Science 6 space BY BOYET B. ALUAN

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REVIEWER IN SCIENCE 6

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Science 6 space BY BOYET B. ALUAN

  1. 1. Science 6 Achievements and problems in space Exploration p.274-278 Astronaut Edwin Aldrin—installed instrument that will help study the moon’s surface. April 1961—first manned spacecraft June 1963 – first woman to orbit Earth October 1964—first orbited flight carrying more than one man March 1965—first man to walk iin space March 1966—Venus 3 was the first man-made object to land on another rplanet July 1969—first man to land and walk on the moon May 1973—USA puts the first space station SKYLAB into orbit March 5, 1979—VOYagger 1 photographed Jupiter and its moon at close range Nov. 12, 1980—Voyager 1 discover new rings and additional new moons of Saturn April 1981—Space shuttle Columbia was launched. It is the first shuttle to reach earth’s orbit. March1986—the first part, BASE BLOCK OF SPACE STATION MIR, was launched. April 1990—HUBBLE TELESCOPE was launched from space shuttle discovery December 1993- space shuttle endeavor repaired hubble telescope. 1998- lunar Prospector, equipped with a neutron spectrometr, a new planetary exploration instrument found the moon’s frozen water June 22, 2000- NASA findings revealed the presence of liquid water on the surface of Mars indicating that life could have existed on it. NEIL ARMSTRONG—AN American Astronaut who had first landed Moon’s surface on July 19, 1969.Followed by EDWIN ALDRIN JR. on the same mission. Airlessness, weightlessness, extreme heat and radiation, food intake and proper waste disposal – are some problems met in space exploration. VACUUM- Kinds of environment in the outer space that is airless, and weightless. Spacesuits-suits used by astronaut to go outside their spaceships to do repairs. EXPLAINING THE ORIGIN OF UNIVERSE268-269 BIG BANG THEORY—according to this theory, the universe started as one very hot and dense concentration of matters. The dense concentration of matter exploded with its fragment moving outward and away from one another at different speeds. And according to this, the universe continue to expand. BIG CRUNCH THEORY—beliefs that the universe began from the bing bang explosion of a dense globe of hydrogen. However, because of the gravity, billioons of galaxies move toward one another. STEADYSTATE THEORY- universe is expansion similar to its original state and will not change anymore. NEBULAR OR DUST CLOUD THEORY- planets, stars, and other heavenly bodies came from dust of clouds. This materials combined together as they spinned in space. They later moved around a central body and ccoled off. The big spinning materials formed the heavenly bodies. SPACE PROBES AND THEIR MISSIONS PP 271-273 1957—STARTED SPACE AGE. SPUTNIK was launched in outer space in 1957. YURI GAGARIN—Russian cosmonaut became the first man to orbit earth aboard the satellite VOSTOK 1.
  2. 2. Most space probes are UNMANNED AND OPERATED BY COMPUTERS. Mariner 3- was the first to reach planet Venus in 1962. Lander- second craft which lands on the surface or another heavely body. It gathered information and relay them back to earth. July 20, 1976—VIKING 1 was sent into space to orbit Mars Mars Lander landed planet Mars on July 20, 1976. It analyzed the soil together with VIKING 2 WHICH THEY FOUND OUT THAT NO LIFE was formed on the planet. VENERA 9- orbited Venus and made its first soft landing on the planet’s surface. Mariner 4- probed mars in July 1965 while Mariner 10. Mariner 10-was sent to Mercury to gather photographs of the planet’s surface..photgrapphs revealed mercury craters . it reach in March 1974. VOYAGER 1 AND 2-was sent to obtain vital information angget photographs of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, Voyager2 reach Neptune in Aug. 1989. NASA Mars Pathfinder –was one of the latest and most advance spacecraft to probe the surface oof Mars in !997. SOJOURNER-a small roving vehicle, provided the data on the climate, atmosphere, geology of the planet 1997 SPACE MISSION IN MARS—was considered as the first important and successful space