City as a lab neru 2013s

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City as a lab neru 2013s

  1. 1. E NU R CITY AS A LAB NERU MAG Eindhoven 2013
  2. 2. Introduction Foreword by Cees Donkers The Crew Happy New People by Elena Karkh 4 6 8 Dacha Project. The reuse of wooden frames Geestenberg First steps Concept A.1 Concept A.2 Concept A.3 Concept B Concept C Concept D 10 16 18 20 22 24 26 30 From commune to community. Cross-generational project Foreword by Cees Donkers Research House Commune Kommunalka Experience ? Location Meaning of the school Way of living Why 60plus/30minus community? Translation Concept A Translation Concept B Concepts of the old school building reuse 32 34 36 38 40 42 46 50 51 52 54 56 64 Extra activities Lively cities workshop Plakken in doornakkers Shadow city project Colophon 66 68 69 70
  3. 3. INT RO DUC T IO N The Moscow Design Act in August 2010 was the start of the cooperation between Russia and Eindhoven in the Netherlands. The modest presentation of Dutch Design during that exhibition caused a chain of new connections between Russian cities like Yekaterinburg, Novosibirsk, Perm, Chelyabinsk, Petrozavotsk, Tyumen, Krasnoyarsk, St Petersburg and of course Moscow and Eindhoven. The White Tower in Yekaterinburg and the project YEK2.0 with Russian students became a sort of an icon for the love from both sides for closer collaboration, urban research and design and exchange of knowledge in workshops, (Skype) lectures and internships in Eindhoven. During the first Ural Biennial September 2010, after a lecture about the transformation process in Eindhoven caused by the loss of the Philips ‘making industry’ during the nineties, students gave their ideas about transformation subjects in their own city in a three day’s workshop. More Russian cities and Universities were interested in this way of research-education. Novosibirsk organized a conference with an exhibition about student work but also the architectural transformation and re-use of old factories from Philips in Eindhoven and the lessons taken from that process. In October 2012 the first Brabant Biennial was organized in Eindhoven as part of the Dutch Design Week and the first group of Russian students came to Eindhoven to take part in the preparation of common results and to experience these cultural vibes. The YEK2.0 studies and the NERU Magazine were published and a great exhibition was shown in the Catharina Church in the heart of the city. Since then there is a ‘Russian house’ for students and tutors to live during internships in a neighborhood called Doornakkers where practical urban studies can be made. The Social Housing Company WOONBEDRIJF and the City Department are partners in this collaboration and research. After three years of starting up his process more results will be presented and discussed at the Netherlands-Russia (NERU) Conference 17 and 18th of October 2013 and the NERU Exhibition in the White Lady building (Library) in Eindhoven. This will be a ‘prelude’ or ‘teaser’ to the Dutch Design Week from 18-28th of October. 4 During the spring and summer of 2013 students and professionals from Yekaterinburg, Chelyabinsk, Perm and Tyumen in Russia and Zurich (Switzerland) studied on two subjects: the re-use of wooden window frames from the Geestenberg neighborhood for the design of Datcha’s and the social design project called 60+/30- about the revaluation of the community thinking for different generations as a medicine for mutual care. This ‘summer course’ was made possible by the 2 partners City
  4. 4. INT RO DUC T IO N Department and Woonbedrijf and the architect Marc van der Linden (VDLP-architects) for the frame project. These two practical subjects made it possible to get some experience in the Dutch way of work and to contribute to creative and nowadays solutions. Both are about a re-use society in which there is no or less money to spend, shrinking cities and a new student generation that is communicating all over the world while working on creative expectations of the future. The two projects shows free thinking in ‘out of the box‘ ideas. The Dacha’s are meant for free gardening objects to store but also live in community gardening areas. Especially in the Geestenberg neighborhood they can be used as a solution for the common green area in the center of this neighborhood. This area was designed in the seventies and meant to share several private gardens into one community garden. During the last 40 years it was not used this way anymore. By proposing this new use and connection from private to common area the old wooden frames can have a new function in revaluation of the old thoughts. By doing this it can also be a sign for a new generation and their evaluation of the community concepts from the seventies. Also the ‘school project’ is about new concepts for living together. Like in a very small village people will live together in an old and empty school, church or office and share the care for each other in different generations. After analysis of the new society in which there seems to be no money anymore to buy your own house and no jobs to start with after your graduation these new generations comes up with very creative ideas to step into a new world. Different concepts were made to solve this problem. One of them is to share an empty building to make a new balance between private and common use of interior space. At the same time the care for each other can be a factor to activate this new balance. Young people, starting up their life with jobs but also with a family and after a while little children can use the capacity of an older generation to fill in their free time to cherish and care for the children. At the same time the younger people can take care for the older ones for technical support in a changing ‘internet’ society or service in the care for daily living. This idea is worked out for the re-use of the Franciscus school in Doornakkers. So it is about more social design thinking on a larger and more abstract scale to share new concepts for social behavior and way of life for a new generation in a nearby future. It is a very interesting theme for dialogue on the 18th of October. 5 I want to thank all the students and professionals who took part in these projects. They really made it possible to show how international collaboration can start and contribute to a mutual learning process and translation into a better society. I enjoy this way of work very much and may be the most because of the aspect of human energy that is in it. THNX! 27th September 2013 Cees Donkers
  5. 5. INT RO DUC T IO N THE CREW Daria Chetvernya Occupation: 4th year student of Architecture at Ural State Academy of Architecture and Arts Location: Yekaterinburg, Russia Elena Gokh Occupation: 6th year student of Architecture and urbanism at South Ural State University Location: Magadan, Russia Darya Grigoryeva Occupation: 6th year student of Landscape architecture and urbanism at South Ural State University Location: Chelyabinsk, Russia Elena Karkh Occupation: 2nd year Master‘s student of Financial Economics at Research University Higher School of Economics Location: Moscow-Perm, Russia Sophie Steinemann Occupation: 2nd year student of Industrial design at University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland FHNW Location: Basel, Switzerland Igor Tarnovsky Occupation: 6th year student of Landscape architecture and urbanism at South Ural State University Location: Chelyabinsk, Russia Emilia Sokhoshko Occupation: assistant professor at Tyumen State University of Architecture and Civil engineering. Location: Tyumen, Russia Anna Medvedeva Occupation: assistant professor at Tyumen State University of Architecture and Civil engineering. Location: Tyumen, Russia Victoria Khokhlova Occupation: assistant professor at Tyumen State University of Architecture and Civil engineering. Location: Tyumen, Russia Pinaeva Mariya Occupation: 3th year student of Landscape architecture and urbanism at South Ural State University Location: Chelyabinsk, Russia Dmitry Kovalev Occupation: graduate student of Architecture at South Ural State University, Archstroyproject Architect Location: Kurgan, Russia Novikova Anastasia Occupation: 3th year student of Landscape architecture and urbanism at South Ural State University Location: Chelyabinsk, Russia Egor Papulov Occupation: 6th year student of Landscape architecture and urbanism at South Ural State University Location: Chelyabinsk, Russia Pirogova Nataliya Occupation: 3th year student of Landscape architecture and urbanism at South Ural State University Location: Chelyabinsk, Russia Vladislav Pankin Occupation: graduate student of Design of architectural environment at Tyumen State University of Architecture and Civil engineering Location: Tyumen, Russia 6 Iaroslava Nesterenko Occupation: 4th year student of Architecture at Ural State Academy of Architecture and Arts Location: Yekaterinburg, Russia
  6. 6. I NT RODUC T I ON Perm Moscow Chelyabinsk Tyumen Kurgan Eindhoven Basel 9 Basel - Eindhoven Moscow - Eindhoven Perm - Eindhoven Chelyabinsk - Eindhoven Yekaterinburg -Eindhoven Tyumen - Eindhoven Kurgan - Eindhoven Yekaterinburg [456km] [2160km] [3269km] [3658km] [3683km] [3873km] [3911km]
