...
3
72 – 73) 2i
74 – 75) 2j
76) 2k
77) 2l
Question 3:
79) 3a
80 – 82) 3b
83 – 85) 3c
86 – 87) 3d
88 – 90) 3f
91 – 93) 3g
94 ...
4
Top Tip:
Be strategic.YOU KNOW which
question is your weakness when it
comes to doing well on this exam.
Use the questio...
5
Question 1 Checklist
Put a tick next to
the ones you are
confident with
Question 1 – Unlocking the Question
1A I am able...
6
For the areas that you are not
confident with, use the
question therapy tasks to help
you.
7
Question 2 Checklist
Put a tick next
to the ones
you are
confident with
Question 2 – Unlocking the Question
2A I can ide...
8
For the areas that you are not
confident with, use the
question therapy tasks to help
you.
2I I can explain WHAT effect ...
9
10
Question 3 Checklist
Put a tick
next to the
ones you
are
confident
with
Question 3 – Unlocking the Question
3A I know W...
11
I would suggest answering the paper in the following way: Question 3, Question 2 and then Question 1.
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
More exam papers
and exemplar
responses are
available on the
English blog:
Englishbradon.wordpress.com
Password: Bradon...
27
GENERIC MARK SCHEME
Question 1: Genre transformation question
Award a mark out of 15 for Reading.
Question 1: Award a m...
28
Question 2: The Writer’s Effect
29
Question 3: Summarise Passage A and B
30
If you would like the
specific mark schemes
for these papers, log
onto the blog:
Englishbradon.wordpress.com
Password: ...
31
Question
Therapy
32
Question 1
Therapy
33
Question 1a– Unlocking the Question
I am able to identify key words in the question
It’s REALLY important that you know...
34
Question 1b– Unlocking the Question
I able to identify WHO I am writing FOR
It’s REALLY important that you know WHO you...
35
Question 1c– Unlocking the Question
I am able to identify WHO I am writing AS
If you start writing without knowing you ...
36
Question 1d– Unlocking the Question
I am able to identify the TYPE of writing I need to do
The exam board tells you wha...
37
Question 1e– Unlocking the Question
I know the features of an interview
Some exam questions may ask you to write a resp...
38
Question 1f– Unlocking the Question
I know the features of a newspaper article
Question 1 may ask you to write a newspa...
39
Question 1g– Unlocking the Question
I know the features of a letter
Question 1 may ask you to write a letter so it is i...
40
Question 1h– Unlocking the Question
I know the features of a formal talk
Students sometimes find formal talks difficult...
41
Question 1i – Understanding the text
I can read a passage and understand what I have read
All 3 questions require you t...
42
Look at the passage and look at how the prompt questions can help you understand what
you have read.
What do the italic...
43
Question 1j– Understanding the text
I can read a passage and highlight information relevant to each of the bullet point...
44
harder to highlight obvious material in the passage. You are really looking for hints that the
passage gives, that you ...
45
 Underline key information in the passage and then annotate it with your ideas.
WARNING: Sometimes you may be tempted ...
46
Details (place names etc) 13,025-foot Eiger
Highly visible even among taller peaks
In Switzerland’s western Alps
North ...
47
Question 1M– Understanding the text
I can DEVELOP some ideas that are in the passage
You get more marks in the exam if ...
48
Details you could develop:
“More than 50 climbers have died trying”
It doesn’t SAY anywhere in the passage that
he is c...
49
Question 1N– Understanding the text
I can skim and scan the text to find the parts that I need
In the exam, you should ...
50
2008, climber Dean Potter selected it for the first ever free BASE (parachute-protected free
solo) climb.
Since childho...
51
Question 1O– Understanding the text
I can imagine what the people in the passage are thinking and feeling.
Sometimes yo...
52
 Try and include emotion – you need to sound like this has happened to you!
 If you are being asked to write in role ...
53
Question 1U– Writing the Answer
I am able to create a VOICE so my character sounds real
If you want to get high marks i...
54
rewarded."Frankly, I'm very honoured to help him out ... The way he handled it was brilliant."
Mr Barton, 37, gained wo...
55
Question 1V– Writing the Answer
I am able to use ideas and facts from the passage
The examiners give you some credit fo...
56
had her. It really, really had her," the bus driver said.
A female prison officer stopped her car behind and came to th...
57
Brian Keenan was kidnapped one morning on his way to work. He was a lecturer in a university in
Beirut. It was four and...
58
was something on the mattress I suppose. They gave me a blanket but when it smells like it did it
wasn’t much help. It ...
59
Question 2A– Unlocking the Question
I can identify WHICH paragraph I have to re-read
This may sound like an obvious thi...
60
injuries never let you forget. I blame my Everest climb. ‘You set, buddy?’ cameraman Simon asks
me, smiling. The crew s...
61
Question 2B– Unlocking the Question
I can identify WHAT I am looking for in the specified paragraph
The exam board alwa...
62
 When you have found the paragraph you are looking for, always write what you are
looking for next to the paragraph so...
63
TOP TIPS
 Read the question properly – take your time
 Check the words you are highlighting are to do with the topic ...
64
Question 2D– Finding Words and Phrases
I can identify language that is of interest to the reader
This question is testi...
65
There is an instant explosion of pain and I am thrown down the mountain like a doll.
© Bear Grylls 2011
Mud, Sweat And ...
66
Question 2E– Finding Words and Phrases
I can select relevant parts of a sentence
TOP TIPS
 There may be two or three s...
67
it seemed to get smaller as I got older, train included. Now it’s so small it fits in my head. You must
imagine a hot a...
68
Passage A
Paragraph 4
It turned out that Oliver had gone for a walk in the Blue Mountains and had found himself
near th...
69
The general effects is that of an environment that is deliberately deceiving the travellers. It may
look attractive but...
70
fast into a vivid aquamarine sky.
Word/phrase Meaning
Mark stood, hot and fidgety, craning his
neck upwards.
“craning” ...
71
Question 2H– Answering the Question
I can comment on the mood of the word e.g the phrase ‘scratch of claws’ sounds sini...
72
WARNING: Always make sure that you understand the sentence (or word or phrase) in the context
of the whole passage.
Que...
73
screamed again as I jerked to a sudden violent stop.
The phrase The effect
“I felt a shattering blow in my knee, felt
b...
74
Question 2J– Answering the Question
I can be PRECISE about the effects words have.
When you are writing about the effec...
75
Here are two explanations of the effect of this sentence – which do you think is the best and why?
Answer 1:
“The searc...
76
Question 2K– Answering the Question
I can answer BOTH parts of the question EQUALLY well.
To get 5-6 marks out of 10 fo...
77
Question 2L– Answering the Question
I am able to identify when an IMAGE is used and why.
To get 7-8 marks (Band 2) you ...
78
WARNING: Make sure you are making SPECIFIC comments, don’t say ‘it creates a picture in the mind
of the reader’. Think ...
79
Question 3A– Unlocking the Question
I know what I am being asked to summarise
The most common mistake people make is no...
80
Question 3B– Unlocking the Question
I know what I am looking for in which passage.
Another common mistake that students...
81
If we were summarising Passage B, this is what it would look like:
Passage B – THE ADVICE THAT IS GIVEN TO PREPARE FOR ...
82
MY SUMMARY POINTS – Passage B
THE ADVICE THAT IS GIVEN TO PREPARE FOR A TREK.
Organise your time properly/find time to ...
83
Question 3C– Understanding the Passage
I am able to highlight the main points in both passages
(This session is very si...
84
If we were summarising Passage B, this is what it would look like:
Passage B – THE ADVICE THAT IS GIVEN TO PREPARE FOR ...
85
MY SUMMARY POINTS – Passage B
THE ADVICE THAT IS GIVEN TO PREPARE FOR A TREK.
Organise your time properly/find time to ...
86
Question 3D– Understanding the Passage
I am able to put those points IN MY OWN WORDS and in full sentences in my plan
T...
87
'Children are not being allowed many of the freedoms that were taken for granted when we
were children,' said Adrian Vo...
Paper 2 iGCSE Revision Guide
Paper 2 iGCSE Revision Guide
Paper 2 iGCSE Revision Guide
Paper 2 iGCSE Revision Guide
Paper 2 iGCSE Revision Guide
Paper 2 iGCSE Revision Guide
Paper 2 iGCSE Revision Guide
Paper 2 iGCSE Revision Guide
Paper 2 iGCSE Revision Guide
Paper 2 iGCSE Revision Guide
Paper 2 iGCSE Revision Guide
Paper 2 iGCSE Revision Guide
Paper 2 iGCSE Revision Guide
Paper 2 iGCSE Revision Guide
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Paper 2 iGCSE Revision Guide

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Paper 2 iGCSE Revision Guide

  1. 1. 1 Cambridge iGCSE Paper 2 (Extended) Revision Booklet Exam: 8th May 2 hours
  2. 2. 2 Contents 5) How to answer Question 1 6) Question 1 checklist 7) How to answer Question 2 8) Question 2 checklist 9) How to answer Question 3 10) Question 3 checklist 11 – 14) Mock 1 15 – 19) Mock 2 21 – 25) Mock 3 27 – 29) Generic Mark Scheme Question Therapy: Question 1: 33) 1a 34) 1b 35) 1c 36) 1d 37) 1e 38) 1f 39) 1g 40) 1h 41 – 42) 1i 43) 1j 44) 1k 45 – 46) 1L 47 – 48) 1M 49 – 50) 1N 51) 1O 52) 1T 53 – 54) 1U 55) 1V 56 - 57) 1W Question 2: 59 – 60) 2a 61) 2b 62 – 63) 2c 64 – 65) 2d 66) 2e 67 – 68) 2f 69 – 70) 2g 71) 2h
  3. 3. 3 72 – 73) 2i 74 – 75) 2j 76) 2k 77) 2l Question 3: 79) 3a 80 – 82) 3b 83 – 85) 3c 86 – 87) 3d 88 – 90) 3f 91 – 93) 3g 94 – 95) 3h 96) 3i 97) 3j 98 – 100) 3k 101) 3l
  4. 4. 4 Top Tip: Be strategic.YOU KNOW which question is your weakness when it comes to doing well on this exam. Use the question checklists to help you identify your areas of weakness – you then need to use the ‘Question Therapy’ tasks to address these weaknesses. Picking up an extra mark could make all the difference to your exam grade! The best way to improve your mark is to PRACTISE, PRACTISE AND PRACTISE SOME MORE!