missions. June 22, 2000- NasaAnnonced the findings of scientist studying mars Global Surveyor’s spacecraft image. They observed features suggest the presence of liquid water on Mars surface. This information point to some indication that life could have existed on mars. STUDYING THE UNIVERSE PP 264-267 TELESCOPES- instrument used by the scientist to observe heavenly bodies.TELESCOPES COLLECTS RADIO TELESCOPES- TELESCOPES COLLECTS radio waves from outerspce. Dish -collecting device of a radio telescope. SKY HUBBLE TELEsCOPE-was sent to outerspace to observe and send information back to earth ARTIFICIAL SATELLITE—ARE launched into outer space in order to collect vital information about earth space..they can pic photos and send impending storm. They can observed weather condition of different palces on earth. They are called weather satellites. Space probes-spacecraft equipped with special cameras sent into outerspace to gather information about the solar system and even beyond it. It carries instruments to measure and record the surface temperature of planet and study rock particles in space. SKYLAB-THE FIRST SPACE STATION IT serves as space laboratory sent into orbit in 1972. MIR – a Russian space station, carried Aamerican astronaut and Russian cosmonauts to collaborate on a joint space mission. GALAXIES pp. 259-263 Galaxy is made up of clouds of dust and gases and billions of stars. Milky way galaxy- galaxy resembles a thin convex lens at the center and has a diameter of about 80 000 light years. And compost of 200 billion stars. Local group- also known as 17 galaxies Large and small Magellanic Clouds- nearest neighbor of Local Group.
  3. 3. Great Nebula/Andromeda Galaxy- another neighbor galaxy of Local Group.-sparial galaxy Three major types of galaxy according to US astronomer EDWIN P. HUBBlE 1 irregular 2. Spiral, 3 Elliptical, Spiral Galaxies- made up of millions of star. Lens-shaped nucleus at its center with arms or projection extending out..there are few starsand almost no dust or gas in between the arms.Some spiral galaxies are tighly wound while others are open. Almost 75 percent of the galaxies are sain to be spiral. ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES-- are nearly ball shaped to lens shapes. They do not have any arms .there is almost no gas and dusts cloud. IRREGULAR GALAXIES—COMPRISE 2-3 PERCENT OF THE GALAXIES. These are smaller and fainter compared to spiral and elliptical galaxies. They are composed of stars which are unevenly distributed. One irregular galaxy is the LARGE MAGALLANIC CLOUDS. PATTERNS OF SKY I THE SKY PP 254- 258 CONSTELLATIONS—groups of stars that form certain patterns. BIG DIPPER-STARS THAT RESEMBLES OLD WATER DIPPER PART OF URSA MAJOR. This is made up of seven stars POLARIS- ALSO KNOWN AS NORTH STAR. THE POSITION OF THIS STAR IS FIX AND ALWAYS POINTING NORTH. LITTLE DIPPER—is part of ursa minor or small bear. CASSIOPEA--THE QUEEN—OPPOSITE OF THE BIG DIPPER, this constellation compost of five starsthat seems to form the letter W. Orion the great hunter- another visible group of star in the sky. Orion consists of several bright stars, three of which forms its belt called Tatlong Maria. Betelgeuse- famous red supergiant star on the right shoulder of Orion Rigel- a bluish white star located at the left knee of Orion. STARS’ COLORS AND TEMPERATURE PP251-253 NAME OF STAR COLOR SURFACE TEMPERATURE DEGREE CELCUIS COMPARISON RIGEL BLUIS-WHITE ABOUT 20 000 WELDING TORCH SIRIUS WHITE ABOUT 11 000 FLOURECENT LIGHT SUN YELLOE ABOUT 6 000 SODIUM LIGHT PROCYON YELLOE ABOUT 6 000 SODIUM LIGHT BETELGEUSE RED ABOUT 3 000 LIGHTEDCIGARETTE BASED on the table above, rigel is the hottest, followed by Sirius, sun procyon, and Betelgeuse..temperature of the sun is based on the color it relfects. Bluish white is the hottest while red is the coolest 3 000- 30 000®C- range of stars’ surface temperature. Yellow stars- moderate temperature. Nuclear reaction- the process that takes place in the stars’ surface. There are fusion and fission Helium- the combination of two hydrogen atom in the stars’ surface called fusion..therefore, the mkore hydrogen gas the stars have, the younger its is.