  7. 7. INT RO DUC T IO N HAPPY NEW PEOPLE Introduction Initially, I would love to underline that this article is not about science, it is only about what I have heard, learned and seen from people, from regular people like you and me. During the internship in Eindhoven, I realized how interesting it is to communicate with right people and to ask the right questions. Through such communications the name of the article was invented. We went to IQ cafe meeting and started to get involved with new people. We were very excited about open opportunities and one person mentioned that all new people are really inspired and passionate. Consequently, it was settled that we invite only happy new people for participation in further meetings. You should see how easy it was to invent, as it did not require any special actions from my side, it was only about being involved. This example brightly illustrates how you can meet inspiring people and start to realize the most important values in the society - the drivers of future changes. Yesterday 8 The strongest impression that pushed me to learn and explore everything as deep as possible appeared in the very first days in Eindhoven. On the way from Dusseldorf airport to Eindhoven our coach Cees Donkers was telling me the stories about historical aspects of their society and about Eindhoven New Born. The most important part, of course, was Eindhoven development after the Phillips decision to move to the lower costs countries, which dramatically changed city’s perspectives. Firstly, it seems natural that the city understands the limitations of industrial economy and is ready to take a new step. However, nobody has asked people about whether they are ready to change their regular lifestyle and habits. They are obviously fine with the way they live and do not really care about new development because «better future» usually provides only panic and chaos in the beginning. However, when you meet the today Eindhoven you can never assume the existence of unemployment and uncertainty problems. hAfter visiting High Tech campus, you see that it is a perfectly fit postindustrial city and because of that strong impression not always think about the background. Definitely, this solution resolving unemployment problems compels you to discover its basics and methods. This place tells you that there is much more to learn and experience in Eindhoven rather than just visiting futuristic places. It is often in life when you think that someone’s life is perfect but you never know about the price paid for reaching that success. The main point is that the Dutch meet very strong challenge. According to historical examples, we know that the greater challenge you get the greater results you can gain out of it. Comparing it to surfing, we can say that industrial wave is gone and you are not able to control the power of nature, so you should accept the challenge, catch another one and surf on it. That is the only way how you can move faster and survive. This solution has something deeper insight than a strong economical foundation… Today Let’s assume now that you are a student who has just graduated from Technical University of Eindhoven and is ready to work on the most famous Philips site of your city. You are sure that you are employed because you are brilliant. However, occasionally this site is moved to the lower cost-countries supported by bad economic situation and you are not needed anymore. It is obvious that you are in trouble. What are you going to do in this situation? Definitely, if you want to fit and go on with time, you should create something different, something brand new. For most people it seems that everything is already invented and there is nothing to do anymore. However, the most important invention is peoples’ mind and it is endless, it hides the whole new industry inside – Industry of Thinking. Here the empty factory is not only the place, making people suffer; it is a new opportunity to help people. Because when the life gives you lemon you can simply make lemonade. People have discovered a new area and performed the crucial project at that time: reuse of that factory – «White Lady». It has built a solid foundation for creative ideas in Eindhoven as well as become the symbol of historical importance. In spite of the fact that it was the beginning of the new reuse era, it helped people to reach the new level of open possibilities. It is not only reuse of site, it is reuse of mind! Along the time, if you are smart enough to make value almost out of nowhere, you can also realize that you are not the smartest person in the world. Here is the most important breakeven point when society is well-developed in terms of individuals and is ready to communicate effectively. The main tools to handle pessimistic situation came from necessity: in values of support, sharing knowledge and creativity of new generation. That is what I called a more conceptual and complicated solution to problems connected with transitive period. Moreover, every developed value is brightly presented in society and supported by examples. In this atmosphere the group of young designers is motivated to organize the pilot project in the church, which is about to be demolished, for their studio where they can work and live together. Additionally, it is a signal for talented neighbors and other citizens to participate or to follow up. Projecting
  8. 8. INT RO DUC T IO N this situation on the very simple dimension we can say that if you are in the situation of uncertainty and not sure about the outcome, do you really want to start? On the other hand, when you are surrounded by successful examples and at the same time feel passion and support, you can go with a flow and do not scare to accept risk. It seems that you have invisible an instruction that manages your way. There is a number of socially important projects in Eindhoven now but for me the top one is Collaboration O. where all creative people started their business based on support and uniqueness of physical space. My point is that it is crucial for the reason that it shows young people their strength when they join each other, listen each other and the most importantly understand each other. The efficient relations are the greatest strength of the New Generation. Comparing to Russia, firstly it seems impossible to implement this philosophy there, but it is not. In spite of the fact that institutions cannot be modified and developed in one day, we can undertake the initial steps in order to create the wave of new projects. Firstly, it is important to show that initiative goes from native people and to prove that we are ready for changes. Because in this case nobody can argue that it does not fit in our culture and economy. If we contribute knowledge and become more experienced in this area we will be more valuable and able to start making instructions for our country. From this point, I would say that the project performed by my colleagues from Russia contributes a lot for Eindhoven and for Russia as well. Firstly, they fit in Eindhoven nature by saving the historical objects and supporting the idea of sharing knowledge by community creation. Moreover, since nobody forced citizen of Eindhoven to reach that philosophy, these new projects will be very nice supportive instruments for its realization. As for us, we can learn, experience and collaborate! Tomorrow 9 I do not argue that it is a perfect world when everything is for free and you can just use it. People around you are ready to help but the same you do. When you go to the public organizations (Library and Social Housing) you meet open doors but only in case if you open yours with new ideas. Such open-minded people inspire you to follow them. It is somewhere in the air and it works. But the question still exists whether everyone can see that and feels? Sometimes people need a bit more in order to discover the opportunities. That is why it is very important to perform clarifying events and make people involved there. Summing up, we can say that only self-sufficient people can communicate efficiently with each other. Firstly you should discover yourself and be confident with your own in order to be ready for sharing. People where compelled by circumstances to perform changes but they were not compelled to choose the methods. There is a balance between ideals and individuals. I would love to underline that this is a social innovation because your initial goals were modified and it changed the people. People became warmer and their new values partially replace materialism. Here you are not by your own after graduation, you should only spend some time for discovering opportunities. Always discover yourself, because every such project is just another brick in the Falling Walls of Individualistic Behavior! Elena Karkh
  9. 9. Geestenberg. Perhaps the best preserved ‘bloemkoolwijk’ of Netherlands. Think: 70s, system, residential areas and ties. Think: Karregat. A revolutionary 70’s community center, designed by architect Frank Klingeren. Think: together, public and collective. Tenants and owner-occupiers. A mixed neighborhood, a lively district, where one of five houses belongs to an entrepreneur. Think: Living Company, the owner of about half of the homes in this neighborhood. The special power of the Geestenberg lies in the combination of the strong distinctive architecture and the strong social character of the district. Personal contact along power, collective values. They are becoming more important again in the year of 2013. And they harmonize perfectly with the values and design principles of the seventies. The district is part of sustainable maintenance plan for the 269 apartments of Woonbedrijf. A maintenance mainly according to its original architectural idea. The large majority of residents chose to bring back the original colors, the outer edge of the district is the light gray, and in the heart of the district is dark grey. The color for the frames is also selected collectively by residents for off-white. The work began in september of 2013, one house takes a work of few days. Thus, in six stages and in eighteen months all houses will be ready. In addition to new windows and facades, the houses get a complete new roof and a new ventilation system. Besides this maintenance process, there is equally good energy and sustainability in the social structure; residents get involved in the life of their neighbourhood again: the Expedition Geestenberg. 10 DACHA PROJ EC T. T HE RE US E O F WO O DE N F RAM ES DACHA PROJECT. THE REUSE OF WOODEN FRAMES
  10. 10. DACHA PROJ EC T. T HE RE US E O F WO O DE N F RAM ES Expedition Geestenberg. 11 To ensure that the entire area remains physically and socially attractive to current and future residents, Woonbedrijf with residents started the Expedition Geestenberg in 2012. A process for tenants and owner-occupiers to put together the neighborhood development. Dozens of residents divided into four different expedition groups out there. In their own neighborhood and along inspiring places in the city.