  5. 5. 5 Question 1 Checklist Put a tick next to the ones you are confident with Question 1 – Unlocking the Question 1A I am able to identify key words in the question 1B I able to identify WHO I am writing FOR 1C I am able to identify WHO I am writing AS 1D I am able to identify the TYPE of writing I need to do 1E I know the features of an interview 1F I know the features of a newspaper article 1G I know the features of a letter 1H I know the features of a formal talk Question 1 – Understanding the Text 1I I can read a passage and understand what I have read 1J I can read a passage and highlight information relevant to each of the bullet points IK I can read between the lines of a text (especially for bullet point 3) 1L I can pick up relevant details from the text and use them in my writing 1M I can DEVELOP some ideas that are in the passage 1N I can skim and scan the text to find the parts that I need 1O I can imagine what the people in the passage are thinking and feeling the people in t Question 1 – Writing the Answer 1P I can write in an appropriate tone 1Q I can write in paragraphs 1R I am able to ORDER my writing according to the bullet points 1S I am able to take the ideas from the text and put them in my OWN WORDS 1T I can use a range of vocabulary to express what my character thinks and feels 1U I am able to create a VOICE so my character sounds real 1V I am able to use ideas and facts from the passage 1W Everything I say can find its roots in the passage
  6. 6. 6 For the areas that you are not confident with, use the question therapy tasks to help you.
  7. 7. 7 Question 2 Checklist Put a tick next to the ones you are confident with Question 2 – Unlocking the Question 2A I can identify WHICH paragraph I have to re-read 2B I can identify WHAT I am looking for in the specified paragraph Question 2 – Finding Words and Phrases 2C I can find words/phrases linked to the KEY WORD in the paragraph 2D I can identify language that is of interest to a reader 2E I can select relevant parts of a sentence Question 2 – Answering the Question 2F I can notice patterns in different words/phrases 2G I am able to identify the meaning of the words 2H I can comment on the mood of the word e.g. the phrase ‘scratch of claws’ sounds sinister
  8. 8. 8 For the areas that you are not confident with, use the question therapy tasks to help you. 2I I can explain WHAT effect the word has e.g. ‘The fact that mice disappeared in “less than a minute” adds to the fear; where have they gone and will they come back just as quickly?” 2J I can be PRECISE about the effect words have e.g. I DO NOT say that ‘it sticks in the reader’s head’ 2K I can answer BOTH parts of the question EQUALLY well
  9. 9. 9
  10. 10. 10 Question 3 Checklist Put a tick next to the ones you are confident with Question 3 – Unlocking the Question 3A I know WHAT I am being asked to SUMMARISE i.e. I am NOT being asked to summarise everything! 3B I know what I am looking for in which passage Question 3 – Understanding the Passage 3C I am able to highlight the main points in both passages 3D I am able to put those points IN MY OWN WORDS and in full sentences in my plan Question 3 – Writing the Answer 3E I am able to see that I have included at least 15 points in my plan 3F I am able to include several points in each sentence 3G I am able to group similar ideas together in my writing 3H I am able to stay focused on what I have been asked to summarise at all times! 3I I am able to answer this question using one page of AVERAGE sized hand writing 3J I am able to summarise both parts equally as well 3K I do not use quotations from the passages – I DO put everything in my own words (where possible) 3L I do not repeat myself! For the areas that you are not confident with, use the question therapy tasks to help you.
  11. 11. 11 I would suggest answering the paper in the following way: Question 3, Question 2 and then Question 1.
  12. 12. 12
  13. 13. 13
  14. 14. 14
  15. 15. 15
  16. 16. 16
  17. 17. 17
  18. 18. 18
  19. 19. 19
  20. 20. 20
  21. 21. 21
  22. 22. 22
  23. 23. 23
  24. 24. 24
  25. 25. 25
  26. 26. 26 More exam papers and exemplar responses are available on the English blog: Englishbradon.wordpress.com Password: Bradonforest
  27. 27. 27 GENERIC MARK SCHEME Question 1: Genre transformation question Award a mark out of 15 for Reading. Question 1: Award a mark out of 5 for writing:
  28. 28. 28 Question 2: The Writer’s Effect
  29. 29. 29 Question 3: Summarise Passage A and B
  30. 30. 30 If you would like the specific mark schemes for these papers, log onto the blog: Englishbradon.wordpress.com Password: Bradonforest
  31. 31. 31 Question Therapy
  32. 32. 32 Question 1 Therapy
  33. 33. 33 Question 1a– Unlocking the Question I am able to identify key words in the question It’s REALLY important that you know WHAT you are doing before you start answering anything! When we ask you to “identify the key words in the question”, we want you to be able to spot:  WHO you are being asked to be  WHAT you are being asked to write about  WHICH genre you are writing in  HOW you are meant to start For example, here is a question like the one you might get in the exam. 1 Imagine you are Brian Keenan writing a letter home about his experience of being held captive. In your letter, you should explore: The place that you were captured Your thoughts and emotions about the past, present and future Base your letter on what you have read in Passage A and be careful to use your own words. Begin your letter, “Dear Mother…” Up to fifteen marks will be available for the content of your answer, and up to five marks for the quality of your writing. (20 marks) TOP TIPS  ALWAYS underline or highlight the WHO, WHAT, WHICH and HOW  In your head, repeat to yourself what you THINK you are being asked to do.  Go back to the question and CHECK your understanding is right! WARNING: If you start writing without checking you know what you are doing, you could lose valuable marks.
  34. 34. 34 Question 1b– Unlocking the Question I able to identify WHO I am writing FOR It’s REALLY important that you know WHO you are writing for before you start planning and then writing. For example, here is an example of a question - without even reading the passage, you can identify WHO you are writing for. 1 Imagine you are Brian Keenan writing a letter home about his experience of being held captive. In your letter, you should explore: The place that you were captured Your thoughts and emotions about the past, present and future Base your letter on what you have read in Passage A and be careful to use your own words. Begin your letter, “Dear Mother…” Up to fifteen marks will be available for the content of your answer, and up to five marks for the quality of your writing. (20 marks) TOP TIPS  In this question you are writing to your mother so you will have a warm relationship with her – you will be honest about your feelings.  You are going to share your thoughts and emotions with your mother – that may mean what you are relieved about and what you are scared about too.  You are INFORMING your mother about your experiences, that means you need to sound like you were actually there! REMEMBER to write in role – you are Brian Keenan. WARNING: If you don’t get the audience right then it will be difficult for you to pick up really good marks. The examiner needs to see you have read the material and changed it for the right audience.
  35. 35. 35 Question 1c– Unlocking the Question I am able to identify WHO I am writing AS If you start writing without knowing you who are meant to be then you will run into major problems! The mark scheme says that you need to create a ‘voice’ for your character so you need to sound like it really is them speaking – that will be hard if you don’t know who you are! Here is the first line of a question 1 Imagine you are Brian Keenan writing a letter home about his experience of being held captive. Step 1 – Work out who you are from the question. Here, you are Brian Keenan. Step 2 – Read the passage and work out what kind of person Brian Keenan is. There are some clues in the passage. Here is the first paragraph – look at the clues that I have highlighted. At the head of the mattress I kept my briefcase with my school text books. Behind the briefcase I hid my shoes. I was forever afraid that I would lose those shoes. If I did, I felt it would be a sure sign that I would never leave that cell.  Brian Keenan sounds like he is someone who likes to be ordered – he keeps his things in the same place. Maybe this is so he can have some control over a situation he isn’t in control of?  Brian Keenan sounds clever because he hid his shoes deliberately so no one would take them. He’s also suspicious of people around him.  Brian Keenan sounds scared about losing hope – he was afraid he would lose the shoes which would mean he could never leave his prison. Step 3 – Turn that information into some sentences that really sound like Brian Keenan. e.g “Mother, there were times when I thought I was just hanging on to any hope I could find. Do you know that I hid my shoes in case anyone should take them? I could feel myself becoming suspicious that my captors would steal them. For me mother, those shoes symbolised my hope of getting out of that prison. I had to control what I could control – even putting my briefcase and school books in the same place behind my bed, every day! TOP TIP: If you work through the passage like this, you will pick up valuable marks. WARNING: DON’T just jump into the passage - PLAN your answer. Highlight the passage and annotate it with your ideas.
  36. 36. 36 Question 1d– Unlocking the Question I am able to identify the TYPE of writing I need to do The exam board tells you what TYPE of writing they want you to do – it is your job to use the conventions of that type of writing. It is important that you understand HOW you are going to write your response. A question you may get is: 1) Imagine that you are Mark, write an informal letter intended for family at home. In your letter you should: Comment on how you felt at the start of your adventure Describe the weather and nature Explain your thoughts about Las Vegas Base your letter on what you have read in passage A. Be careful to use your own words. Begin your letter entry: “Sometimes in life you need to take a chance...” Write between 1 ½ and 2 sides, allowing for the size of handwriting. Up to 15 marks are available for the content of your writing, and up to 5 marks for the quality of your writing. [Total: 20] TOP TIPS:  Underline what TYPE of writing you are being asked to do – in this case an informal letter.  Look for how you are meant to start - “Sometimes in life you need to take a chance...”  Work through the questions below to check you understand what you need to do. Conventions of an informal letter 1) It’s to your family – what will the TONE of the letter be like? 2) How will you end the letter? 3) In a letter to your family, what are you more likely to share compared to a letter to a stranger? WARNING: Although it is an informal letter, remember to write in Standard English!
  37. 37. 37 Question 1e– Unlocking the Question I know the features of an interview Some exam questions may ask you to write a response to an interview with a reporter. It will always tell you WHO you are meant to be. Here is an exam question that asked you to do that: 1) A reporter for a newspaper interviews Oliver and asks the following three questions only: What made you want to go travelling? How did you get lost and what did you do to survive? What have you learned through this experience? Write the words of the interview, beginning with the first question. Base your interview on what you have read in Passage A. Be careful to use your own words. Write between 1 ½ and 2 sides, allowing for the size of your handwriting. Up to 15 marks are available for the content of your answer, and up to 5 marks for the quality of your writing. TOP TIPS  You should write out the reporter’s question and then answer it in role, underneath.  You are answering the reporter’s questions BUT you are pretending you are Oliver and have to answer the reporter’s questions. X You DO NOT have to write it like an article. For example, you DO NOT need to do this: Oliver said that he was really scared, “I was so frightened”, he said.  You just write the WHOLE thing like it is Oliver speaking. WARNING: If you are given 3 questions to ask – you JUST answer those 3 questions. DO NOT make up extra ones!
  38. 38. 38 Question 1f– Unlocking the Question I know the features of a newspaper article Question 1 may ask you to write a newspaper article so it is important that you know HOW to do this. Here is an example of a question: 1) Imagine you are a newspaper reporter working in the nearby town. Write a report using this headline: 
Lone climber survives storm of the century. You will have looked at newspaper reports before in your English lessons. What are the features of a newspaper report?  A headline (often you are given the headline in the question).  You need to write an objective viewpoint.  Write formally.  Use short quotations from people in the passage – you will have to find information you can adapt to create these quotations.  You could give some context about the event in your opening paragraph.  Make sure you include facts of there are any e.g place names, times things happened, ages of people.  Try and capture the drama of the situation.  Make sure you are accurately reflecting the information in the passage!  You should make sure that you use complex sentences e.g Mr Hund, who was first on the scene, admitted that he was shocked at what he saw TOP TIPS:  Don’t include pictures or write in columns – this isn’t necessary.  ALWAYS start with the headline or opening sentence the exam board give you. WARNING: The personality of the reporter should NOT be obvious – you are writing from an OBJECTIVE viewpoint.
