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Ky retail food_seminar

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Agricultural Entomology
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Ky retail food_seminar

  1. 1. Wild Mushrooms: Manna of the Mountains Dr. Bradford Condon University of Kentucky Department of Plant Pathology Retail Food seminar, Frankfort KY 2016
  2. 2. What are fungi? How are mushrooms identified? What are the common poisonous and edible wild mushrooms?
  3. 3. Grocery store mycology: farmed mushrooms Portabellos Buttons Cremini
  4. 4. Common fungi: cultivated forest mushrooms Lion’s mane Shitake Oyster
  5. 5. What is a mushroom? The fruiting body of a fungus Produces spores, which fungi use to reproduce and spread
  6. 6. Mushroom Hyphae mycelia
  7. 7. What is a fungus? Our not so distant relative
  8. 8. What is a fungus? Mushrooms Yeasts Molds
  9. 9. Fungi are diverse and abundant! • We estimate that there are over 1.5 million species of fungi, only 5% are currently know • Relatively few fungi are mushroom-producing – Macroscopic v. microscopic fungi • A dominant life form in soils – Fungi make of 90% of biomass in soil (excluding roots)
  10. 10. Roles of fungi • Recyclers – Decay dead plants – Recycling carbon – Easy to cultivate
  11. 11. Roles of fungi • Pathogens – Feed off of living plants and causing disease – Can also be pathogens of insects and other animals!
  12. 12. Cordyceps insect pathogens are sold as herbal supplements
  13. 13. Roles of fungi • Mutualists – Symbiotic with the roots of trees (mycorrhizal) – Carbohydrates from plant, nutrients from fungus – Other mutualistic relationship (ex. lichens)
  14. 14. Mutualists cooperate with plants
  15. 15. Mutualism: Mycorrhizae
  16. 16. Unbridled: wild mushrooms While prized edibles elude cultivation, wild mushrooms will be an issue!
  17. 17. Mushroom identification basics
  18. 18. Requirements for serving wild mushrooms (Conference for Food Protection) 1. The Latin binomial name, the author of the name, and the common name of the mushroom species 2. [a statement] that the mushroom was identified while in the fresh state 3. The name of the person who identified the mushroom 4. A statement as to the qualifications and training of the identifier, specifically related to mushroom identification
  19. 19. Cap Ring Stem Base Gills What are the parts of a mushroom?
  20. 20. Cap characteristics Dichotomous key
  21. 21. Cap characteristics
  22. 22. Cap characteristics
  23. 23. Spore print
  24. 24. Vovla (or bulb at base)
  25. 25. Different life stages
  26. 26. Collection location/ site info
  27. 27. Absolute identification of a typical mushroom is daunting! Michael Kuo,
  28. 28. Why identify fresh mushrooms? 2. [a statement] that the mushroom was identified while in the fresh state
  29. 29. Identifying any given wild mushroom is challenging for novices Identifying the common, safe wild mushrooms can be easy with a little training!
  30. 30. What are the common poisonous and edible wild mushrooms?
  31. 31. Wild mushroom consumption • Be very wary of poisonous mushrooms
  32. 32. Cultivated mushrooms are not poisonous
  33. 33. Amatoxins: destroying angel and death cap Eastern destroying angel Amanita bisporigera Symptoms: 5-12 hours: gastrointestinal distress (diarrhea, nausea, abdominal pain), followed by relief. Liver and kidney failure and enter a hepatic coma, ending in death. ~60% of amatoxin poisonings are fatal. What is amatoxin? Shuts down liver, kidneys. Fatal dose: 0.1mg/kg body weight (50g mushroom) Found in some other mushrooms as well (Lepiota, Conocybe, Galerina) Foreign collectors (Southeast Asia) mistake Amanitas for “paddy-straw” mushroom
  34. 34. Tippler’s bane/Inky cap Coprinus atramentaria • Edible, but incompatible with alcohol • Facial reddening, nausea, vomiting, palpitations • Blocks acetaldehyde metabolism • Dangerous up to three days after consumption
  35. 35. Sickness from nonpoisonous mushrooms • Most mushroom illnesses from improperly stored edible mushrooms • Allergies • Pesticides/herbicides • Raw consumption Shared concerns with cultivated!
  36. 36. How common is fungal food-borne illness? Analyzed CDC data from 1998- 2008 Fungi responsible for 4,542 cases of illness, mostly from toxins or pesticides Does not account for rate of consumption (note low illnesses for wild game) Painter et al., Emerging Infectious Disease, 2003
  37. 37. What about death? Cultivated mushrooms are very safe Most commonly harvested wild mushrooms are safe assuming adequate knowledge
  38. 38. Eating wild mushrooms • Be very wary of poisonous mushrooms • No reliable kitchen or field test and folklore is dangerously misleading • Mushrooms are different in different parts of the world • Stick to known “safe” mushrooms
  39. 39. Morels • Mycorrhizal • Associated with wildfire (western US)
  40. 40. Source: Morels in Kentucky
  41. 41. Chanterelles
  42. 42. And many others!
  43. 43. Beware of look-alikes
  44. 44. False morel
  45. 45. Wild mushroom harvesting in Kentucky • No permit necessary in federal forests/national parks for personal collecting (Daniel Boone National, Land Between the Lakes) • Mushroom collecting not allowed in state parks • Can’t commercially collect on federal or state land
  46. 46. Mushroom identification is hard A select group of choice edibles are comparatively easy to ID Most mushroom illnesses occur because of storage, not poisonous mushrooms Conclusions
  47. 47. Resources:
  48. 48. Resources:
  49. 49. Questions?

Editor's Notes

  • Likely to find at grocery store
    These are mass farmed because of their lifestyle which I’ll talk about
  • These guys- tend to grow on dying or dead trees
    possible to cultivate commercially- we have shiitakes growing in our back yard in logs

    If we can grow these mushrooms, why do we need to/want to pick wild mushrooms?
  • So if a fruiting
  • May recognize the tree of life- the idea that all life has a common ancestor, three major domains of bacteria, archae, eukarya
    Below domain is kingdom, such as animal, plant fungi
    fungi used to be grouped with plants, but we now know fungi are more closely related to us than to plants!
  • Disease, drought, salt tolerance
  • 10 seconds
  • 10 seconds
  • Don’t want to just scare you, there are lots of poisonous mushrooms out there but cultivated mushrooms will not be poisonous because they are grown from verified individuals

    Only a danger of misidentifiecation of wild mushrooms
  • 8-20$/lb fresh
  • Also mycorrhizal
    Found worldwide
    Heavily prized for flavor
    Vase shape

  • Lion’s mane
    Chicken of the woods - David Aurora, foolproof four