  11. 11. Team Daria Grigorieva Egor Papulov Igor Tarnovsky Vladislav Pankin Victoria Khokhlova Dacha is a traditional country house for Russia. It is normally built of wood with pitched roof. The surrounding area is mostly used to grow vegetables fruits and plants. Also there is always a spot where people have rest, hangout with friends, make barbeque.The idea of all concepts is to apply this in Eindhoven concerning all the possible differenciesin culture and way of life. When we did our research the first thing we thought about was how to organize the whole space of community garden. So we came up with several possible solutions for the whole space: 1. The traditional solution. The whole space is divided into individual areas with pavilions on them. 2.The common space. The whole site is given to a community needs and is shared by all residents. 3.The combination of previous two. Here the site is divided into private spaces but there is still shared space in the middle. During our meetinds and discussions we have worked out several possible functions: -library -garden -place to cook -seats to meet -place to sleep -storage -exhibition -greenhouse The project goals: -functionality -siplicity -modularity -interactivity -changeability 16 DACHA PROJ EC T. T HE RE US E O F WO O DE N F RAM ES FIRST STEPS
  12. 12. 17 DACHA PROJ EC T. T HE RE US E O F WO O DE N F RAM ES
  13. 13. The ‘Dacha’ Pavilion. The goal of this proposal is to give people in the neighbourhood some space in their garden where they can spend their free time relaxing in a nature but also protected from weather conditions. The supporting structure is made entirely of reused window frames. Window openings are filled with different types of materials to form picturesque composition. The idea was to form standard modules and make them different by customizing each of them. People can use pavillions for different purposes depending on their taste and their needs. All the pavilions can be connected by additional module made of frames as pergola. 18 DACHA PROJ EC T. T HE RE US E O F WO O DE N F RAM ES CONCEPT A.1
  14. 14. 19 VARIATION CROSS SECTION V_1 V_2 V_3 V_4 DACHA PROJ EC T. T HE RE US E O F WO O DE N F RAM ES
  15. 15. 20 DACHA PROJ EC T. T HE RE US E O F WO O DE N F RAM ES CONCEPT A.2
  16. 16. 21 VARIATION CROSS SECTION V_2 V_3 V_4 DACHA PROJ EC T. T HE RE US E O F WO O DE N F RAM ES
  17. 17. 22 DACHA PROJ EC T. T HE RE US E O F WO O DE N F RAM ES CONCEPT A.3
  18. 18. DACHA PROJ EC T. T HE RE US E O F WO O DE N F RAM ES SECTION 1-1 PERSPECTIVE VIEW 1 23 PERSPECTIVE VIEW 2 SECTION 2-2
  19. 19. The ‘Greenhouse’ pavilion The structure of the pavilion is formed by reused wooden window frames with regular greed. The space itself is open and ventilated from two sides and from another two sides it is closed by greenhouses. The idea on one hand was to give people a nice greenhouse where they can grow vegetables and fruits and on another hand to form shade in summer with plants to give people some privacy when they need it. Another goal of this project was to save the heat during the winter with double glass walls. 24 DACHA PROJ EC T. T HE RE US E O F WO O DE N F RAM ES CONCEPT B
  20. 20. DACHA PROJ EC T. T HE RE US E O F WO O DE N F RAM ES SECTION 1-1 SECTION 2-2 AXONOMETRIC VIEW GROUND FLOOR PLAN 25 AERATION SCHEME
  21. 21. ‘Gryadka’ People normally spend a lot of time taking care of their garden. The idea is to use window frame to regularize the site. By putting the frames in different combinations horizontally a person gets wooden paths (space in between the frames) and regularized beds for flowers and vegetables and also the possibility to store the yield. As there are window frames of different types we can combine them in many ways which makes it possible to apply this idea to garden of any shape. 26 DACHA PROJ EC T. T HE RE US E O F WO O DE N F RAM ES CONCEPT C
  22. 22. 27 CROSS SECTION GROUND FLOOR PLAN PERSPECTIVE VIEW DACHA PROJ EC T. T HE RE US E O F WO O DE N F RAM ES
  23. 23. Labyrinth The idea of labyrinth is to create a common space for a neighbourhood using window frames as frames to display something and also to organize the site by combining labyrinth and the park. The window openings can be filled up with different materials in order to make the experience of being inside of the labyrinth interesting and exciting. Possible fillings for the window openings: -mirror -pergola -chalkboard -artwork -stencil glass PERSPECTIVE VIEW 30 DACHA PROJ EC T. T HE RE US E O F WO O DE N F RAM ES CONCEPT D
  24. 24. FUNCTIONAL SCHEME GROUND FLOOR PLAN MODEL PHOTO DACHA PROJ EC T. T HE RE US E O F WO O DE N F RAM ES
  25. 25. At the end of the sixties from the last century a big cultural change occurred in Europe. Started by new music in the beginning of this decade the wish for freedom of thinking became stronger and was heard in popsongs. During my student time end of these sixties I experienced the ‘explosion’ of this change in the cultural revolution (May ’68). Started by students in the big European cities, this wave of a new way of life and society came in my Technical University in the city of Eindhoven during the spring and summer of ’70. A huge change in education at the fresh started Faculty of Architecture and Urban Design at the TU/e was caused by 2nd and 3rd year students, from formal lessons into more useful practical society questions in project education, done by students themselves. In the society this change appeared in new music, films about this freedom of mind and sexual behavior, lots of experiments on different fields. The famous ‘key’ party’s for instance led to a lot of divorced marriages. In architecture this change was shown in a new neighborhood called Geestenberg. Free forms of industrial housing in ‘boxes’ with more attention to the individual expression and public space. No or less room for cars but more for bicycles, pedestrians, public space and green areas. A new way of urban life was discovered. This new urban design showed the new rules for society at that time: room for individual expression. No row houses anymore but accent on individual exploration in architecture but also for personal development for man and woman. The Fransciscus School in Doornakkers became empty in the summer of 2013. In the policy of the owner, the City Department, this school should be demolished and the free site could be filled in with new housing project. But the city learned about her new identity during the last 20 years. The empty Philips Factories were re-used and have led to a new awareness about urban transformation. More in particular that re-use of old architecture could keep and maintain the right atmosphere in the neighborhood. Examples of this new climate were there already in this part of Eindhoven. For instance the re-use of an old and empty factory called ‘Sectie-C’ gave new impulses to the neighborhood and its inhabitants. Collaboration-O is situated within this Sectie-C complex and is formed with 10 young entrepreneurs who take care about each other and formed a real new collaboration. That is why the empty school was named as a chance for developing and testing concepts for new urban life. The ‘City as a laboratory’ course from the Brabant Academy, started already in 2003 as a new impulse from City Department and Technical University, formed the base for this research. The ‘school project’ was defined together with the Social Housing Company Woonbedrijf and City Department and is about new concepts for living together. Like in a 32 CROS S- GE NE RAT IO NAL PROJ EC T. F ROM COM M UNE TO CO M M UNIT Y FROM COMMUNE TO COMMUNITY. CROSS-GENERATIONAL PROJECT
  26. 26. CROS S- GE NE RAT IO NAL PROJ EC T. F ROM COM M UNE TO CO M M UNIT Y very small village people will live together in an old and empty school, church or office and share the care for each other in different generations. After the analysis by students of the actual new society in which there seems to be no money anymore to buy your own house and no jobs to start with after your graduation these new generations comes up with very creative ideas to step into a new world. Different concepts were made to solve this problem. One of them is to share an empty building to make a new balance between private and common use of interior space. At the same time the care for each other can be a factor to activate this new balance. Young people, starting up their life with jobs but also with a family and after a while little children can use the capacity of an older generation to fill in their free time to cherish and care for the children. At the same time the younger people can take care for the older ones for technical support in a changing ‘internet’ society or service in the care for daily living. This idea is worked out for the re-use of the Franciscus school in Doornakkers. 