  4. 4. However when almost all the hydrogen used up. A star is gradually becomes white star in color- the coolest. Our sun is yellow star which is relatively young star and the procyon is yellow white star which is older than our star. Rigel is a mature star based on its color. It has a bkuish white color. STARS; THEIR SIZE, COLOR AND BRIGHTNESS PP245-250 STARS –do not really twinkle, they appear to twinkle because we see them through layers of air surrounding Earth Sun- is a star of medium size.it is about 1 380 000 kms across. Supergiants stars-stars that a thousand of times larger than that of our sun. Betelgeuse and Antares- example of supergiants stars. Giant stars- are stars smaller than supergiants but bigger than the sun. Capella and arcturus are examples of giant stars. Dwarf stars- are stars smaller the the sun. NGC 2440- EXAMPLES of dwarf stars APPARENT MAGNITUDE- the apparent brightness of stars that due to their size and distance from Earth. Light year- refers to the distance of the stars from earth. Proximacentauri- 4.27 light years from earth Alpha centauri- 4.34 light years Sirius – 8. 70 light years 300 000 km/s- light travel at this speed. 9 500 000 000 000- light travel in one year. So 4.27 times 9 500 000 000 000 = is the distance of proximacentauri from the earth. Apparent magnitude of Antares star is 1.0 and 120 light years Apparent magnitude of Betelgeuse is 0.8 and 150 light years Sirus is -1.4 apparent magnitude and 9 light years. Therefore stars with magnitude below 1 isconsideredas first magnitude stars. They are brightest in the night sky. Faintest are the stars in th 24th magnitude. Jupiter, the largest planet in the solar system has an apparent magnitude of -2.8 while our moon has an apparent brightness of -12.6 Distant sun- stars that wee see in the sky. Spectra, absolute magnitude, and surface temperature- classifies the stars. EIJNAR HERTZSPRUNG AND HENRY NORRIS RUSSELL- formed the hertzsprung-russell or HR- diagram that plots the absolute magnitudes of stars against their spectral class. hertzsprung-russell or HR- diagram -This is just like comparing the amount of energy radiated in a specific period of time against the surface temperature. It also classified stars as giant or dwarf. Main sequence- the part of the diagonal band with an asterisk where almost stars are found. Below the main sequence- stars are classified as dwarfs. Gianst are found on the left sequence of h-r diagram Supergiants stars are found above the sequence of h-r diagram. Brighter stars are blue, while least bright are red. GAZING AT STARS PP 242-244
  5. 5. TELESCOPE- tube used to observe the sky, it is an instrument used by astronomers to gather information about stars. ASTRONOMER- person specially trained to study stars and other heavenly bodies. There are different kinds of telescope we have REFRACTING AND REFLECTING TELESCOPE and radio telescope. SPECTROSCOPE- A SCIETIFIC INSTRUMENT that collects light by means of a camera attached to the device. Space craft- example space probe- are carry instruments that travel into outer space to gather information about the stars, planet, moons and other heavenly bodies. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Which of the following can be used to collect information about star’s composition from earth? a. Telescope b. space shuttles c. space probes d. spectroscope Which is the first space probe launched into space? a. Mercury b., Mariner c. Spunik d. Venera Why does medium-sized star appeared brighter than others? a. Because of its great distance b. Because ot its nearness to earth c. Because of its great size d. Both b and c How are Sirius and betelgeuse alike? a. They are both constellation b. They are brighter sky in the sky c. They are both red stars d. They are both white stars Why is light year preferable to use than kilometer when expressing the distance of stars? a. Light year is longer b. Light year is more accurate c. Light year is more unique d. Both a and b Why are stars’ also considered distant sun? This is because a. Stars are balls of hot burning gases like our sun b. Stars may have planets orbiting around them c. Stars give off heat and light d. Stars have same composition as planet To which lighted object can you compare Rigel a. Cigarette b. welding torch c. sodium light d. florescent light Which of the following is the color of young star? a. Red star b. yellow star c. bluish white star d. both a and b Which of the following does not affect the color of a star? a. Size b. shape c. surface temperature d. age or stage Why do billions of stars appear as big patches of light in the night sky? Because they ____. a. Are very far from Earth