  39. 39. 39 Question 1g– Unlocking the Question I know the features of a letter Question 1 may ask you to write a letter so it is important that you know HOW to do this. Remember, you are supposed to use details from the passage in your letter to get the highest marks. You will have looked at letter writing before in your English lessons. What are the features of a formal letter?  It should be set out formally (your address top right)  You should include the date  You should include the right salutation i.e Dear Mr Briggs or Dear Maria  You should include the right ending to match your opening i.e. Yours sincerely if you know their name.  You should keep your writing formal.  It should always be written in paragraphs.  You writing should follow a logical and ordered structure. TOP TIPS:  Even if the letter is to someone you know, you must keep it relatively formal.  If you do know the person, you should include details from the passage that show this. WARNING: Even if the situation is more informal REMEMBER you are being examined on your use of language so your letter should always be fairly formal!
  40. 40. 40 Question 1h– Unlocking the Question I know the features of a formal talk Students sometimes find formal talks difficult because you have to address your audience but always keep your tone formal. You may be asked to write a formal talk like this: 1 You are Katie Bede, a rock climber, advising recent members about the dangers of rock climbing. Write the words of your talk to the new members. In your talk you should: • tell the new members about the dangers you have faced on your climbs. • explain the skills and knowledge needed to be a good climber. • share what you learned about yourself from climbing.
 Base your talk on what you have read in Passage A. Address all three bullet points. Be careful to use your own words. 
 Begin your talk: ‘I am Katie Bede, and there are some things you need to know about climbing’ 
 What are the features of a formal talk? Opens with a clear address to the audience. Ends with an acknowledgment of the audience/appeals to them. Makes it clear throughout the talk that there is an audience there! There is one person speaking (there should be no ‘script’ or heckling!) May ask some rhetorical questions. Will use the first person (“I”) and the second person (“you”) May refer to their expectations or views. You can use humour IF APPROPRIATE Use personal anecdote (in role as Katie Bede) TOP TIPS:  The exam board often tells you how to start so this will help you see the kind of tone you should be writing in. WARNING: DO NOT get into writing a narrative or a commentary. Some of my students wrote like this, “All of a sudden the audience got excited, Katie Bede continued”. This is NOT a formal talk, it sounds like a story!
  41. 41. 41 Question 1i – Understanding the text I can read a passage and understand what I have read All 3 questions require you to understand what you have read – if you struggle to read a passage and to understand it then this will cost you lots of valuable marks. There are 3 questions on the exam paper: 1) You need to understand the passage so you can write in role 2) You need to understand the passage so you can pick out words and phrases 3) You need to understand the passage so you can summarise what you have read Reading skills can be learned – you need to practice! TOP TIPS:  ALWAYS read the information the exam board gives you about the passage – this gives you a hint about what the passage is about.  Read the first paragraph and, in the margin, write what that paragraph was about. Ask yourself (in your head) what just happened there?  Read the next paragraph and do the same thing – write key words in the margin.  If you come across words you don’t understand, see if you can work out what it means by looking at the words around it.  Once you have read the whole you can go back and skim and scan it if you want to check you understand. Skimming and scanning means reading over the words quite quickly rather than reading every word.  It is helpful to look at the bullet points FIRST so you know what you are looking for.  Always read with a HIGHLIGHTER! WARNING: You need to get the balance right between spending too long reading the passage and not spending enough time!
  42. 42. 42 Look at the passage and look at how the prompt questions can help you understand what you have read. What do the italics tell you? Write down 3 key words e.g Oliver, missing, Australia What is this paragraph about? Australian Embassy Phonecall Son missing See if you can summarise this paragraph yourself: Passage A In this passage, Edward Jones describes how he found out his son Oliver had gone missing in the Australian Blue Mountains. It was late July, at about midnight our landline released a piercing noise and woke us from our previously deep sleep. I assumed it would just be another nuisance phone call, as this had frequently been happening since we had moved house earlier that month. However, when I heard an Australian accent on the other end of the line I would have been eternally grateful had it been the suspected nuisance call. However, this was someone from the Australian Embassy informing us that our 19- year-old son was missing. Oliver had always been stubborn and confident; some would call it the arrogance of youth. He had insisted that he wanted to take a year to travel before he went to university. He wanted to visit Laos, Vietnam, and Nepal as well Australia. We had violently resisted his plans, suspicious that this would be his doorway into a new world of refusing to settle down and get a job, like we had always urged him. However, our resistance was futile, he had saved up the money and was determined to go – he was 19, what could we do? He was the of the generation who believed that “finding yourself” had to be done on distant shores rather than in the day to day grind of the daily commute.
  43. 43. 43 Question 1j– Understanding the text I can read a passage and highlight information relevant to each of the bullet points. Highlighting the passage is a really good way of finding information and making it really clear for when you start planning and writing. Firstly, give each of the bullet points a different colour Secondly, go through the passage and highlight the information with the correct colour. I have highlighted some of the points for you – see if you can see why they are highlighted in green. TOP TIPS:  Give each bullet point a different colour (you need to invest in highlighters!)  Using your skimming and scanning skills, go through the passage and highlight the relevant information in the matching colour.  It may help you to annotate the passage with your ideas too. WARNING: The first bullet point should be easy to find, the second bullet point requires you to read between the lines a bit more (infer and deduce). By the time you get to the third bullet point, you are required to use your inference and deduction skills completely, so you may find it 1) A reporter for a newspaper interviews Oliver and asks the following three questions only: What made you want to go travelling? How did you get lost and what did you do to survive? What have you learned through this experience? Passage A - extract Oliver had always been stubborn and confident; some would call it the arrogance of youth. He had insisted that he wanted to take a year to travelbefore he went to university. He wanted to visit Laos, Vietnam, and Nepal as well Australia. We had violently resisted his plans, suspicious that this would be his doorway into a new world of refusing to settle down and get a job, like we had always urged him. However, our resistance was futile, he had saved up the money and was determined to go – he was 19, what could we do? He was the of the generation who believed that “finding yourself” had to be done on distant shores rather than in the day to day grind of the daily commute.
  44. 44. 44 harder to highlight obvious material in the passage. You are really looking for hints that the passage gives, that you can build on. Question 1K– Understanding the text I can read between the lines of a text (especially for bullet point 3 or the last bullet point) REMEMBER: The first bullet point is often the most obvious, you will find lots of information to highlight. The bullet points get more difficult as you go through them until the last one is based on your ability to read between the lines. You need to look out for clues you can use. Here is a question you may have seen already: A reporter for a newspaper interviews Oliver and asks the following three questions only: What made you want to go travelling? How did you get lost and what did you do to survive? What have you learned through this experience? The ‘clues’ from the passage are on the left, I have read the ‘clue’ and asked myself, what does this show that I have learned from my experience? There is one blank so you can have a go yourself. Quotations from the passage What does this show about what you have learned through this experience? He phoned occasionally but usually when he needed money. I think I need to let people know where I am in case of emergencies. It was not unusual to not hear from him for over 7 days… When travelling, it is best to be in regular contact with people because you are in an unknown situation and it may not be safe. …he was fiercely independent and didn’t want to be wrapped in cotton wool. I need to be less independent and start relying on people a little more. Oliver had naively embarked on a solitary 10-mile walk without a mobile phone or any specialist equipment. TOP TIPS:  Look at a quotation and ask yourself, ‘what is this trying to tell me?’  Think about the IMPRESSIONS you are getting from what is said about a character.
  45. 45. 45  Underline key information in the passage and then annotate it with your ideas. WARNING: Sometimes you may be tempted to give up on bullet point 3 if you are finding it difficult – don’t! You need to have covered “ALL THREE bullet points” in order to get a C or above on this question. Question 1L– Understanding the text I can pick up relevant details from the text and use them in my writing The examiner wants you to be able to pick up details from the passage and include them in your own writing. You get credit for: Mentioning place names, distances, temperatures, names of things Picking up WHAT actually happens in the passage DEVELOPING details from the passage For example, look at this paragraph. Put a circle around details (e.g place names etc). Then underline the key details of what actually happens. Do this WITHOUT looking at the ‘answers’! The 13,025-foot Eiger, an iconic limestone buttress jutting out from the ridgeline, is highly visible even among taller peaks in Switzerland’s western Alps. Its dramatic north face towers nearly 6,000 feet above the mountain pass below and is known in mountaineering as one of the six great north faces of the Alps for its difficulty and height. Since the first ascent in 1938, more than 50 climbers have lost their lives attempting Eiger’s north face. In 2008, climber Dean Potter selected it for the first ever free BASE (parachute-protected free solo) climb. Since childhood, Potter had always been a free soloist, a climber without ropes or any protection, where falling meant dying. Free BASE had been completely foreign to him and it broke every rule he trusted; previously falling meant dying but now falling could mean flying. He ascended a route known as the Deep Blue Sea with only a five-pound BASE parachute strapped to his back for protection. It was a complete transformation for him and he struggled with the emotions of doubt, going insane, and life's meaning. Adapted from National Geographic - http://adventure.nationalgeographic.com/adventure/trips/bucket-list/2013/free-solo-base-jump- eiger-switzerland/ TOP TIPS:  Make sure you include the names of places in your answer  Make sure you track through the passage in order and pick out what has actually happened.  Try and find information that you can add to. If it says that Potter has doubt, try and think WHY he would feel like that from what you have read. WARNING: You’re not making things up, you are using the passage as the base and are developing some ideas to show the examiner you understand what you are reading. Some things you may have underlined:
  46. 46. 46 Details (place names etc) 13,025-foot Eiger Highly visible even among taller peaks In Switzerland’s western Alps North face towers nearly 6,000 feet above the mountain pass below First ascent in 1938 More than 50 climbers have died trying What happens (write in bullets) He ascended a route known as the Deep Blue Sea Had only a five-pound BASE parachute strapped to his back for protection. Struggled with his emotions Details you could develop: More than 50 climbers have died trying Struggled with his emotions More than 50 climbers have died trying to climb the Eiger but I had confidence that I wouldn’t be adding to that number. The thrill seeker in me wanted to push myself to the limits. I did struggle with lots of different emotions, when you know that so many people have died before you, it does make you think seriously about what you are about to do.