33 The fact that this research is done in a neighborhood that was known as an experimental society in the seventies is no coincidence. It leads to the comparing analysis of the social situation in the seventies and nowadays. Moreover the international aspect of the Russian collaboration makes it even more interesting to compare the communes from Europe in the seventies and the ‘forced’ communes in the Soviet age with the idealistic ideas of living together from this generation. It seems to me that the actual economic situation can help in this sense that young people have to choose clearly for their future. The cannot copy the way of life of their parents but have to find new ways of dealing with the actual situation with no or few jobs and no more or too expensive new build housing. A social research can lead to a new urban development and use. In the pilot the Dreams of this young people were Dared by them to translate them into Do-actions. The Dream Dare DO (DDD)-project in Yekaterinburg has led to a concrete translation that can be worked out tomorrow. The school is empty, there is a small budget from the Social Housing Company to change the interior to make it fit or suitable for a new social experiment called 60+/30-. Two generations, living together under one roof and sharing more then only the stairs or hallway to get to the own private apartment or room. In the worked out floor plan there is only a small room for private use like a bedroom and bathroom for each person. The rest of the former classrooms are used for common space like living, library, computer or television room, dining room, kitchen, children room. ‘From commune to community’ is the theme in which this new ideals will be announced and talked about during the NERU-Conference. So it is about more social design thinking on a larger and more abstract scale to share new concepts for social behavior and way of life for a new generation in a nearby future. It is a very interesting theme for dialogue on the 18th of October. 27th September 2013 Cees Donkers
  27. 27. Team Commune Victoria Khokhlova Sophie Steinemann A commune is an intentional community of people living together, sharing common interests, properties, possessions, resources, and, in some communes, work and income. For many communes, core principles have become as important as the communal economy, consensus decision-making, non-hierarchical structures and ecological living. Andrew Jacobs from The New York Times wrote that, contrary to popular misconceptions, “most communes of the ‘90s are not free-love refuges for flower children, but well-ordered, financially solvent cooperatives where pragmatics, not psychedelics, rule the day.” There are many contemporary intentional communities all over the world, a list of which can be found at the Fellowship for Intentional Community. Categorization of communities Benjamin Zablocki categorized communities this way: •Alternative-family communities •Cooperative communities •Countercultural communities •Egalitarian communities •Political communities •Psychological communities (based on mystical or gestalt principles) •Rehabilitational communities (see Synanon) •Religious communities •Spiritual communities •Experimental communities 34 CROS S- GE NE RAT IO NAL PROJ EC T. F ROM COM M UNE TO CO M M UNIT Y RESEARCH
  28. 28. CROS S- GE NE RAT IO NAL PROJ EC T. F ROM COM M UNE TO CO M M UNIT Y Communes around the world The central characteristics of communes, or core principles that define communes, have been expressed in various forms over the years. Before 1840 such communities were known as “communist and socialist settlements”; by 1860, they were also called “communitarian” and by around 1920 the term “intentional community” had been added to the vernacular of some theorists. At the beginning of the 1970s, “The New Communes” author Ron E. Roberts classified communes as a subclass of a larger category of Utopias. He listed three main characteristics. Communes of this period tended to develop their own characteristics of theory though, so while many strived for variously expressed forms of egalitarianism Roberts’ list should never be read as typical. Roberts’ three listed items were: first, egalitarianism - that communes specifically rejected hierarchy or graduations of social status as being necessary to social order. Second, human scale - that members of some communes considered as the scale of society, as it was then organised as being too industrialised (or factory sized) and therefore unsympathetic to human dimensions. And the third, the conscious anti-bureaucracy of the communes. Twenty five years later, Dr. Bill Metcalf, in his book “Shared Visions, Shared Lives” defined communes with the following core principles: the importance of the group as opposition to the nuclear family unit; a “common purse”, a collective household, group decision making in general and intimate affairs; sharing everyday life and facilities. A commune is an idealised form of family, a new sort of “primary group” (generally with fewer than 20 people, although again there are outstanding examples of much larger communes or communes that experienced episodes with much larger populations). Commune members have emotional bonds to the whole group rather than to any sub-group, and the commune is experienced with emotions which go beyond just social collectivity. With the simple definition of a commune as an intentional community with 100% income sharing, the online directory of the FIC lists 186 communes world wide (17 Aug 2011). Many cultures naturally practice communal living, and wouldn’t designate their way of life as a planned ‘commune’ per se, though their living situation may have many characteristics of a commune. 35 Core principles of communes
  29. 29. The word “commune” (kommuna) became a regular part of the Soviet lexicon right after the October Revolution. “House Commune” or Communal Dwelling (dom-kommuna) designated a structure or cluster of them designed for collective and communal life. Some of the first projects for commune-housing were very ambitious (Leonid Vesnin’s Moscow housing ensemble of 1922): a dozen buildings, including club, bath-house, technical shack, daycare and kindergardens, and residential buildings, with a large play area between them. It was in fact what we call a “garden court apartment complex,” spacious and selfsufficient, with common services including a place for socializing. Other buildings were designed based more on real-life experience. House Commune usually consisted of a long block of apartments (sometimes with a penthouse and roof garden), connected by an enclosed bridge to a block of collective facilities. As advertised by the architects, the apartments were to form an intervention into the everyday life of the inhabitants. By offering Communal facilities such as kitchens, creches and laundry as part of the block, the tenants were encouraged into a more socialist and, by taking women out of their traditional roles, feminist way of life. The structure was thus to act as a ‘social condenser’ by including within it a library and gymnasium. The Narkomfin Building is a block of flats in Moscow, Russia, designed by Moisei Ginzburg with Ignaty Milinis for workers at the Commissariat of Finance (shortened to Narkomfin). It was an opportunity for architects to try out many of the theories advanced by the Constructivist OSA group in the course of the 1920s on architectural form and communal living. The avantgarde community (notably, Ginzburg and Konstantin Melnikov) designed such model units, relying on vertical separation of bedroom (top level) and combined kitchen and living room (lower level). Ilya Golosov implemented these cells for his Collective House in Ivanovo; Pavel Gofman for communal housing in Saratov. Apartments were graded by how far along they were to being ‘fully collectivised’, ranging from rooms with their own kitchens to apartments purely for sleep and study. Most of the units belong to “Cell K” type (with double-height living room) and “Cell F” connecting to an outdoor gallery. The most interesting social issue about commune houses was that of the kitchen and the family. It is a singular fact that to this day the individual kitchen is the strongest symbol of a nuclear family (as it once was its main meeting place). Classical House Commune theory had always made the collectivized kitchen its central tenet: to save costs, promote eating together, and rescue housewives from the slavery of kitchen life. 36 CROS S- GE NE RAT IO NAL PROJ EC T. F ROM COM M UNE TO CO M M UNIT Y HOUSE COMMUNE
  30. 30. CROS S- GE NE RAT IO NAL PROJ EC T. F ROM COM M UNE TO CO M M UNIT Y “House Commune”-“socialism in one building” -communalizing services, -release women/men from repetitive domestic work -raise national labor productivity -promote a spirit of communism -allowing some privacy as well -“de-familization” -separation of children from parents V. Kuzmin “Problems of the Scientific Organization of Everyday Life” Kuzmin offered a “graph of life” — not as an enforceable regulation (“man is not an automaton”) but as a guide for joining architectural design with the daily life in a communal situation. 37 10:00 P.M. 6:00 A.M. 6:05 A.M. 6:15 A.M. 6:20 A.M. 6:25 A.M. 6:28 A.M. 6:43 A.M. 6:45 A.M. 6:50 A.M. 7:00 A.M. 3:00 P.M. 3:10 P.M. 3:17 P.M. 3:25 P.M. 3:55 P.M. 3:58 P.M. 4:58 P.M. 5:08 P.M. 5:10 P.M. 5:25 P.M. 9:25 P.M. 9:50 P.M. 10:00 P.M. Lights out. Eight hours of sleep. Calisthenics — 5 min. Toilet — 10 min. Shower (optional — 5 min.) Dress — 5 min. To the dining room — 3 min. Breakfast — 15 min. To the cloakrooms — 2 min. Put on outdoor clothing — 5 min. To the mine — 10 min. Work in the mine — 8 hours. To the commune — 10 min. Take off outdoor clothing — 7 min. Wash — 8 min. Dinner — 30 min. To the rest room for free hour — 3 min. Free time. Toilet and change — 10 min. To the dining room — 2 min. Tea — 15 min. Cultural development. Gymnastics. Alloted time: four hours. Dining room, supper, eat — 25 min. Prepare to retire — 10 min.