  6. 6. b. Are close to one another c. Produce light d. Are very bright What is one of man’s greatest achievement in space exploration? a. His first walk in space b. His first orbit around Earth c. His first manned flight on Earth d. His landing on the moon What will happen to man if he does NOT wear spacesuit in outer space? a. man will float in outer space b. man will explode in outer space c. man will walk in outer space d. both a and b Why was Viking 1 sent into outer space? a. To analyze Mars’ soil b. To orbit the planet Venus c. To photograph Mercury’s surface d. to determine Venus’ atmosphere Which of the following space probes was able to photograph the craters on the Mercury’s surface? a. Mariner 10 b. Pioneer 2 c. Venera 9 d. Voyager 1 How will you describe a vacuum? An area that is ___? a. Airless c. has no particles at all b. Weightless d. both a and b THE CHANGING EARTH PP195-198 EARTH- is a planet that is almost spherical in shape and is made up of land, (lithosphere) water, (hydrosphere) and air(atmosphere). Continents- is the large mass of land. The earth comprise about one-fourth of its surface. ¾ parts-remains of earth filled with water ( oceans, seas, falls, rivers, lakes, gulfs, mars, etc) Atmosphere- the blanket of air that contains several gases such as nitrogen, Oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other gases in smaller amount. LAYERS OF EARTH CRUST- the outer most layer of the solid earth. It is made p of loose solid rocks where continents and oceans are located. 10-65 kms.- various range of the thickness of continents and oceans. MANTLE- located bellow the earth crus, andaboout 2 880 kms. thick. It is composed of solid rocks in its upper portion. The lower portion is believed to be composed of very hot molten rocks. Because of its uniform compositions, results earthquake waves. ANDRIZA MOHOROVICIC- discoveredthe boundary between crust and mantle.
  7. 7. Mohorovicic discontinuity or moho-is the boundary between rust and mantle which varies from place to place. CORE- beneath the mantle. It is divided into two sections: the outer and inner cores. Outer core- about 2 800 to 4 960 kms thick and is composed of molten iron and nickel. Studies of earthquakes waves suggest that the outer core is said to be liquid.-molten metals Inner core- is believed to be solid materials. Has a diameter of 2 560- 2880 kms. The entire core has app temperature of 4 700®C. Tremendous pressure- present at the core. Seismograph- instrument use to gather information about earth surface. It measures the forces and direction of waves(earthquake). THE MOVING CRUSTH OF THE EARTH—PP199-201 CRUSTAL plates-the composition of continental and oceanic parts with several large and small moving rock layers. This paltesmove due to great forces acting on them. The seven crustal plates are: 1. Antarctic plate, 2. Eurasian 3. African 4.Pacific 5.Indian 6.Australian and 7.American Palte. About 200 million years ago there were no crustal plate to speak f. there was only one super continent called PANGAEA PANGAEA- idea suggested by ALFRED WENEGER a German scientist. According to him Pangaea broke into pieces (crustal plate ) and slowly move until they reached their present position. ASTHENOSPHERE- liquid rock where crustal plates is said to be float. The movement of crustal is said to be moving forward or away from one another.at the edges of the plate, there may be sinking or uplifting at the point where crustal plates collide. (quakes) Denser plate- goes under the outer plates when crustal plates collide. Trench- formed when continental plates collide with oceanic plates. This is a very deep place on the ocean floor. EARTHQUAKE TREMORS- is the energy released during collision. This may be weak or strong. Magma- molten rocks that moves slowly upward the crack or the opening o earth, ocean and basin. This movement causes the sea floor to spread out. EARTHQUAKES PP. 202-205 PREASSURE- from above and beneath the crust causes the plates to move. It also produces cracks and faults. Earthquakes- it is defined as the movements where the energy is released from moving crustal plates, the surrounding rock layer trembles and shakes. Tectonic earthquake- the shifting or movement of crustal plates. Volcanic earthquakes- is quakes cause by volcanic activity Epicenter- is the point on the surface of the earth located directly above the center of an earthquakes’ origin. Focus- the center or source of the earthquake. Intensity- the extent of damage caused by an earthquake, such tremor damages to people, buildings, bridges road and vegetation. Rossi-Forel Scale- usually measures earthquake intensity. It is range from I-IX