  47. 47. 47 Question 1M– Understanding the text I can DEVELOP some ideas that are in the passage You get more marks in the exam if you are able to DEVELOP your answers. “Developing your answers” on this paper means that you can: 1. Pick up details in the passage then… 2. Think about how the person you are writing as would think and feel. 3. You build on the ideas from the passage but what you say always has its roots in the passage. Read the passage below and then look at an example of how to develop details from it. Imagine the question is asking you to write a letter home to your family explaining your thoughts and feelings about your experiences. Passage A This passage explains Potter’s views on climbing the Eiger, a mountain in Switzerland. The 13,025-foot Eiger, an iconic limestone buttress jutting out from the ridgeline, is highly visible even among taller peaks in Switzerland’s western Alps. Its dramatic north face towers nearly 6,000 feet above the mountain pass below and is known in mountaineering as one of the six great north faces of the Alps for its difficulty and height. Since the first ascent in 1938, more than 50 climbers have lost their lives attempting Eiger’s north face. In 2008, climber Dean Potter selected it for the first ever free BASE (parachute-protected free solo) climb. Since childhood, Potter had always been a free soloist, a climber without ropes or any protection, where falling meant dying. Free BASE had been completely foreign to him and it broke every rule he trusted; previously falling meant dying but now falling could mean flying. He ascended a route known as the Deep Blue Sea with only a five-pound BASE parachute strapped to his back for protection. It was a complete transformation for him and he struggled with the emotions of doubt, going insane, and life's meaning. Adapted from National Geographic - http://adventure.nationalgeographic.com/adventure/trips/bucket-list/2013/free-solo-base-jump- eiger-switzerland/
  48. 48. 48 Details you could develop: “More than 50 climbers have died trying” It doesn’t SAY anywhere in the passage that he is confident but the passage tells us all the things he has done – this makes me think he is very confident and a thrill seeker. I can imagine that his parents/family would have been worried – it doesn’t say that in the passage but it is a reasonable thing to think in the circumstances. “Struggled with his emotions” Here I have tried to develop the idea of him struggling emotionally – I have tried to think WHY he would struggle and also think how he overcame it. Again, I am building on details I have found in the passage. More than 50 climbers have died trying to climb the Eiger but I had confidence that I wouldn’t be adding to that number. The thrill seeker in me wanted to push myself to the limits even though I was at times aware of the extreme danger. I know because you are my family, you would have been worried but I felt confident. I did struggle with lots of different emotions, when you know that so many people have died before you, it does make you think seriously about what you are about to do. However, you know what I am like, I am determined and stubborn and won’t let anything put me off for long! TOP TIPS:  Make sure you expand what is already there in the passage  Find a piece of information and think ‘how would he feel/what would he think here?’  Try and link what you say to the audience you are writing for. WARNING: You’re not making things up, you are using the passage as the base and are developing some ideas to show the examiner you understand what you are reading. This is NOT purely made up creative writing!
  49. 49. 49 Question 1N– Understanding the text I can skim and scan the text to find the parts that I need In the exam, you should read the question (so you know what you are looking for) and then read the passage. You should be highlighting the relevant information as you go along. Sometimes it is hard to focus on all 3 bullet points at the same time, so you could perhaps just highlight information about the FIRST bullet point first. THEN, you need to use your skimming and scanning skills. What is skimming and scanning? +  It means looking CLOSELY at a text but looking more quickly than when you first read it.  It means reading and looking for something specific (e.g information for a bullet point)  It means NOT reading every word on the page but letting your eyes skim across the page. TOP TIPS:  Put your finger in the middle of the page, as you move your finger slowly down the page, let your eyes scan the words either side of your finger.  You should always know what you are looking for. For example, it might be that you need to find out how high a mountain was. Let your eyes scan until you find the answer.  You use skimming and scanning skills all the time. When you look at a menu, you skim and scan to find out if they sell your favourite food. When you look at the TV listings, you skim and scan to find out what time your TV programme starts – you don’t read the entire page carefully.  WARNING: This is a skill that gets easier the more you do it. Use your skimming and scanning skills to find facts and figures about the Eiger. Passage A This passage explains Potter’s views on climbing the Eiger, a mountain in Switzerland. The 13,025-foot Eiger, an iconic limestone buttress jutting out from the ridgeline, is highly visible even among taller peaks in Switzerland’s western Alps. Its dramatic north face towers nearly 6,000 feet above the mountain pass below and is known in mountaineering as one of the six great north faces of the Alps for its difficulty and height. Since the first ascent in 1938, more than 50 climbers have lost their lives attempting Eiger’s north face. In
  50. 50. 50 2008, climber Dean Potter selected it for the first ever free BASE (parachute-protected free solo) climb. Since childhood, Potter had always been a free soloist, a climber without ropes or any protection, where falling meant dying. Free BASE had been completely foreign to him and it broke every rule he trusted; previously falling meant dying but now falling could mean flying. He ascended a route known as the Deep Blue Sea with only a five-pound BASE parachute strapped to his back for protection. It was a complete transformation for him and he struggled with the emotions of doubt, going insane, and life's meaning. Adapted from National Geographic - http://adventure.nationalgeographic.com/adventure/trips/bucket-list/2013/free-solo-base-jump- eiger-switzerland/
  51. 51. 51 Question 1O– Understanding the text I can imagine what the people in the passage are thinking and feeling. Sometimes you are asked to write in role and say how you are thinking and feeling. At times, the passage DOES NOT tell you the answer. Instead the examiner wants you to read between the lines and work it out yourself. In the grid below are some lines from a passage – see if you can read between the lines and say WHAT the person is thinking and HOW the person is feeling. The first one is done for you. These lines are all taken from a passage about Brian Keenan who was kidnapped and kept in a cell for four and a half years. The line from the passage What the person is thinking and HOW the person is feeling “I could stand up and touch those walls with my outstretched hands and walk those six feet in no more than four paces.” Thinking – will I ever see the outdoors again? This room is smaller than you would keep an animal in. Feeling – I feel trapped, confined, desperate to have fresh air and open space. I would love to run as I can’t walk more than 4 paces in here. “In one corner there was a bottle of water which I replenished daily when I went to the toilet, and in another corner was a bottle for urine, which I took with me to empty”. Thoughts – Feelings – “There was one blanket which I never used, due to the heat, filth and the heavy smell, stale and almost putrid, of the last person who had slept there”. Thoughts – Feelings – TOP TIPS:  Put yourself in the person’s shoes  Use the details in the passage and then think how you would feel about what you have just read
  52. 52. 52  Try and include emotion – you need to sound like this has happened to you!  If you are being asked to write in role as someone you will be using the first person (I) WARNING: Everything you say must be based in the passage. The examiner should be able to see where your information has come from. Question 1T– Writing the Answer I can use a range of vocabulary to express what my character thinks and feels. Having a good range of vocabulary comes from surrounding yourself with a range of reading material. You should read daily newspapers or media websites and also try and read some non- fiction or fiction books. Your vocabulary will grow as you read different words you haven’t seen before. In Question 1, you need to be able to think of different words to express how a person may feel. The passage doesn’t always TELL you how they feel, you have to read between the lines. Look at this passage and highlight or underline any information that might indicate how Najwa feels. Two are underlined for you. Passage A (extract) This passage describes a refugee’s account of her time in Gaza and the difficulties she and her family face. 3 June 2012 - Gaza The recent hot, dry winds made me think that summer was coming early this year. I started thinking of things like summer clothes for the kids, the joys of showering in cool water and sitting on the beach with the children, and playing in the sand (even if we can’t swim in the sea because it’s polluted from the sewage). But this lovely image of Gaza is not the whole picture since Gaza’s borders were sealed; its people have endured Israeli military incursions and air strikes and suffer from the lack of basic commodities from paper for books to medicines for the sick and vaccines for the young. On my way to work today, I saw long queues of cars in front of the petrol stations. Many of the people—who had been waiting there since the early hours—were taxi drivers much disgruntled because they hadn’t been able to work for weeks owing to the fuel shortages… And they had families to support. We had heard that fuel was available, but it seems the petrol station owners had been keeping it to sell on the black market at a higher cost. I feel lucky that I don’t have to go to work by taxi. The pictures of university students, patients and old women waiting in the street for hours for a taxi are devastating and heart-breaking. Najwa Sheikh
 UNRWA (United Nations Relief and Works Agency), Gaza
  53. 53. 53 Question 1U– Writing the Answer I am able to create a VOICE so my character sounds real If you want to get high marks in Question 1 you must be able to create a realistic voice for your character. You have to read a passage in the exam and then write in role. If the passage is about a man who is very shy, quiet and nervous and you write as someone who is loud, boisterous and aggressive you will not get marks for creating an authentic voice! The examiner wants to see that you can create a ‘voice’ for a character based on what you have read. They are testing whether you have understood what you have read. If you get this right you will get better reading AND writing marks! TASK: Imagine that you are Darnell Barton and you are being interviewed about what happened on October 18th 2013. You are going to write your answer to the following questions: Explain what happened on October 18th . What were your thoughts and feelings about being called a “hero”? How do I create a ‘voice’ for my character? Step 1 – Read the passage and ask yourself, ‘what kind of person is this? How do I know?’ Step 2 – Underline or highlight any part of the passage that reveals what the person may be like and write that sentence in the table below (these have been done for you but you should see how many of them you can get yourself!) Step 3 – Write down some words that describe what this person is like in the right hand side of the column. What is their attitude like? What impression do you get of them? Read this passage and follow the 3 steps above. *This is not the kind of extract you would get in an exam but it will help you learn how to create a voice for your character. Donald Trump Gives 'Hero Bus Driver' $10,000 A bus driver who stopped to help a woman who looked like she was about to jump off a bridge has been given a reward by billionaire Donald Trump. Mr Trump was so impressed by the actions of Darnell Barton in New York he handed him a $10,000 (£6,200) gift.Mr Trump said: "I thought that was so beautiful to see. I think he is a great guy with an amazing heart and I said that man should be
  54. 54. 54 rewarded."Frankly, I'm very honoured to help him out ... The way he handled it was brilliant." Mr Barton, 37, gained worldwide fame after on-board CCTV footage showed him stopping the bus on a freeway overpass on October 18. The footage showed Mr Barton approach a woman who was standing on the wrong side of the bridge's guardrail. The woman, believed to be a student in her 20s, looked at Mr Barton before staring down at the road beneath the bridge. "That's when I went and put my arms around her," father-of-two Mr Barton said after the dramatic rescue. "I felt like if she looked down at that traffic one more time it might be it." Quick-thinking Mr Barton placed the woman in a bear hug and helped her return to the safe side of the barrier. The video showed the two sit down on the concrete walkway. "Whatever was on her mind, it had her. It really, really had her," the bus driver said. A female prison officer stopped her car behind and came to the woman's assistance while a police patrol and ambulance were sent to the scene. Afterwards, Mr Barton returned to his bus where he got a standing ovation from the passengers. Mr Barton then finished his usual bus route, wrote up a report on the incident and went home. Sky News website – 2 nd November 2013