  31. 31. A communal apartment or ” kommunalka” appeared in the Soviet Union following the Russian revolution. Communal apartments emerged as a response to the housing crisis in urban areas and were a product of the “new collective vision of the future”. A communal apartment was typically shared between two to seven families, and it revolutionary “united different social groups in one physical space.” Each family had its own room, which served as a living room, dining room, and bedroom for the entire family. The hallways, kitchen, bathroom and telephone were shared among all the residents. The communal apartment was the predominant form of housing in the USSR for generations, and still exist in “the most fashionable central districts of large Russian cities.” Space in communal apartments was divided into common spaces and private rooms “mathematically or bureaucratically,” with little to no attention paid to the physical space of the existing structures. Residents were meant to share some rooms, but even these spaces could be divided. For example, each family might have their own kitchen table, gas burner, doorbell, and even light switch, preferring to walk down the hall to use their light switch to turn on the bathroom lights rather than using a closer switch belonging to another resident. Furthermore, the hallways were often poorly lit, because each family had control of one of the lights hanging in the corridor, and would only turn it on for their own benefit. Though communal apartments were relatively small, residents had to wait at times to use the bathroom or kitchen sink. The kitchen was the primary place the residents interacted with one another and scheduling shared responsibilities. Wary of theft, residents rarely left groceries in the kitchen unless they put locks on the kitchen cabinets. However, they often stored their toiletries in the kitchen as opposed to the bathroom, because other residents could more easily use things left unattended in the bathroom. Laundry was left to dry in both the kitchen and the bathroom. The communal apartment was the only living accommodation in the Soviet Union where the residents had “no particular reason to be living together.” Other forms of communal living were based around type of work or other commonalities, but the communal apartment residents were placed together by a governing body. These residents had little commitment to communal living or to each other. In spite of the haphazard nature of their cohabitation, residents had to navigate communal living, which required share responsibilities and reliance on one another. Spying was especially prevalent in the communal apartment, because of the extremely close quarters people lived in. It was not unusual for a neighbor to look or listen into another resident’s room or the common room and to gossip about others. Furthermore, the commu- 38 CROS S- GE NE RAT IO NAL PROJ EC T. F ROM COM M UNE TO CO M M UNIT Y KOMMUNALKA
  32. 32. CROS S- GE NE RAT IO NAL PROJ EC T. F ROM COM M UNE TO CO M M UNIT Y nal apartment was “a breeding ground of police informants,” people were encouraged to denounce their neighbors, and often did so to ensure safety for themselves or to gain their neighbor’s room for themselves after they had them evicted or imprisoned. In spite of all these challenges, many former residents of communal apartments look back fondly on the sense of family they had with their neighbors. When asked which she would prefer, one woman who lived her whole life in a communal apartment in St. Petersburg said: “It’s better to live in a communal apartment, a large one, in a historic Petersburg district, than in a private housing complex. In a housing complex there’s some kind of disconnection, life is more boring... Everybody is on their own. And here we’re like one big family. If someone is in trouble, it gets shared. Or a joy, you share that too... It works out very well. ”The Russian poet and Nobel Prize winner Joseph Brodsky, who grew up in a communal apartment in Leningrad, wrote: “For all of the despicable aspects of this mode of existence, a communal apartment has its redeeming side as well. It bares life to its basics, it strips off any illusions about human nature.” Valentina Baskina grew up in a large communal apartment in the center of Moscow, in the 1930s. Her entire family lived, ate and slept in one room. “I don’t remember that we visited each other or made some communal food. No, each family lived their own life, but it was very peaceful. Every family had children, so children became “a communal responsibility.” With friend of mine I spent a lot of daytimes sitting on top of a large dresser in corridor and playing imaginary games. My mother worked as a truck driver, so she had to leave me at home by myself. When I got married, my husband moved in with my family. We shared the room with my older brother, two younger sisters, mother, and grandmother. It was not comfortable. But nevertheless we lived and enjoyed. And we didn’t feel it as a problem, because we couldn’t compare it.” 39 Moscow architect Andrei Barbje grew up in a large apartment that had belonged to his great-grandfather before the Revolution. “I remember my parents actively disliked living in the communal apartment, but I didn’t mind it when I was young . Everyone in our kommunalka did their best to get along, by following an elaborate system of rules. For instance, there was an unspoken order of people who went to wash in the morning, based on what time they had to get to work. The communal kitchen had four stoves, and each family used two burners. But if someone was having dinner guests, they could always ask to borrow one or two burners. No one ate in the kitchen; they took the food back their room. They also kept refrigerators in their room. Still, we all celebrated the holidays together. There was a ritual: We’d visit each other’s rooms, and sit for half an hour or so. It was always customary when you visited to bring a small gift, so it was all very friendly. And even now, some years later, before I do something, I always think about whether this will bother someone else. It’s about self control, and learning to take responsibility for your actions from a very young age, simply because you’re surrounded by so many people.”