  8. 8. Intensity Description I-Hardly perceptible shock Felt only by experienced observer under favorable conditions II-Extremely feeble shock Felt by a small number of persons at rest III-very feeble shock Felt by several persons at rest; duration and direction may be perceptible; sometimes dizziness or nausea is experienced IV- feeble shock Felt generally indoors, outdoors by few; hanging objects swing lightly; creaking of houses’ frames V- Shock of moderate intensity Felt generally by everyone; hanging objects swing freely; overturn of all vases and unstable object’ light sleepers awaken VI-fairly strong shock Generally awakening of those asleep; stopping of pendulum clock; oscillation of hanging lamps, slight damage in every old or poorly-built structures. VII- Strong Shock Overturn of movable objects; slight damage in most well-built houses, considerable in old or poorly-built structures, old walls; some landslides from hills and steep banks; crack on road surfaces VIII-Very Strong Shock People panic, trees shaken strongly; changes in the flow of prings and wells; sand and mud ejected from fissures in soft ground; small landslides IX- Extremely strong shock General panic; partial or total destruction of some buildings; fissures in the ground; landslides and rock falls. MAGNITUDE- is the amount of energy released by an earthquake. Charles F. Ritcher- American scientist developed a scale to indicate the magnitude of an earthquake this scale used numbers 1-10 Ritcher Magnitude Scale-popular known from his author Ritcher. It is used to scale the magnitude of an Erthquake. Earthquake magnitude description Explanation M below 1 Only detectable when ultrasensitive seismograph is operated under favorable conditions M below 3 The hardly perceptible Most are not felt; recorded only by seismographs shocks nearby station M3-4 The very feeble shock Only felt near epicenter M4-5 The feeble shocks Damage not usually reported M5-6 The earthquake s of moderate strength Felt over wide areas, causes small, local damage near the epicenter
  9. 9. M6-7 The strong earthquakes Accompanied by local damages near the epicenters; well-equipped seismological stations record them whenever they occur within the earth M7-8 The major earthquakes Can cause considerable damages near the epicenters, under the sea; small tsunamis produced M8-9 The great earthquakes Occur once or twice a year; on land much damage over wide areas, under the sea, considerable tsunamis produced, many after shocks in areas approximately 100- 1 000 km in diameter. M over 9 Have never occurred since the data bases on seismograph observations became available. Seismograph- device used to measures the movement of earth’s crust. it can detect and record the vibration on the earth surfaces. EARTHQUAKES, ENVIRONMENT, AND PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES PP 206-209 LANDSLIDE- the falling of loose rocks along mountainsides. Chasms- wide open up on the part of some area causes by violent crustal shakes. It is produces by strong earthquakes. Tsunami- if earthquake is said to be happen under the sea can cause giant waves in the ocean or simple giant waves in the ocean caused by earthquakes under the sea. Foreshock- occurrence of low-magnitude in tremors. It can be predicted in observing the changes in the water level in wells, or changes in animal behavior. VOLCANOES PP210-212 VOLCANO- is a mountain or hill with an opening that extends from its summit down to Earth’s interior. It expels hot molten rocks usually accompanied by an earthquake or several rumblings beneath the Earth’s surface. Vent- billowing cloud of smoke escapes out of small holes or cracks beneath the earth’s crust. Magma- a moving molten rocks spewing out of vent. This phenomenon is usually accompanied by groud shaking. Lava- flowing out magma, it becomes solid when it cool down and accumulated in the area Cone- is develop called low- elevated landform. Plateau- formed by slow moving lava covering large area. Violent eruption- characterized by released of high columns gas of tremors, loud sounds Pyroclastic materials- involves volcanic bombs, rock and dust that are releases during volcanic eruption. Active volcanoes- are those volcanoes that have erupted or shown sign of activity within the past 600 years.