  55. 55. 55 Question 1V– Writing the Answer I am able to use ideas and facts from the passage The examiners give you some credit for being able to pick up DETAILS from the passage. Details are things like dates, times, ages, names of things/people/places, temperatures, weather conditions and jobs. If you use some of these details in your own writing it will show that you have read and understood the passage. You get good marks for DEVELOPING your answer and you can find out more about that in Therapy sessions 1M, 1T and 1U. TASK: Read the passage about Darnell Barton and underline all the DETAILS that the passage gives. Look back at the above list for a reminder. Some are done for you to get you started. You will need to remember these for the test session! TOP TIPS  If you can put the details in your own words you can BUT you don’t need to. If the passage says that the action happened in New York, just say that, don’t say “a big American city”!  You should always have about 8-10 details in your own writing that you have taken from the passage.  Warning: Sometimes things may seem too obvious to mention i.e that Darnell is a bus driver, father of 2 etc. All of these things are details AND you can build on them in your answer. *This is not the kind of extract you would get in an exam but it will help you learn how pick up on details. Donald Trump Gives 'Hero Bus Driver' $10,000 A bus driver who stopped to help a woman who looked like she was about to jump off a bridge has been given a reward by billionaire Donald Trump. Mr Trump was so impressed by the actions of Darnell Barton in New York he handed him a $10,000 (£6,200) gift.Mr Trump said: "I thought that was so beautiful to see. I think he is a great guy with an amazing heart and I said that man should be rewarded."Frankly, I'm very honoured to help him out ... The way he handled it was brilliant." Mr Barton, 37, gained worldwide fame after on-board CCTV footage showed him stopping the bus on a freeway overpass on October 18. The footage showed Mr Barton approach a woman who was standing on the wrong side of the bridge's guardrail. The woman, believed to be a student in her 20s, looked at Mr Barton before staring down at the road beneath the bridge. "That's when I went and put my arms around her," father-of-two Mr Barton said after the dramatic rescue. "I felt like if she looked down at that traffic one more time it might be it." Quick-thinking Mr Barton placed the woman in a bear hug and helped her return to the safe side of the barrier. The video showed the two sit down on the concrete walkway. "Whatever was on her mind, it
  56. 56. 56 had her. It really, really had her," the bus driver said. A female prison officer stopped her car behind and came to the woman's assistance while a police patrol and ambulance were sent to the scene. Afterwards, Mr Barton returned to his bus where he got a standing ovation from the passengers. Mr Barton then finished his usual bus route, wrote up a report on the incident and went home. Question 1W– Writing the Answer Everything I say can find its roots in the passage EVERYTHING you say in your answer should be able to be traced back to the passage. You can imagine some details BUT the examiner should be able to see where you have got that idea from in the first place. This is NOT creative writing, you are NOT being asked to make everything up from scratch! TOP TIPS  If the passage talks about someone who has frostbite and has lost feeling in his hands and feet you CAN say that “I was terrified that I was not going to get out of here alive”. It is reasonable to assume that you would think that if this had happened to you!  A person’s thoughts and feelings are not always made explicit in the passage, you have to read between the lines and then use the evidence to work out how they might feel.  Warning: Sometimes in the pressure of the moment you can forget to re-read your answer. ALWAYS read through your answer when you have finished and ask yourself, ‘does everything I have written here link back to the passage and answer the question?’ You will need LOTS of coloured pens or highlighters for this task! Task: Read through the passage. Then read through the answer. Using your colours you need to match up the information I have included in my answer to where I got it from in the passage. I have completed two for you to get you started. Question: Imagine you are Brian Keenan writing a letter home about his experience of being held captive. In your letter, you should explore: The place that you were captured Base your letter on what you have read in Passage A and be careful to use your own words. Begin your letter, “Dear Mother…” Passage A
  57. 57. 57 Brian Keenan was kidnapped one morning on his way to work. He was a lecturer in a university in Beirut. It was four and a half years before he was released. In the extract he describes his prison cell. It was built very shoddily of rough-cut concrete blocks haphazardly put together and joined by crude slapdash cement-work. Inside, and only on the inside, the walls were plastered over with that same dull grey cement. There was no paint. There was no colour, just the constant monotony of rough grey concrete. The cell was six feet long and four feet wide. I could stand up and touch those walls with my outstretched hands and walk those six feet in no more than four paces. On the floor was a foam mattress. With the mattress laid out I had a pacing stage of little more than a foot’s width. In one corner there was a bottle of water which I replenished daily when I went to the toilet, and in another corner was a bottle for urine, which I took with me to empty. There was also a plastic cup in which I kept a much abused and broken toothbrush. On the mattress was an old, ragged, filthy cover. It had originally been a curtain. There was one blanket which I never used, due to the heat, filth and the heavy smell, stale and almost putrid, of the last person who had slept there. The cell had no windows. A steel door was padlocked every day, sounding like a thump on the head to remind me where I was. At the head of the mattress I kept my briefcase with my school text books. Behind the briefcase I hid my shoes. I was forever afraid that I would lose those shoes. If I did, I felt it would be a sure sign that I would never leave that cell. “An Evil Cradling” by Brian Keenan Answer (this is only part of the answer): Dear MotherNo son wants to tell their mother when life is difficult and no mother wants to have to read the terrible details of what their son has suffered. However, I know you will want to know what I have faced these last four and a half years. I must warn you now mother, you may find this difficult to read. When you are used to your freedom as I have been, being locked up in a colourless, tiny cell is incredibly difficult. My cell looked like it had been put together in a rush and certainly didn’t look like it had been built by professional construction workers; it was shoddy. It lacked any kind of colour, the whole thing was grey which reflected how miserable the place was. Not only was it made of a horrible dull, grey concrete but it was also tiny. When I say tiny, I mean that I could touch the walls with my outstretched hands. This was the biggest shock for me to adjust to when I had been used to all the space and freedom a normal person enjoys. In my tiny cell there was a mattress that was to be my bed for the next four and a half years. It was on the floor, which of course reduced my space even more. I could barely move round the room at all when that was down on the floor. It had a cover on it that was previously a curtain. At least there
  58. 58. 58 was something on the mattress I suppose. They gave me a blanket but when it smells like it did it wasn’t much help. It stunk of the last poor person who had been confined in this cell – I could smell their putrid stench and every time I smelt it I wondered what had happened to them. Had they got out alive? Or was this a dead man’s blanket? Question 2 Therapy
  59. 59. 59 Question 2A– Unlocking the Question I can identify WHICH paragraph I have to re-read This may sound like an obvious thing, but sometimes in the exam students miscount and this means all their marks for this question are lost. TASK: Look at the question and then the passage below. Put a star next to the relevant paragraphs. TOP TIPS  To try and avoid confusion, the exam board normally tells you the number of the paragraph AND then tells you how that paragraph begins.  Don’t count the information about the passage as the first paragraph!  Double check that you have the right paragraph! WARNING: Check you haven’t got mixed up. The question tells you WHAT you are looking for in the paragraph e.g the description of the cold. IF your paragraph has nothing about the cold in it then you need to check your counting! The Question: Re-read the descriptions of: (a) The fall in paragraph 3, beginning “I flip on to my front” (b) The accidents in paragraph 5, beginning “Instead, I am in agony, writhing and crying. Select words and phrases from these descriptions, and explain how the writer has created effects by using this language. (10 marks) Passage A Bear Grylls is a man who enjoys taking risks, exploring the world around him and pushing his abilities to the limit. Here he reflects on some of his experiences. The air temperature is minus 20C. I wiggle my fingers but they’re still freezing cold. Old frostnip
  60. 60. 60 injuries never let you forget. I blame my Everest climb. ‘You set, buddy?’ cameraman Simon asks me, smiling. The crew say the northern Canadian Rockies look spectacular this morning but I don’t really notice. Beneath me is 300ft of snow and ice. It’s steep but manageable. I leap and I’m soon sliding on my back down the mountain at 40mph, with Simon following on a heavy wooden sledge with his camera. The ice races past inches from my head. I gain more speed and the edge of the peak gets closer. It’s time to arrest the fall. I flip on to my front and drive my ice axe into the snow, sending a cloud of white spray and ice soaring into the air. I feel the rapid deceleration as I grind the axe deep into the mountain. It works. The world hangs still. Then – bang. Simon and his sledge pile into my left thigh at more than 45mph. There is an instant explosion of pain and I am thrown down the mountain like a doll. A difference of one degree in the sledge’s angle and it would have hit my head. It would have been my last living thought. Instead, I am in agony, writhing and crying. They are tears of relief: I am injured, but I am alive. I see a helicopter but hear no sound before I am taken to hospital. I have been in a few since the start of my Channel 4 series Born Survivor. I can see it all through closed eyes. The dirty, blood-stained emergency room in Vietnam after I severed half my finger in the jungle. The boulder fall in Costa Rica. The mineshaft collapse in Montana. The saltwater crocodile in Australia. Countless close shaves. I quietly wonder: when did this craziness become my world? I come from a line of self-motivated, determined folk – not grand, not high society, but no- nonsense, family-minded go-getters. Samuel Smiles, who wrote the original ‘motivational’ book, Self-Help, was my great-great-great-grandfather. My great-grandfather, Walter Smiles, was decorated for his bravery during the First World War, and my late father, Sir Michael Grylls, was an officer in the Royal Marine Commandos before becoming a Conservative MP. To this day, my mum says I was always destined to be a mix of Robin Hood, Harry Houdini, John the Baptist and an assassin. I take it as a great compliment. I was sent to Eton, a very intimidating place for a nervous teenager. But I made a few great friends – there is nothing that forms friendships faster than facing off bullies together – and they have remained my closest buddies ever since. I would explore all the forbidden areas of the school and grounds, and I knew I was faster and more agile than any of the security guards. One night, I attempted an ascent of the 120ft-high school library dome. Sir Ranulph Fiennes, a pupil before me, had conquered it by improvising a stepladder. I used the lightning conductor. The night was clear and the sky bright with stars. A series of rooftops, then drainpipes, put me within 15ft of the library roof, at which point the dome started. The lightning conductor held my weight and I clambered into the lead-lined bell tower, silhouetted under the moonlight, and carved the initials BG alongside the existing RF. My friends and I crossed the Thames on the high girders above a railway bridge. We built rafts out of polystyrene and even made a boat out of an old bathtub to go down the river. Sadly, it sank. © Bear Grylls 2011 Mud, Sweat And Tears, by Bear Grylls, is published by Channel 4 Books.