  33. 33. CROS S- GE NE RAT IO NAL PROJ EC T. F ROM COM M UNE TO CO M M UNIT Y EXPERIENCE Luca Paroni Maria Chernaya I live in a small studio with my own bathroom and I share the kitchen with 5 other people. The building where I live is owned by a company called Vestide that has an agreement with the University, so the fee I pay for the flat, located in the city centre and really closed to the University, is not that high. This campus is for PHD, PDeng, PostDoc students or company employees (like me) only. My experience is related only to those communities that exist in some way apart, but inside they were created to become a counterweight space for attempts to build an alternative lifestyle. In case of the community, I mean, of course, the punk scene in which prevails the idea of mutual support - at least in theory, although in practice it is more complicated. This “family”, where people help each other and inspire new businesses. You have to do everything on your own, but there are always people to support you. So the Commune was for me something idealized during my teenagerhood. Later I realized that this form of being seemed to me a bit unhealthy, when some time passes and people start to fight because of women or the distribution of responsibilities. I’m more into modern city commune without any ideas -I call this any apartment, where several people or families live, most of my friends co-exist in this way. They may be all from the same party or all of them do not eat meat, but no sectarianism, which I strongly object. I had an unusual experience when I was a child.I lived in an eco-commune for a month. It was a huge area, there was one man who was a manager, and a few women who were in a very unclear relationships with him, including his wife, who was totally out of her mind. They were often visited by lunatics of all kinds- to learn the wisdom, because these people were trying to build a noosphere, isolated from the wicked world, considered their land abnormal point. They also restored the ecosystem on the road, kept a luxurious garden, a vegetable garden and apiary. I was 13 when I lived there,I was on the vacation but every day I worked from 8 am -only women worked in the commune and the man wrote the article. My father was a friend of this man, and took me there because there was nature, forest and two rivers. It was really cool. Nowadays I miss our urban yard culture. I’m from the province, my home was next to the railroad. This co-op house in which everyone were united by one thing - the camps in the Komi Republic. So, everyone knew each other. I arranged exhibitions and performances with all the kids at home, we called everyone - it was okay to ring on the door and call to someone to come. On New Years eve we exchanged with candies. We took out to the yard inflatable pool for children and a tape recorder. Right beside we dried laundry. Grandmother sang songs on the bench, looked after us. This is almost gone, but a special spirit is still there. I think it may be a commune. 40 So, I don’t really have roommates but only people who share the kitchen with me, sometimes we barely see each other but its OK for me. I like to have my privacy. Rooms are well furnished, so there have been no need to buy extra stuffs. The lack of space in the apartment always push me to furnish my room carefully. So, I need to think twice, before buying new sofa or chair. When I lived in Milan, I used to share an apartment with my classmate. In Milan, usually people search for an apartment by themself, so in this case they have to deal with the owners of the flats avoiding having an agreement with a company like Vestide. I was lucky to find the people who agreed to sign an official contract with me, telling that I’ve rented the flat. Unfortunately, it is not that common in Milan, so people end up living in the flats having so called ‘black contract’. In this case people have no guarantee for the period of time they can stay in the flat and also the price they need to pay. Politecnico di Milano, University where I study, recently trying to change the situation, providing students with the apartments with fare prices.
  34. 34. 41 CROS S- GE NE RAT IO NAL PROJ EC T. F ROM COM M UNE TO CO M M UNIT Y
  35. 35. CROS S- GE NE RAT IO NAL PROJ EC T. F ROM COM M UNE TO CO M M UNIT Y ? Questionnaire 1. How do you understand term “community” ? 2. Can you imagine your living in a commune house? 3. How much private space do you need to feel yourself comfortable - in square meters, furniture etc. 4. Are you ready to share some house space with others? And what rooms could it be - kitchen, bathroom, bedroom, working space, etc ? And which rooms should be just your private? 5. With whom could you share a house - friends, relatives, others? what age? what profession? how many people could you live with? 6. How long could you stay in this house? in which period of your live / till which period of your live? 7. What reasons could make you live in a such house ? maybe it’s cause of real need to share, or if you need somebody’s care and attention, or some financial situation, or something else? Luca R&D Engineer, Eindhoven, Netherlands 28 Single Commune – society which is united by common opinions and interests. I’m not sure whether it is possible to call our home “commune”. Four generations under one roof, where the only shared interest – upbringing of children and mutual support of middle and senior generations. As a private I need minimum of 50 m2. Bedroom, kitchen, living room, working space.. everything you can’t imagine yourself without. I could share bedroom just with my husband. And I could live together with closest relatives, in our house there are 8 of them. All of my life, depending on possibilities and appropriateness. And the main reasons for me are care and mutual help. I see commune as a place where you live with other people sharing common space, tools and where you make decisions and look for a solutions together about the place you are living. I imagine it like a big house, with a lot of rooms, with a lot of people all busy doing something. I would like to have quite a big place only for myself, even if I live in a common space. The private place, where I can do whatever I want and spend some time all on my own. I’m already to live in a place where I share the kitchen. I don’t know exactly what I would share more. I could live with 20 – 30 people in one house (with friends or people with a similar background or in general with students). Perhaps I could stay in commune house up to the time I feel like changing my life because of personal reasons. I would like to live there in reason to save some money and use what I save to travel when I can. 42 Alena Architect 34 Married
  36. 36. CROS S- GE NE RAT IO NAL PROJ EC T. F ROM COM M UNE TO CO M M UNIT Y Erik Student in software development 26 In couple I need to have not less private space then a do now. I mean family space should remain the same. I’m ready to share more common areas with other people. For instance: library or a yard. Of course common interests are important. But actually I think I’m not a commune type of person. I think commune is totally not for everyone. Well, maybe for many people but not for a long time. It might be interesting while you are young and interested in something. When you are a grown up with a family and a lot of work private space becomes more important than permanent opportunity to communicate with congenial souls. But maybe in 30 years it’s very possible - then you need less private space. “Community” : just à group of people. “Commune” : people living in a particular area with something in common. Yes , I could live in commune house. I need something like 15 m²private space with : bed , desk , computer , wardrobe, shower and WC. And I can share all house space and all the rooms except my working space. It’s comfortable for me to share a space with: my family /girlfriend/friends (of all ages), don’t care of their profession, with maximum of 4 people in the house. if it’s my family (my wife with children) so it is for all my life , if it’s my friends/or parents just during my studies. There is no particular reason which could make me live in a such house , it’s just live’s circumstances , and it’s normal for human to live in social groups ,it’s not an obligation. Roman Designer 32 In couple Sylvie Student 22 Single It’s not really good for me to share a living or working space with somebody. It could be quite ok if I was a student, but for sure just if there were not a lot of roommates. From the other hand, it could be comfortable if every person had a private room. A necessary minimum of private space is needed but it all depends on the situation, for instance, if there are people who are involved in similar kind of activities and share the same values it might be enough to have just a standard working space, but if they are not then it’s necessary to have a private room. I could share a house with people only of my age or older. I can’t stand people younger than me, I know it from my experience. I wouldn’t like to share bedroom and working space, the rest is ok. But still it depends on the situation and people around me. Community is a group of persons linked for a reason. Yes, I can imagine my living in a commune house. I need 15m2 approximately for my private space, a desk, bed etc. I could share with others everything except bedroom. Friends could be as neighbors, or strangers but with a selection. In ages about 25-35. I could live with anybody but not a no active person. I don’t know for how long, it depending on my future. 43 Mikhail Head of fleet management 36 Married, has a 4-year old child