  10. 10. Inactive volcano on the other hand is the reverse explanation of the above mentioned VOLCANIC ERUPTION AND THEIR EFFECTS PP. 213-216 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY- source of heat beneath the earth surface. Some areas with geothermal energy are TIWI, ALBAY, MAKILING, BANAHAW LAGUNA AND TANGONAN, LEYTE. CAGSAWA CHURCH- belfry half buried lava flow after volcano erupted on February 1, 1814. PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES BEFORE AND AFTER VOLCANIC ERUPTION PP. 217-218 PHILVOLCS- philippne institute of volcanology and seismology- is the agency that monitors earthquakes and volcanic activities. They determined volcanic danger zones. VOLCANIC DANGER ZONES- are places that can be directly affected by volcanic ashes and molten materials released during eruptions. CLIMATE PP 219-223 WEATHER- is the condition of the sky that changes from time to time and from day to day. It is influence by cloud formation, water evaporation, location, temperature wind speed and direction, and rainfall or snow fall. Climate- is the average of all weather conditions that prevail in particular area for a long period of time. Factors affects climate are ALTITUDE, LATITUDE, BODIES OF WATER, WIND SYSTEM AND AMOUNT OF RAINFALL ALTITUDE- the height of a particular place above sea level. This means higher the particular place, the cooler the temperature. LATITUDE- runs parallel that imaginary divides the earth going north and south. These lines are divided into degrees. Places near equator have low latitude, places near poles have high latitude. Areas on the equator receives direct sunlight so hot climate/temperature experience in their areas. While those who are near poles have cold climate. BODIES OF WATER- such as oceans, seas affects climate. Those places near coastal have cooler climate than the others. WIND SYSTEM- wind movement also affects climates in particular places. Winds moving across the bodies of water carry a lot of water vapor. Winds coming from poles are dry and cool. Doldrums-winds at the equator. It hardly move at all and are usually hot. Ships cannot move in this area. This is because ships need the power of the wind to move. Areas lying near in the equatorial region experience tropical climate Tropical climate- characterized by distinct hot rainy months. Philippines is an example. Trade winds- are those that blow from the northeast or from the southeast. Places where these winds blow experience few storms. Horse latitudes- are special winds that are found 32® north and 30® south latitude. Air in this areas are fairly cool and dry. The high pressure areas produce hot dessert places. Sahara desert in Africa and Arabian deserts’ in the middle east are examples of desert in horse latitude. Polar easterlies and westerlies- bring about short cool summers and long cold winter. Greenland and Iceland have cool polar climates. There are abundant rains in areas around the equator. However about 45® to 55® latitude experienced more rain. Above these areas, rainfall less frequent. AMOUNT OF RAIN FALL-when it seldom rain in the area, that place has pronounced dry season. When always rain that place is wet most of the year.