  61. 61. 61 Question 2B– Unlocking the Question I can identify WHAT I am looking for in the specified paragraph The exam board always tells you WHAT you are looking for in each paragraph. You are not finding ANY word or phrase, you are finding words and phrases to do with a specified topic. If you just select random words/phrases you will not score very highly in this question. The Question: Re-read the descriptions of: (a) The fall in paragraph 3, beginning “I flip on to my front” (b) The accidents in paragraph 5, beginning “Instead, I am in agony, writhing and crying. Select words and phrases from these descriptions, and explain how the writer has created effects by using this language. TASK – Underline or highlight words to do with THE FALL in paragraph 3 and THE ACCIDENTS in paragraph 5. The paragraphs are copied below for you. Paragraph 3 – THE FALL I flip on to my front and drive my ice axe into the snow, sending a cloud of white spray and ice soaring into the air. I feel the rapid deceleration as I grind the axe deep into the mountain. It works. The world hangs still. Then – bang. Simon and his sledge pile into my left thigh at more than 45mph. There is an instant explosion of pain and I am thrown down the mountain like a doll. Paragraph 5 – THE ACCIDENTS Instead, I am in agony, writhing and crying. They are tears of relief: I am injured, but I am alive. I see a helicopter but hear no sound before I am taken to hospital. I have been in a few since the start of my Channel 4 series Born Survivor. I can see it all through closed eyes. The dirty, bloodstained emergency room in Vietnam after I severed half my finger in the jungle. The boulder fall in Costa Rica. The mineshaft collapse in Montana. The saltwater crocodile in Australia. Countless close shaves. I quietly wonder: when did this craziness become my world? © Bear Grylls 2011 Mud, Sweat And Tears, by Bear Grylls, is published by Channel 4 Books. TOP TIPS
  62. 62. 62  When you have found the paragraph you are looking for, always write what you are looking for next to the paragraph so you don’t forget!  Keep going back to the question. WARNING: You don’t get marks for choosing phrases that are nothing to do with the topic that is in the question. Question 2C– Finding Words and Phrases I can find words/phrases linked to the KEY WORD in the paragraph. If you want to pick up marks in Question 2 it is really important that you identify the CORRECT word or phrase. The exam board tells you WHAT to look for and so if you read the question properly, it will give you a head start. For example: The Question: Re-read the descriptions of: (a) The fall in paragraph 3, beginning “I flip on to my front” (b) The accidents in paragraph 5, beginning “Instead, I am in agony, writhing and crying. Select words and phrases from these descriptions, and explain how the writer has created effects by using this language. We are only looking at paragraph 3 in this session. You need to find about 5 words/phrases to do with the fall in paragraph 3. TASK: See if you can highlight 5 words/phrases about the fall THEN check the answer on the next page. Paragraph 3 – THE FALL I flip on to my front and drive my ice axe into the snow, sending a cloud of white spray and ice soaring into the air. I feel the rapid deceleration as I grind the axe deep into the mountain. It works. The world hangs still. Then – bang. Simon and his sledge pile into my left thigh at more than 45mph. There is an instant explosion of pain and I am thrown down the mountain like a doll. © Bear Grylls 2011 Mud, Sweat And Tears, by Bear Grylls, is published by Channel 4 Books.
  63. 63. 63 TOP TIPS  Read the question properly – take your time  Check the words you are highlighting are to do with the topic in the question. WARNING: Do not select random words/phrases that have nothing to do with the topic. The Answers Paragraph 3 – THE FALL I flip on to my front and drive my ice axe into the snow, sending a cloud of white spray and ice soaring into the air. I feel the rapid deceleration as I grind the axe deep into the mountain. It works. The world hangs still. Then – bang. Simon and his sledge pile into my left thigh at more than 45mph. There is an instant explosion of pain and I am thrown down the mountain like a doll. © Bear Grylls 2011 Mud, Sweat And Tears, by Bear Grylls, is published by Channel 4 Books.
  64. 64. 64 Question 2D– Finding Words and Phrases I can identify language that is of interest to the reader This question is testing whether you can identify interesting words and phrases and comment on the effect the word/phrases have. What does “interesting” mean? Emotional words/very strong words Images the writer uses Patterns in the types of words that are being used If something is described in a surprising way TOP TIPS  Read the question properly – you MUST look for what the key word is i.e ‘The fall” in paragraph 3  You are finding words/phrases TO DO with that key word, NOT generally interesting words/phrases.  There may be two or three separate words/phrases in one sentence. WARNING: You should not be choosing whole sentences because that doesn’t show the examiner that you are able to ‘select’ the word/phrases– it just means that you are writing everything down to cover all bases! An example: Re-read the description of: (a) The fall in paragraph 3, beginning “I flip on to my front” Select words and phrases from this description, and explain how the writer has created effects by using this language. Task: Highlight the words/phrases you think are interesting in the paragraph below WITHOUT looking at the answers! Paragraph 3 – THE FALL I flip on to my front and drive my ice axe into the snow, sending a cloud of white spray and ice soaring into the air. I feel the rapid deceleration as I grind the axe deep into the mountain. It works. The world hangs still. Then – bang. Simon and his sledge pile into my left thigh at more than 45mph.
  65. 65. 65 There is an instant explosion of pain and I am thrown down the mountain like a doll. © Bear Grylls 2011 Mud, Sweat And Tears, by Bear Grylls, is published by Channel 4 Books. The answers from the mark scheme Paragraph 3 – THE FALL I flip on to my front and drive my ice axe into the snow, sending a cloud of white spray and ice soaring into the air. I feel the rapid deceleration as I grind the axe deep into the mountain. It works. The world hangs still. Then – bang. Simon and his sledge pile into my left thigh at more than 45mph. There is an instant explosion of pain and I am thrown down the mountain like a doll. © Bear Grylls 2011 Mud, Sweat And Tears, by Bear Grylls, is published by Channel 4 Books. WHY are these words/phrases interesting? Read through the mark scheme and see if you can see why they were chosen. The general effect is that of speed, danger and being out of control. There are many action words to reflect the speed of the action. “drive my ice axe…” – the word “drive” indicates determination to save himself as he is out of control. The word “drive” also suggests speed. “…ice soaring into the air” – again, this reflects the speed, it is all happening so fast that ice ‘soars’ (flies) into the air like it is alive. “I feel the rapid deceleration” – almost a contrast between “rapid” reflecting the speed we have just read about and “deceleration” which is a lack of speed. Things are beginning to get under control. “I grind the axe deep into the mountain” – verbs like “grind” and “drive” reflect the speed and determination Bear Grylls has to show. The situation is still dangerous. “The world hangs still” – after all the speed, this statement is a contrast and shows that everything has stopped. The word “hangs” suggests that his safety is not secure. “instant explosion of pain” – “explosion” – a word that reflects suddenness and violence after the stillness of the world hanging still this comes as a shock. “thrown down the mountain like a doll” – the idea that he is once again powerless, like a toy with no control over its own destiny or movement. His life is at risk once again. “Thrown” is another action word. Action words dominate this paragraph.
  66. 66. 66 Question 2E– Finding Words and Phrases I can select relevant parts of a sentence TOP TIPS  There may be two or three separate words/phrases in one sentence.  Look for the MOST interesting part of the sentence.  Make sure you know WHY it is interesting because you will need to explain that in your answer. WARNING: Check the KEY WORDS in the question. What should ALL your words and phrases be linked with? (Answer: The zoo!) Task: Read paragraph 2 about Pi’s memory of the zoo. Select words and phrases about the zoo that are interesting. Highlight the words/phrases. Then compare your answers to the answers below. REMEMBER: You can, and should, select PARTS of the sentence if relevant NOT necessarily the whole sentence. Passage A The following extract is from ‘The Life of Pi’. Pi (the narrator) is an Indian boy from Pondicherry. In this part of the novel he reminisces about his early childhood, growing up in relative luxury, in his father’s zoo. A portion of the grounds of the Pondicherry Botanical Garden as made available rent-free for an exciting business opportunity and – lo and behold – India had a brand new zoo, designed and run according to the most modern, biologically sound principles. It was a huge zoo, spread over numberless acres, big enough to require a train to explore it, though it seemed to get smaller as I got older, train included. Now it’s so small it fits in my head. You must imagine a hot and humid place, bathed in sunshine and bright colours. The riot of flowers is incessant. Answers: Passage A The following extract is from ‘The Life of Pi’. Pi (the narrator) is an Indian boy from Pondicherry. In this part of the novel he reminisces about his early childhood, growing up in relative luxury, in his father’s zoo. A portion of the grounds of the Pondicherry Botanical Garden as made available rent-free for an exciting business opportunity and – lo and behold – India had a brand new zoo, designed and run according to the most modern, biologically sound principles. It was a huge zoo, spread over numberless acres, big enough to require a train to explore it, though
  67. 67. 67 it seemed to get smaller as I got older, train included. Now it’s so small it fits in my head. You must imagine a hot and humid place, bathed in sunshine and bright colours. The riot of flowers is incessant. Question 2F– Answering the Question I can notice patterns in different words/phrases To get top marks in this question you have to be able to give an overview of the language that is used in a paragraph. For example, it may be that in one paragraph lots of the words/phrases are about the harshness of the cold or all the words/phrases indicate how frail someone is. You should learn how to spot these patterns. TOP TIPS for creating an overview  Identify the images in the paragraph – are they all trying to paint the same picture and create the same effect?  Look at the words being used – do they have anything in common?  Look for interesting conflicts and contrasts. Does the passage contrast someone’s cold to the warmth of a fire or how strong nature is compared to how weak humans are?  You could underline/highlight similar groups of words to help you. WARNING: Make sure you are commenting on the actual language. Don’t start saying things like ‘there are lots of metaphors in the paragraph’. Everything should go back to the actual words and phrases in the paragraphs. Question: Re-read the descriptions of: a) The forest and the conditions in paragraph 4, from ‘It turned out that Oliver…’ b) Oliver’s physical condition in paragraph 5, from ‘During his 14 days in the forest…’ Select words and phrases from these descriptions, and explain how the writer has created effects by using this language. Task: Read the following paragraphs – what patterns/ideas could you comment on as an overview? See if you can spot them yourself before you look at the answers!