  37. 37. Artem Engineer at the automatization technologies institute 24 Single For me commune is a group of people that live together based on collective property. And community is a group of people that have similar interests. With getting older a person changes his or her views. When I was a student I would love to live in a commune. It could have helped to develop my communicational and psychological skills. Being able to catch people’s moods and deal with them is a very useful skill. Now I have a small child and for this period I would never agree in circumstances like this. In a birth house there were just three of us young mothers and it was horrible. Too much noise and children crying. Moreover when there is a small child in a house you need to be able to control the level of noise, the penetration of side sounds, sanitary norms and so on. It is impossible in a commune. Maybe when he is a bit elder I would consider an option of living in a commune, but at a condition that there will be kids of his age. It’s useful for kids because they start to learn from each other and a child being busy might make his mothers’ life much easier. And of course you may leave your child with another parent to be taken care of. It is kind of a kindergarten with big number of nannies. I think it is acceptable. I would call my private space several things. A bedroom where I could also put a working space. (no less than 16 m2 for all). A bathroom which might be not very spacious but private. Maybe a small kitchen 6-8 square meters. Where a person can be alone for a while. A small oven, small fridge and zone with sofa. The rooms I am ready to share: laundry room; storage room; well-equipped kitchen for an opportunity to cook different complicated dishes; living room, well-equipped and ready to receive a certain amount of guests, with good sound system and a TV. In conclusion I’m gonna sum everything up. Such communes might be a good thing if the residents are precisely selected by certain uniting criteria. Such as: temperament, level of emotionality, preferences, horoscope, interests (for instance a hunter might be not a very good match for animal defender). To avoid conflicts of interests, the main thing is for people to be united by similar parameters to lower the level of discomfort. However this kind of living is both financial benefit and a lot of care and support. Well, since it’s been in a very long time since I’m in a sort of musical community, I can say that the most relevant community in my understanding is an association of people with common interests, who develop their ideas, mutually help each other in this, and so on. Well, they might have totally opposite opinions on something, but in the community we’re still talking about the commonality.Commune probably implies a closer relationship between its participants. Accommodation “under one roof”. With common “economy” roughly speaking ) For me, this is not a problem. Especially if it is interesting, people who are nice to me, who we share a lot with. Personal space: a small room — maximum. With a bed. It is desirable to share toilet and bathroom not with a million people, but at least one for two or three rooms, it’s based on the harsh realities. ) ) This is pretty much it. But I’m not very representative, I have a distorted perception of reality, after seven years in a dorm ) Well the commune house is all about the interests but the interests tend to change. And I see myself in this homes as long as it keeps me interested. Untill I have no family, no children. I think when I do it will be too much for everyone: for me and for the kids and the neighbors) 44 Karolina Government and municipal management 27 Divorced
  38. 38. CROS S- GE NE RAT IO NAL PROJ EC T. F ROM COM M UNE TO CO M M UNIT Y Sergei Artist 50 Divorced This is a very interesting question because my idea of communes and community suddenly brightened for me right after it - I have not thought about it before. Let’s start with the fact that I probably would not have started to live in a commune. But if that happened, I would like to have my personal space, a room and a chair in a common room. My own locker in the kitchen and in the bathroom. So that I could mourn for a stupid music in my own corner if I need. But the other day - to arrange the whole commune crazy celebration, because when there are many people, and you have a space, you can do incredible things. I miss our urban yard culture. I’m from the province, my home was next to the railroad. This co-op house in which everyone were united by one thing - the camps in the Komi Republic. So, everyone knew each other. I arranged exhibitions and performances with all the kids at home, we called everyone - it was okay to ring on the door and call to someone to come. And in the new year we did exchange of candies. We took out to the yard inflatable pool for children, a tape recorder. Right beside we dried laundry. Grandmother sang songs on the bench, looked after us. This is almost gone, but a special spirit is still there. I think it may be a commune. I used to work in a workshop 5m2 for five years, and it was enough for me. It would be even fine for the rest of my life if there also be some room of 5m2 for relax. Now I am living in 90m2 and I can’t cope with this space properly, it tends to become messy. Although from time to time, when there is some big project spacious house comes in handy. Even pre-raphaelites were dreaming of their own home-commune for artists, but only for themselves by the way. Generally speaking it is hard to live in a commune, as well as in “communal flat” or dormitory as I used to live. Living in a commune means that all its members live as a family with some special rules, and you either follow them or you are out. For me commune is like a beehive. But if you look at them patiently you would see difference between them and us. Bees are all equal more or less, they live for one purpose, whereas people would be tear apart all the time by their temperament and inner diversity and complexity. I guess, people could live together if they share common interests, profound deep matters that concern them, not superficial one. Although, even in this case they ought to be some rules, which people should follow. 45 Marie Journalist, writer, graphic designer 23 Single
  39. 39. The St. Francis School was founded as a girls school by the sisters of the convent in the Limburg Heythuyzen. In 1966 the sisters and parents from the district formed a private school board. In 1968 the school became a mixed school. The school was formed in 1985 from the nursery and primary school. From 1966 to 2002 the school was led by director Guy van der Horst. He left a big mark on the history of the school. In 2000 The St. Francis School joined the Protestant Catholic Education Foundation. Before that it was the only primary school in Eindhoven with its own management, which is very uncommon for our region. The last director, Miriam Smisek, said that the school was or fifty years of existence, but was very forwardlooking. In 2008 the school merged with the primary Tongelaar, which is also in the district. That would be the new school that would become part of the center to be built in neighborhood Tongelrese Akkers. PLANS OF OLD SCHOOL BUILDING 46 CROS S- GE NE RAT IO NAL PROJ EC T. F ROM COM M UNE TO CO M M UNIT Y LOCATION
  40. 40. 47 CROS S- GE NE RAT IO NAL PROJ EC T. F ROM COM M UNE TO CO M M UNIT Y
  41. 41. The school. A place to aquire and transfer knowledge.Why to reuse the Franscicus school? The Fransciscus school is not just any empty and unused building but it is also in good repair. A school or rather a class is also kind of a community: sharing and learning in and as a group, is essential. In this sense the school seems to be the perfect place to realize this kind of project. Qualification, socialisation and identification are terms to define the meaning of a school, but also became important for our undersanding of a community in general. Qualification Preparing for professional life, private life and social functions. The older generation can share their knowledge with younger people that are trying to start up their professional life. Socialisation Transfer of a certain social behaviour and fundamental values of society. The „community members“ can share their values in an active way and initiate a change in society. Identification Self-identification within a society. 50 CROS S- GE NE RAT IO NAL PROJ EC T. F ROM COM M UNE TO CO M M UNIT Y MEANING OF THE SCHOOL
  42. 42. With a critical eye we look back in time and learn from past experiences, like the ‘kommunalkas’ and the ‘hippy comunities’. This knowledge can be used to create new ways of living in a developed society. ‘Community’ becomes the keyword in our research in understanding now a days needs of the people. It describes a growing mentality of cooperation and a strong desire for sharing and exchange. In this concept of ‘new living’ we show the results of our research on the basis of two different approaches. COMMUNITY WHY? CARE 51 -being an active part of society -the future -being independent & responsible -themselves -other people SHARE -property & possessions -knowledge -interests & ideas -resources -time CROS S- GE NE RAT IO NAL PROJ EC T. F ROM COM M UNE TO CO M M UNIT Y WAY OF LIVING
  43. 43. Situation -People want to share and discover new ways of living -People are ready to live in a community -People in need -Lonely -Divorce -Lack of time -Integration -Financical Situation -Generation gap in the future (many old people) Solution Can complete each others needs because of different living environment and needs: -Give each other a company -Donate time (child care) -Share knowledge -Pass of traditions -Share resources (cooking, cleaning) 52 CROS S- GE NE RAT IO NAL PROJ EC T. F ROM COM M UNE TO CO M M UNIT Y WHY 60PLUS 30MINUS COMMUNITY ?