  11. 11. Lutunendo, Colombia- in south America the rainiest area in the world. It experiences about 11 770mm of rain every year. THE EARTH’S WIND SYSTEMPP 224-227 GLOBAL WIND SYSTEM- CAUSED BY UNEQUAL HEATING OF THE EARTH SURFACE. Low pressure areas- are those where rapid evaporation of water takes place.this area is warm and there is a lot of water vapor in the air. The world’s wind blow from high pressure area to low pressure area. World’s wind do not move up and down. One reasons is that the earth’s rotation causes the winds moving from the poles toward the equator to be deflected or turn sideward. Or simple called CORIOLIS EFFECT. THE SECOND IS THE UNEQUAL HEATING OF LAND AND WATER. The wind is deflected or bends to the right IN THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE, AND bens to the left IN THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. POLAR EASTERLIES, PREVAILING EASTERLIES, AND NORHTERN TRADE WINDS – are the three maor sets of winds in the northern hemisphere. Southern hemisphere also have the same major sets of winds. ITCZ or inter tropical convergence zone- the area where the trade winds converge together. Thunderstorm and rains occurs in ITCZ because of different temp and pressure. In the philippnes cold winds or NORTHEAST MONSOON also known as AMIHAN coming from Siberia. The weather becomes cold and a high pressure area develop FROM DECEMBER TO JANUARY. HABAGAT OR SOUTHEAST MONSOON- winds comes from Malaysia from march to may. It brings much rain or planting season. SEASONS IN THE PHILIPPINES PP 228-231 LATITUDE IS THE DISTANCE MEASURE IN DEGREES.FROM THE EQUATOR TO THE NORTH OR SOUTH POLE. Equator is the imaginary line dividing the earth into halves: northern and southern hemisphere. It is 0® Prime meridian-another imaginary lines drawn from north to south that divides the earth into western and eastern hemisphere. A zero line which is located at Greenwich, England was chosen in 1884 by all nation and is called prime meridian. Philippines experience two seasons the wet and dry season. Monsoon- seasonal winds experienced in the Philippines. THE FOUR SEASONSPP 232-235 REVOLUTION- earths movement around the sun with 365 and ¼ days. Rotation- is the movements of earth from its axis in east west direction. Rotation and revolution causes the four seasons. These are summer, autumn, winter and spring. Earth’s face directly to the sun experience day hour while the other half night. The earth’s axis remain parallel as its revolves around the sun. the axis points to the same direction in space and is always points to north star—polaris., June 21-22- on these dates, the northern hemisphere experience the shortest day called summer solstice. Summer solstice- where the northern hemisphere receives more direct rays of the sun while the southern hemisphere receive less. December 21-22 on these date, the northern hemisphere experience shortest day while the southern hemisphere experiences longest day called winter solstice. Winter solstice- The southern hemisphere receives more direct rays of the sun this time.
  12. 12. Winter season- most of the trees shed their leaves, snow falls and very cold season. Fall or autumn- trees begins to shed off their leaves. Spring is the season when trees begin to grow new leaves. Summer- seasons when there is abundance of sunlight. Trees proudly display their foliage and flowers are in bloom. TYPES OF PHILIPPINE CLIMATE TYPE DESCRIPTION AREA IN THE PHILIPPINES FIRST TYPE Dry season for 6 mos (Nov. to April) and wet from (may- October METRO MANILA, BAGUIO, WESTERN LUZON, PANAY, MINDORO, NEGROS ISLAND, NORTHEAST PALAWAN SECOND TYPE No dry season with maximum rainfall from November to January CATANDUANES, DAET, SORSOGON, SAMAR, AND EASTERN MINDANAO, CAMARINES NORTE, QUEZON, LEYTE THIRD TYPE Short dry season from one to three months; rainy for the rest of the year CENTRAL CEBU, ISABELA, NUEVA VISCAYA, SOUTHERN QUEZON, MASBATE, MOST OF EASTERN NEGROS, PALAWAN, PARTS OF NORTHEASTERN MINDANAO FOURTH TYPE Rains evenly distributed throughout the year. DAVAO, BATANES, NORTHEASTERN LUZON, WESTERN PART OF CAMARINS NORTE, EASTERN MINDORO, MARINDUQUE. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX In what layer of the earth do most life forms exist? a. Mantle b. crust c. moho d. core Why do earthquakes occurs? a. Due to movement of materials beneath the Earth surface b. Crustal plates float over liquid rock c. Lose rocks fall from mountainsides d. The earth’s crust thinning out considerably. When are volcanic eruptions considered beneficial? a. When they build new landform such as volcanic island. b. When they make the surrounding area fertile c. When they hasten the growth of certain microorganism d. Both a and b In what part of the mountain can a person experience the coolest air temperature?
  13. 13. a. At the peak b. at the left slope c. at the right slope d. at the bottom How does southwest monsoon affect the Philippine climate? a. It bring hot summer moths. b. It causes a lot of rainfall c. It causes the winds from the poles to move toward the equator d. It brings long rainy season This part of the Earth receives direct rays of the sun resulting in __. a. The occurrence of four seasons b. High pressure c. Low pressure d. Wwarm weather throughout the year.

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