  68. 68. 68 Passage A Paragraph 4 It turned out that Oliver had gone for a walk in the Blue Mountains and had found himself near the Narrow Neck fire trail. Narrow Neck, southwest of Katoomba, is around 1,000m above sea level and surrounded by dense forested hills which could ensnare the most experienced trekker. Nighttime temperatures in the area could often get to below freezing, wrapping everything in a suffocating layer of frost. The terrain was rough and its difficulty deceiving. Oliver had naively embarked on a solitary 10-mile walk without a mobile phone or any specialist equipment. An ill-conceived wander into the forested hills nearly led him into the arms of silent death. Patterns/overview: Paragraph 5 During his 14 days in the forests he lost so much weight that his already slim, boy-ish frame had become skeletal. A diet of grass and seeds had seen the life and vitality drain from his body. In order to keep warm he would wrap his thin jacket around his torso like a shroud. With the last bit of strength he had he dug a grave like pit to sleep in and found foliage to cover himself with. There he waited for death to creep up and catch him unawares, the sound of distant helicopters adding to his anguish. Depressed and dazed, he would stagger to an opening and cry to a God who he felt had cruelly abandoned him. Patterns/overview: Answers from the mark scheme: Paragraph 4
  69. 69. 69 The general effects is that of an environment that is deliberately deceiving the travellers. It may look attractive but the words used are of a sinister human trying to catch a victim. Words to do with coldness and isolation are common. Paragraph 5 The general effect of these words and phrases is of an association with death and weakness. There are many words used that are linked to weakness and frailty. Question 2G– Answering the Question I am able to identify the meaning of the words The mark scheme says for 5-6 marks on Question 2 there is, “ a satisfactory attempt made to identify appropriate words and phrases. Response mostly gives meanings of words and any attempt to suggest and explain effects is basic or general”. Explaining the meaning of the word will not get you full marks but it will help you to think about the language being used. TOP TIPS  Identify the word/phrase and then say what the word/phrase means THEN you can link that to the effect.  If you don’t know what a word means, try and work out the context it appears in – this may help you.  Look at the words surrounding the word you don’t know, does that help you understand?  Think about what the whole passage is about as this will give you a hint as to what the word is to do with. WARNING: Make sure that you can give the meaning of the word but then make sure you develop your answer to explain the effect that word has. Task: Read the paragraph below then try and work out what the words mean from looking at the words around it. Complete the table below. Extract from Passage A Mark Feely receives notice of his forthcoming redundancy from work and decides that a change of pace is needed. Booking a ticket to Las Vegas on a whim, he finds himself having signed up to jump off the top of the Stratosphere Tower, the world’s highest controlled descent. Mark stood, hot and fidgety, craning his neck upwards. It was barely 8am, yet the sun was already high and plump, beating down mercilessly on a city that was still half asleep. He squinted, his eyes stung into submission by beads of sweat cascading from his forehead, and tried hopelessly to make out the distant summit of the shimmering structure he stood quietly agape beneath. From here, 840 feet below, it seemed impossibly remote, a far off pin stuck
  70. 70. 70 fast into a vivid aquamarine sky. Word/phrase Meaning Mark stood, hot and fidgety, craning his neck upwards. “craning” means…. Hint: He is trying to look upwards so what is he having to do to his next to see properly? It was barely 8am, yet the sun was already high and plump, beating down mercilessly on a city that was still half asleep. “mercilessly” means…. Hint: Look at the words before, it says the sun was “beating down”. He squinted, his eyes stung into submission by beads of sweat cascading from his forehead. “submission” means… “cascading” means…. …a far off pin stuck fast into a vivid aquamarine sky “aquamarine” means…. Look up the words in a dictionary to see if you got the right idea!
  71. 71. 71 Question 2H– Answering the Question I can comment on the mood of the word e.g the phrase ‘scratch of claws’ sounds sinister. When writers write, they often want to create a certain mood and they use words to do this. In the Reading exam, Question 2, it is helpful if you can identify the ‘mood’ of a passage or of a word/phrase. You can work out what the mood is like by looking at the specific words a writer uses. For example, look at this phrase; “The menacing cold surrounded me” TOP TIPS Ask yourself some questions about this phrase. 1) Which are the words that give away the ‘mood’ of the sentence? 2) What does the word ‘menacing’ mean? 3) What does ‘menacing’ make you think of? 4) What about the word ‘surrounded’ – what impression does that give you? 5) Does this phrase sound like it’s a pleasant or unpleasant experience? Why/Why not? 6) Which words could describe the mood of this sentence? Ideas: The situation sounds tense, dangerous and sinister almost like the cold is torturing the person by surrounding him. It almost bullies him. The mood of this sentence is threatening and intimidating. Have a look at these phrases and see if you can work out the mood the writer is trying to convey.  “The silent cold gripped me with an iron fist”  “The exhilarating thrill pulsated through my veins”
  72. 72. 72 WARNING: Always make sure that you understand the sentence (or word or phrase) in the context of the whole passage. Question 2I– Answering the Question I can explain WHAT effect the word has. Often students really struggle with what is meant by ‘effect’. Sometimes the answers are so vague the examiner isn’t really being told anything at all about the word/phrase OR the effect. Here is a BAD example: Student 1: The phrase “the menacing cold surrounded me” has an interesting effect because it is really memorable and makes me really want to read on. The effect of the sentence is that I know it is really cold. This is a bad example because:  It says ‘interesting’ effect – what does that actually mean? What is interesting?  It says it is ‘memorable’ but HOW? Why? Which word?  Where is the analysis of individual words? What about the word ‘menacing’?  It doesn’t explain how the man in the sentence is affected by what’s happening to him. TOP TIPS  Always think about individual words  Link your thoughts on the words to the context of the passage  Be specific with your language, do not say general things like it is ‘good’ Look at this extract from ‘Touching The Void’ then look at some of the things you could say about the effect of one of the phrases. Passage A Joe and Simon are mountain climbing in the Andes, when Joe has a terrible accident. Here is Joe’s account. I hit the slope at the base of the cliff before I saw it coming. I was facing into the slope and both knees locked as I struck it. I felt a shattering blow in my knee, felt bones splitting, and screamed. The impact catapulted me over backwards and down the slope of the East Face. I slid, head-first, on my back. The rushing speed of it confused me. I thought of the drop below but felt nothing. Simon would be ripped off the mountain. He couldn’t hold this. I
  73. 73. 73 screamed again as I jerked to a sudden violent stop. The phrase The effect “I felt a shattering blow in my knee, felt bones splitting, and screamed”. The words “shattering blow” show the emotional implications of what has happened; it was devastating and his ambitions to go on were “shattered” but this could also refer to his bones actually breaking. He can feel his “bones splitting” which is a very painful image and also shows the seriousness of the impact. The effect of this graphic description is that we understand that this could be life- threatening and that he is in serious trouble. WARNING: Do not say it has ‘an interesting effect’ - ALWAYS think about the effect the words have on our understanding of the character and their situation.
  74. 74. 74 Question 2J– Answering the Question I can be PRECISE about the effects words have. When you are writing about the effect that words/phrases have it is really important NOT to say any of the following:  It sticks in the reader’s head  It is really interesting  It makes you want to read on  It makes you think what it was like  It makes you imagine it in your head  The writer uses short sentences to keep you hooked ALL of these things don’t really tell the examiner anything about the actual LANGUAGE in the passage. TOP TIPS  Always think about individual words and what they mean.  Think about what the word implies (suggests)  Comment on what the word is saying about the person/situation  Think about whether the writer is using a certain IMAGE – you get credit for picking up the use of imagery. For example, read this paragraph. Passage A - From ‘A Passage to Africa’ George Alagiah writes about his experiences as a television reporter during the war in Somalia, Africa in the 1990s. He won a special award for his report on the incidents described in this passage. In the ghoulish manner of journalists on the hunt for the most striking pictures, my cameraman and I tramped from one hut to another. What might have appalledus when we'd started our trip just a few days before no longer impressed us much. The search for the shocking is like the craving for a drug: you require heavier and more frequent doses the longer you're at it. Pictures that stun the editors one day are written off as the same old stuff the next. This sounds callous, but it is just a fact of life. It's how we collect and compile the images that so move people in the comfort of their sitting rooms back home.
  75. 75. 75 Here are two explanations of the effect of this sentence – which do you think is the best and why? Answer 1: “The search for the shocking is like the craving for a drug” This is a really interesting phrase because it sticks in the reader’s head, especially the bit about drugs. It makes the reader want to read on to see if he is taking drugs or not. There are some good words used which effect the reader in a really dramatic way. Answer 2: “The search for the shocking is like the craving for a drug” George Alagiah is using the image of a drug addict, words like ‘craving’ and ‘drug’ imply that he is addicted to finding “shocking” images and that he wants something more dramatic each time. A “craving” is something that you really want and will do anything to get. Alagiah has to be ruthless because he knows shocking images sell newspapers. How could you make both answers better? WARNING: Try not to repeat yourself in your answer. Make sure your points are as clear as possible.
  76. 76. 76 Question 2K– Answering the Question I can answer BOTH parts of the question EQUALLY well. To get 5-6 marks out of 10 for Question 2, the mark scheme says, “a satisfactory attempt is made to identify appropriate words and phrases. Response mostly gives meanings of words and any attempt to explain effects is basic or general. One half of the question may be better answered than the other”. TOP TIPS:  If you want to get 7 or more out of 10 you must make sure you answer both parts of the questions well.  You need to spread your time out between the two paragraphs  You need to find 3 or 4 words/phrases from EACH paragraph  You should be able to explain the meaning of the words in both parts of the question.  Ideally, you would be able to identify an image in each paragraph too  You must stay focused on what you are being asked to look for. WARNING: Make sure you plan your answer BEFORE writing it! What now? In the Testing session you are going to try and write your answer to the exam question – keep the Top Tips (above) in mind when you do.
  77. 77. 77 Question 2L– Answering the Question I am able to identify when an IMAGE is used and why. To get 7-8 marks (Band 2) you need to be able to recognise when an image is used and explain why that image is used. The mark scheme says, “images are recognised as such and the response goes some way to explaining them”. What do we mean by an ‘image’? A picture that is created through words. The author may use similes or metaphors to help you visualize the scene. Their description will be very clear so that you can see exactly how the scene is. Here are some examples of images. “sensation abandoned his hands” Ask yourself, ‘what is the picture the writer is trying to create here?” It’s almost like all his feeling is running away from him, you could imagine his hands are turning a dreadful colour as his blood supply goes. It sounds like he has frostbite. “She was rapidly becoming an ice sculpture” Ask yourself, ‘what is the picture the writer is trying to create here?” The lady is so cold that she can hardly move and is becoming stuck. This change is happening quickly because the temperatures must be incredibly low. There is a sense of real danger here as she will not survive without moving. We imagine her being frozen as her environment is. TOP TIPS:  As with everything in question 2, look closely at the language that is being used.  What do the words make you think of?  Do the words create a picture in your mind?  What is the picture of?
  78. 78. 78 WARNING: Make sure you are making SPECIFIC comments, don’t say ‘it creates a picture in the mind of the reader’. Think about WHAT the picture is. Question 3 Therapy
  79. 79. 79 Question 3A– Unlocking the Question I know what I am being asked to summarise The most common mistake people make is not reading the question properly. The examiner is NOT asking you to summarise EVERYTHING that happens in the passage, they are asking you to summarise one element of it. For example, I might ask you to watch an episode of ‘I’m A Celebrity’ or ‘Eastenders’. Then I might ask you to summarise the arguments that happened in the episode. That means I don’t want to know about ANYTHING ELSE! I just want to focus on something specific. You would have to think about all the arguments there were and then tell me about them. Here is a question like the one you might get in the exam. 3) Summarise: a) The advice that is given to prepare for a trek, as given in Passage B a) The challenges and problems Oliver faced, as described in Passage A Use your own words as far as possible. Aim to write no more than one side in total, allowing for the size of your handwriting. Write your response on the lines provided. Up to 15 marks are available for the content of your answer, and up to 5 marks for the quality of your writing. Look at WHAT you are being asked to summarise – it tells you! TOP TIPS  ALWAYS read the question more than once so you don’t miss valuable information.  ALWAYS plan your answer in note form BUT you must write it up in full sentences.  You could write WHAT you are summarising on the top of each passage, that way you can’t forget! WARNING: Do not start writing without planning – it will cost you marks.