  44. 44. CROS S- GE NE RAT IO NAL PROJ EC T. F ROM COM M UNE TO CO M M UNIT Y KNOWLEDGE EXPERIENCE TRADITIONS COMPANY CARE SKILLS TIME MOOD KNOWLEDGE EXPERIENCE TRADITIONS COMPANY CARE SKILLS TIME MOOD 60+ 53 30-
  45. 45. “Community Housing” Similar to a student housing. Private living space with individual or shared bath and small kitchen + one big community room - shared kitchen space with a big dinning table - living space with corner and library - entertainment corner [ kicker, board games] - laundry room - shared garden Private space: For one resident - 27,5 m2 in total - 17 private rooms Community space: 65 m2 in the first floor 92 m2 in the second floor Conclusion: + easy & pragmatic solution - not for “growing” a new community more like a usual student housing people don’t really share, but just coexist in one house most of time people stay in their rooms idea is not innovative 54 CROS S- GE NE RAT IO NAL PROJ EC T. F ROM COM M UNE TO CO M M UNIT Y TRANSLATION CONCEPT A
  46. 46. CROS S- GE NE RAT IO NAL PROJ EC T. F ROM COM M UNE TO CO M M UNIT Y ‘Cube’ Separate unit with bathroom, kitchen and cupboards. 3600 3200 3200 3200 3500 3500 3600 3200 4800 3500 1400 1400 2700 2700 2800 4800 3500 5700 55 2800 5700 COMMUNITY ROOM
  47. 47. CROS S- GE NE RAT IO NAL PROJ EC T. F ROM COM M UNE TO CO M M UNIT Y TRANSLATION CONCEPT B Private space is limited. But there is a very big shared space where the residents can find private moments. Every resident has got just small bedroom (about 6-10 m2) as private and bathroom (shared or not). This is how every person in the house provided with minimal private space to stay alone if it is necessary, to storage all the possessions and to organize it in personal way. All the other rooms in the house are semi-public, they “work” for all the commune’s residents. People share a big kitchen with dinning room, living room with TV corner, gardens, library, work spaces, nap room, children’s room, laundry. All this rooms connected with the main axis, so people meet each other when they move through all the shared rooms by the way to their own bedroom. The idea is to leave the decision how to organize the shared space to the community. Every resident has the responsibility for the shared space in front of his own room. So together with neighbor he become the “owner” of semi-private space in commune house. They make decisions about organizing this space mutually. The same way they decide if they want to “invite” house’s community to come in to their room or not. In this way residents have got a feeling like they are “owners” of this space and can do with this room whatever they want. This is how there are a lot of different spaces with strong individuality in one house. At the same time everybody feels a bit like a “guest” in neighbor’s semiprivate space. Residents have an opportunity to regulate space around. They can expand their semi-private space or reduce it at all for some periods. INVERT SHARED AND PRIVATE SPACE Concept A 56 Concept B
  48. 48. SEMI-PUBLIC PRIVATE PRIVATE SEMI-PRIVATE SEMI-PUBLIC PRIVATE PRIVATE SEMI-PRIVATE SEMI-PUBLIC PRIVATE PRIVATE SEMI-PRIVATE SEMI-PUBLIC PRIVATE PRIVATE SEMI-PRIVATE SEMI-PUBLIC PRIVATE SEMI-PRIVATE SEMI-PUBLIC PRIVATE 12 13 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 14 12 12 13 14 15 17 18 19 20 21 16 13 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 14 15 16 17 18 19 8 9 6 7 4 5 11 10 3 1 2 20 11 9 10 7 8 5 6 4 2 3 21 11 9 10 7 8 6 57 11 10 8 9 6 7 4 1 Deviding shared space into semi-private parts. Option 2 4 Deviding shared space into semi-private parts. Option 1 5 2 3 1 Partial invertation shared space into private space 5 3 1 2 The main axis throw the joint shared space CROS S- GE NE RAT IO NAL PROJ EC T. F ROM COM M UNE TO CO M M UNIT Y Spaces in the commune house
  49. 49. CROS S- GE NE RAT IO NAL PROJ EC T. F ROM COM M UNE TO CO M M UNIT Y 74 M2 38 M2 58 Use corridor for private space, but place a new wall to extend the private space. This extra-space expands bathroom and also functions as a place to store all the goods and chattels.
  50. 50. CROS S- GE NE RAT IO NAL PROJ EC T. F ROM COM M UNE TO CO M M UNIT Y BEDROOM 6,45-9,6 M2 PRIVATE BATHROOM 3,25 M2 BEDROOM 17,7 M2 PRIVATE BATHROOM 4,75 BEDROOM 6,75 M2 SHARED BATHROOM 4,25 M2 BEDROOM 7,8 -11,8 M2 + EXTRA SPACE - 3,5 -5,5 M2 PRIVATE BATHROOM 3,2-4,2 M2 BEDROOM 6,0 M2 + EXTRA SPACE - 2,4 M2 PRIVATE BATHROOM 3,4 M2 59 BEDROOM 6,8 M2 + EXTRA SPACE - 3,4 M2 PRIVATE BATHROOM 3,4 M2
  51. 51. CROS S- GE NE RAT IO NAL PROJ EC T. F ROM COM M UNE TO CO M M UNIT Y FLEXIBILITY TRANSFORMATION RECOMBINATION Options with swivel walls 60 Variations of organizing shared bathroom and kitchen
  52. 52. 61 AXONOMETRIC VIEW OF THE HOUSE COMMUNE CROS S- GE NE RAT IO NAL PROJ EC T. F ROM COM M UNE TO CO M M UNIT Y
  53. 53. 62 CROS S- GE NE RAT IO NAL PROJ EC T. F ROM COM M UNE TO CO M M UNIT Y DAILY ROUTES OF COMMUNES RESIDENTS
  54. 54. 63 CROS S- GE NE RAT IO NAL PROJ EC T. F ROM COM M UNE TO CO M M UNIT Y SEMI-PUBLIC SPACE IN THE COMMUNE HOUSE
  55. 55. Team Emilia Sochoshko Anna Medvedeva “Woonbedrijf” is one in the largest housing companies in the Netherlands and specialized in rent, sale, building and reusing of living houses. Soon this company will have an old school building in their property and they want to turn it into living houses/apartments. Our task was to make a few proposals for reuse of this old building. So we developed two different options for this building: -A hostel for students -A house for family Option for students In our opinion every young person wants to spend time with his friends. Because a lot of students come from abroad to study at TU/e or Design Academy and they feel lonely in a new city. So we wanted to create comfortable conditions for studing, relaxing, preparing food and have fun together. That’s why in our options we tried to connect all the functions together. Apartment for family. The first idea was to divide a building in to different apartments. The entrance of each on the first floor will be from the street side. The most successful in our opinion is the option with flexible walls. With the help of that the owner could create absolutely different space in their house. The second idea is to create a townhouse. So we divide a building into new sections and each apartment will have two floors. There are also different plan options. 64 CONCE PTS O F T HE OLD S C HO O L B UIL DING RE US E CONCEPTS OF THE OLD SCHOOL BUILDING REUSE
  56. 56. 65 CONCE PTS O F T HE OLD S C HO O L B UIL DING RE US E
  57. 57. E X T RA AC T IVIT IES EXTRA ACTIVITIES LIVELY CITIES WORKSHOP North West European Lively cities placemaking tour. 66 We had a chance to work for a short brainstorming session in collaboration with Dutch students. During the workshop we had several Placemaking sessions about the Sint Joseph site at the city of Eindhoven. We worked together with Dutch students, residents and local architects. Different groups had to answer questions about subjects like visibility, identity, variation and flexibility of functions and time. First groups went out to check the location with a local guy. He gave us more information about the buildings present on the site of St. Joseph: what functions they have and how they influence the surrounding open spaces. Finally the different groups gave a presentation containing their concepts for a better place.
  58. 58. 67 E X T RA AC T IVIT IES
  59. 59. E X T RA AC T IVIT IES PLAKKEN IN DOORNAKKERS 68 In one of the last days of summer we were invited to be a part of a creative action in the square of the old Tongelaar School. Children and adults from all over the neighborhood built houses with cardboard, packing materials and tape. With Elena Lovich, Marijke Spekman and Mini Smulders they taped a big map of the neighborhood on the floor in school yard and put there new houses, factories and other buildings made of reused materials. Local businessman acted as a sponsor of this event and all the participants tried biological bread from neighbor bakery and fruits from turkish shop.
  60. 60. E X T RA AC T IVIT IES SHADOW CITY PROJECT 69 Sunlight and shadows are the materials in a public space installation by Izabela Boloz in the picturesque district of Østerbro in Copenhagen. Shadow City comes alive with the rising sun, casting shadows of house facades across a 100 meter wall on the Sortedam Lake. A playful image of a city appears, inspired by the history of Copenhagen, and changes as it slowly moves across the wall with the changing position of the sun.
  61. 61. CO LO PHO N COLOPHON This publication is produced in the collaboration with the municipality of Eindhoven Printed by Repro of the municipality of Eindhoven Organization Cees Donkers Cooperation Koj Koning Ellis Kluijt Jan van de Ven Yolanda van Els Editing Victoria Khokhlova Graphic Design Michael Skachkov The Netherlands Eindhoven 2013 70 Eindhoven

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