  80. 80. 80 Question 3B– Unlocking the Question I know what I am looking for in which passage. Another common mistake that students make is getting the passages mixed up. This can sometimes happen because bullet a) asks you to look at Passage B and that can confuse people. Follow these tips for success. TOP TIPS  Always write WHAT you are being asked to summarise on the top of the RIGHT passage.  Always start planning the passage you know FIRST!  Do NOT read passage B until you have finished Passage A, this will stop you being so confused.  You can answer on Passage A first, just make sure it is clear to the examiner in your answer booklet that that is what you are doing.  You can write ‘Passage A’ as a subheading in your booklet before you write your answer to make it really clear.  Highlight the main points in your passage  List them in note form first BEFORE writing in full sentences  CHECK they are relevant to the question! Here is a question like the one you might get in the exam. 3) Summarise: b) The advice that is given to prepare for a trek, as given in Passage B c) The challenges and problems Oliver faced, as described in Passage A Use your own words as far as possible. Aim to write no more than one side in total, allowing for the size of your handwriting. Write your response on the lines provided. Up to 15 marks are available for the content of your answer, and up to 5 marks for the quality of your writing. WARNING: Check that you are totally clear on WHAT you are summarising before you start!
  81. 81. 81 If we were summarising Passage B, this is what it would look like: Passage B – THE ADVICE THAT IS GIVEN TO PREPARE FOR A TREK. Trek Training Guide taken from ‘Do It For Charity.com’. This leaflet is aimed at preparing potential trekkers for the challenge ahead. Although walking is something most people do every day, we strongly urge you to train for your trek. You should start training several months before the event and this Trek Training Guide will help you to do this. It is designed for a person of 'average' fitness. Even if you walk regularly and have a good level of fitness, you will still need to train for this type of long-distance walking, though you may find that it will not take you as long to reach the stages outlined below. If you do not walk often and have only a basic level of fitness you should allow more than the 16 weeks outlined. Why Walk? There are many reasons to walk, it has physical benefits as it strengthens your heart, reducing the risk of heart attack and stroke, improves circulation, breathing and endocrine functions. Not only that but it also tones muscles and strengthens bones, reducing the risk of osteoporosis as well as reducing blood fat and cholesterol. It can also help with weight loss as it burns calories and helps you manage your weight which in turn boosts mental performance and improves psychological well-being. Many have found other benefits too, for example it enables you to solve problems, manage stress and reduce anxiety. Programme Notes The 16 week programme is a rough training guide. Obviously with work, family and fundraising commitments you may not always be able to achieve what we have set out for you. However, in order to get close to achieving the training it is very important to organise your time properly. There are plenty of ways to ensure that you maximise your training, even if you feel you have no time outside work. You must organise your week to make time to get out to do some training. Perhaps you should get up an hour earlier and go out for a quick walk with some stretching in the morning before work while it is still light. If you can walk to work, do so. If you get to work by public transport, get off a stop or two earlier than usual, so that you walk some distance each day. If you drive, park further away than usual, or walk a longer route to work. You could also use your lunchtimes to take regular brisk walks around your work area, not just a stroll around the shops. If you haven’t got much time then find a steep set of stairs i.e. five floors of a department store/office block and climb them five times, at least three times per week. If you do have some time then joining a leisure centre is a good idea as the local fitness instructors may well be able to design a programme specifically for you. Most good gyms have a walking machine, or even better a stair climber, where you can clock up mileage more safely and comfortably, but do try to walkas much as possible in ‘real’ conditions and wearing your rucksack and boots. http://www.doitforcharity.com/trekking-training-guide.aspx
  82. 82. 82 MY SUMMARY POINTS – Passage B THE ADVICE THAT IS GIVEN TO PREPARE FOR A TREK. Organise your time properly/find time to train Maximise your training in whatever way you can Get up earlier while it is still light Walk to work/get off a stop earlier/park further away Climb stairs five times, three times a week Join a gym/get an official programme put together Try and walk in ‘real’ conditions/wear your rucksack and boots Then I would put these in full sentences – there is more about this in other Therapy sessions.
  83. 83. 83 Question 3C– Understanding the Passage I am able to highlight the main points in both passages (This session is very similar to Therapy 3B) Highlighting the summary points in the passage is really important if you want to make sure you don’t miss things out! The passage is probably covered in highlighter already though so you may need to use a different coloured pen instead! TOP TIPS  Always write WHAT you are being asked to summarise on the top of the RIGHT passage.  Always start with the passage you know FIRST even if it is not the first bullet point!  Do NOT read passage B until you have finished Passage A, this will stop you being confused.  Highlight the main points in your passage – keep looking at WHAT you are summarising.  List the summary points in note form first BEFORE writing in full sentences  CHECK your points are relevant to the question! Here is a question like the one you might get in the exam. 3) Summarise: d) The advice that is given to prepare for a trek, as given in Passage B e) The challenges and problems Oliver faced, as described in Passage A Use your own words as far as possible. Aim to write no more than one side in total, allowing for the size of your handwriting. Write your response on the lines provided. Up to 15 marks are available for the content of your answer, and up to 5 marks for the quality of your writing. WARNING: Check that you are totally clear on WHAT you are summarising before you start!
  84. 84. 84 If we were summarising Passage B, this is what it would look like: Passage B – THE ADVICE THAT IS GIVEN TO PREPARE FOR A TREK. Trek Training Guide taken from ‘Do It For Charity.com’. This leaflet is aimed at preparing potential trekkers for the challenge ahead. Although walking is something most people do every day, we strongly urge you to train for your trek. You should start training several months before the event and this Trek Training Guide will help you to do this. It is designed for a person of 'average' fitness. Even if you walk regularly and have a good level of fitness, you will still need to train for this type of long-distance walking, though you may find that it will not take you as long to reach the stages outlined below. If you do not walk often and have only a basic level of fitness you should allow more than the 16 weeks outlined. Why Walk? There are many reasons to walk, it has physical benefits as it strengthens your heart, reducing the risk of heart attack and stroke, improves circulation, breathing and endocrine functions. Not only that but it also tones muscles and strengthens bones, reducing the risk of osteoporosis as well as reducing blood fat and cholesterol. It can also help with weight loss as it burns calories and helps you manage your weight which in turn boosts mental performance and improves psychological well-being. Many have found other benefits too, for example it enables you to solve problems, manage stress and reduce anxiety. Programme Notes The 16 week programme is a rough training guide. Obviously with work, family and fundraising commitments you may not always be able to achieve what we have set out for you. However, in order to get close to achieving the training it is very important to organise your time properly. There are plenty of ways to ensure that you maximise your training, even if you feel you have no time outside work. You must organise your week to make time to get out to do some training. Perhaps you should get up an hour earlier and go out for a quick walk with some stretching in the morning before work while it is still light. If you can walk to work, do so. If you get to work by public transport, get off a stop or two earlier than usual, so that you walk some distance each day. If you drive, park further away than usual, or walk a longer route to work. You could also use your lunchtimes to take regular brisk walks around your work area, not just a stroll around the shops. If you haven’t got much time then find a steep set of stairs i.e. five floors of a department store/office block and climb them five times, at least three times per week. If you do have some time then joining a leisure centre is a good idea as the local fitness instructors may well be able to design a programme specifically for you. Most good gyms have a walking machine, or even better a stair climber, where you can clock up mileage more safely and comfortably, but do try to walk as much as possible in ‘real’ conditions and wearing your rucksack and boots. http://www.doitforcharity.com/trekking-training-guide.aspx
  85. 85. 85 MY SUMMARY POINTS – Passage B THE ADVICE THAT IS GIVEN TO PREPARE FOR A TREK. Organise your time properly/find time to train Maximise your training in whatever way you can Get up earlier while it is still light Walk to work/get off a stop earlier/park further away Climb stairs five times, three times a week Join a gym/get an official programme put together Try and walk in ‘real’ conditions/wear your rucksack and boots
  86. 86. 86 Question 3D– Understanding the Passage I am able to put those points IN MY OWN WORDS and in full sentences in my plan The question asks you to write your answer out in full sentences. You need to plan your answer first and it’s helpful to use full sentences in your plan too. IF you don’t write your answer out in full sentences you will lose marks. The examiner also asks you to write “in your own words”, this means that you need to think about what the passage says and then re-phrase it yourself. You will lose marks for copying. TOP TIPS  Once you have highlighted your summary points you need to think how you will write them using your own words.  Ask yourself, ‘what is the key thing this sentence is saying?’  Try and think how you might say this.  It’s sometimes helpful to write your ideas in the margin. Here is a question like the one you might get in the exam. Summarise: (a) The reasons children are not as adventurous today, as described in Passage B Read the following passage, the main points are highlighted for you. Passage B – REASONS CHILDREN ARE NOT AS ADVENTUROUS TODAY Children need the adventure of ‘risky’ play It is a scene that epitomises childhood: young siblings racing towards a heavy oak tree, hauling themselves on to the lower branches and scrambling up as high as they can get. Yet millions of children are being deprived of such pleasure because their parents are nervous about exposing them to any risks, new research has revealed. A major study by Play England, part of the National Children's Bureau, found that half of all children have been stopped from climbing trees, 21 per cent have been banned from playing conkers and 17 per cent have been told they cannot take part in games of tag or chase. Some parents are going to such extreme lengths to protect their children from danger that they have even said no to hide-and-seek.
  87. 87. 87 'Children are not being allowed many of the freedoms that were taken for granted when we were children,' said Adrian Voce, director of Play England. 'They are not enjoying the opportunities to play outside that most people would have thought of as normal when they were growing up.' Voce argued that it was becoming a 'social norm' for younger children to be allowed out only when accompanied by an adult. 'Logistically that is very difficult for parents to manage because of the time pressures on normal family life,' he said. 'If you don't want your children to play out alone and you have not got the time to take them out then they will spend more time on the computer.' Voce pointed out how irrational some of these decisions were. Last year, almost three times as many children were admitted to hospital after falling out of bed as those who had fallen from a tree. The tendency to wrap children in cotton wool has transformed how they experience childhood. According to the research, 70 per cent of adults had their biggest childhood adventures in outdoor spaces among trees, rivers and woods, compared with only 29 per cent of children today. The majority of young people questioned said that their biggest adventures took place in playgrounds. Adapted from http://www.theguardian.com/education/2008/aug/03/schools.children Look at how these highlighted sentences can be put into your own words, then try and do some yourself. The original Put in my own words and in full sentences “…their parents are nervous about exposing them to any risks” Parents are overprotective and worries about the dangers children may face. “…extreme lengths to protect their children from danger…” Parents are taking drastic action to keep their children safe e.g no hide and seek. “not being allowed many of the freedoms…” Children are not free to explore freely anymore like they were many years ago. “They are not enjoying the opportunities to play outside” “'social norm' for younger children to be allowed out only when accompanied by an adult” WARNING: If the passage talks about something specific then you can use ‘their’ words. For example, if the passage says that “eagles soared above the ground” you would NOT summarise it by using the word “birds” as this is too general. There isn’t another word for eagle, so just use it.

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