Achievements and problems in space Exploration p.274-278
Astronaut Edwin Aldrin—installed instrument that will help study the moon’s surface.
April 1961—first manned spacecraft
June 1963 – first woman to orbit Earth
October 1964—first orbited flight carrying more than one man
March 1965—first man to walk iin space
March 1966—Venus 3 was the first man-made object to land on another rplanet
July 1969—first man to land and walk on the moon
May 1973—USA puts the first space station SKYLAB into orbit
March 5, 1979—VOYagger 1 photographed Jupiter and its moon at close range
Nov. 12, 1980—Voyager 1 discover new rings and additional new moons of Saturn
April 1981—Space shuttle Columbia was launched. It is the first shuttle to reach earth’s orbit.
March1986—the first part, BASE BLOCK OF SPACE STATION MIR, was launched.
April 1990—HUBBLE TELESCOPE was launched from space shuttle discovery
December 1993- space shuttle endeavor repaired hubble telescope.
1998- lunar Prospector, equipped with a neutron spectrometr, a new planetary exploration instrument
found the moon’s frozen water
June 22, 2000- NASA findings revealed the presence of liquid water
on the surface of Mars indicating that life could have existed on it.
NEIL ARMSTRONG—AN American Astronaut who had first landed Moon’s surface on July 19,
1969.Followed by EDWIN ALDRIN JR. on the same mission.
Airlessness, weightlessness, extreme heat and radiation, food intake and proper waste disposal – are
some problems met in space exploration.
VACUUM- Kinds of environment in the outer space that is airless, and weightless.
Spacesuits-suits used by astronaut to go outside their spaceships to do repairs.
EXPLAINING THE ORIGIN OF UNIVERSE268-269
BIG BANG THEORY—according to this theory, the universe started as one very hot and dense
concentration of matters. The dense concentration of matter exploded with its fragment moving
outward and away from one another at different speeds. And according to this, the universe continue to
BIG CRUNCH THEORY—beliefs that the universe began from the bing bang explosion of a dense globe of
hydrogen. However, because of the gravity, billioons of galaxies move toward one another.
STEADYSTATE THEORY- universe is expansion similar to its original state and will not change anymore.
NEBULAR OR DUST CLOUD THEORY- planets, stars, and other heavenly bodies came from dust of clouds.
This materials combined together as they spinned in space. They later moved around a central body and
ccoled off. The big spinning materials formed the heavenly bodies.
SPACE PROBES AND THEIR MISSIONS PP 271-273
1957—STARTED SPACE AGE.
SPUTNIK was launched in outer space in 1957.
YURI GAGARIN—Russian cosmonaut became the first man to orbit earth aboard the satellite VOSTOK 1.
Most space probes are UNMANNED AND OPERATED BY COMPUTERS.
Mariner 3- was the first to reach planet Venus in 1962.
Lander- second craft which lands on the surface or another heavely body. It gathered information and
relay them back to earth.
July 20, 1976—VIKING 1 was sent into space to orbit Mars
Mars Lander landed planet Mars on July 20, 1976. It analyzed the soil together with VIKING 2 WHICH
THEY FOUND OUT THAT NO LIFE was formed on the planet.
VENERA 9- orbited Venus and made its first soft landing on the planet’s surface.
Mariner 4- probed mars in July 1965 while Mariner 10.
Mariner 10-was sent to Mercury to gather photographs of the planet’s surface..photgrapphs revealed
mercury craters . it reach in March 1974.
VOYAGER 1 AND 2-was sent to obtain vital information angget photographs of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus
Voyager2 reach Neptune in Aug. 1989.
NASA Mars Pathfinder –was one of the latest and most advance spacecraft to probe the surface oof
Mars in !997.
SOJOURNER-a small roving vehicle, provided the data on the climate, atmosphere, geology of the planet
1997 SPACE MISSION IN MARS—was considered as the first important and successful space missions.
June 22, 2000- NasaAnnonced the findings of scientist studying mars Global Surveyor’s spacecraft
image. They observed features suggest the presence of liquid water on Mars surface. This information
point to some indication that life could have existed on mars.
STUDYING THE UNIVERSE PP 264-267
TELESCOPES- instrument used by the scientist to observe heavenly bodies.TELESCOPES COLLECTS
RADIO TELESCOPES- TELESCOPES COLLECTS radio waves from outerspce.
Dish -collecting device of a radio telescope.
SKY HUBBLE TELEsCOPE-was sent to outerspace to observe and send information back to earth
ARTIFICIAL SATELLITE—ARE launched into outer space in order to collect vital information about earth
space..they can pic photos and send impending storm. They can observed weather condition of different
palces on earth. They are called weather satellites.
Space probes-spacecraft equipped with special cameras sent into outerspace to gather information
about the solar system and even beyond it. It carries instruments to measure and record the surface
temperature of planet and study rock particles in space.
SKYLAB-THE FIRST SPACE STATION IT serves as space laboratory sent into orbit in 1972.
MIR – a Russian space station, carried Aamerican astronaut and Russian cosmonauts to collaborate on a
joint space mission.
GALAXIES pp. 259-263
Galaxy is made up of clouds of dust and gases and billions of stars.
Milky way galaxy- galaxy resembles a thin convex lens at the center and has a diameter of about 80 000
light years. And compost of 200 billion stars.
Local group- also known as 17 galaxies
Large and small Magellanic Clouds- nearest neighbor of Local Group.
Great Nebula/Andromeda Galaxy- another neighbor galaxy of Local Group.-sparial galaxy
Three major types of galaxy according to US astronomer EDWIN P. HUBBlE
1 irregular 2. Spiral, 3 Elliptical,
Spiral Galaxies- made up of millions of star. Lens-shaped nucleus at its center with arms or projection
extending out..there are few starsand almost no dust or gas in between the arms.Some spiral galaxies
are tighly wound while others are open. Almost 75 percent of the galaxies are sain to be spiral.
ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES-- are nearly ball shaped to lens shapes. They do not have any arms .there is almost
no gas and dusts cloud.
IRREGULAR GALAXIES—COMPRISE 2-3 PERCENT OF THE GALAXIES. These are smaller and fainter
compared to spiral and elliptical galaxies. They are composed of stars which are unevenly distributed.
One irregular galaxy is the LARGE MAGALLANIC CLOUDS.
PATTERNS OF SKY I THE SKY PP 254- 258
CONSTELLATIONS—groups of stars that form certain patterns.
BIG DIPPER-STARS THAT RESEMBLES OLD WATER DIPPER PART OF URSA MAJOR. This is made up of
POLARIS- ALSO KNOWN AS NORTH STAR. THE POSITION OF THIS STAR IS FIX AND ALWAYS POINTING
LITTLE DIPPER—is part of ursa minor or small bear.
CASSIOPEA--THE QUEEN—OPPOSITE OF THE BIG DIPPER, this constellation compost of five starsthat
seems to form the letter W.
Orion the great hunter- another visible group of star in the sky. Orion consists of several bright stars,
three of which forms its belt called Tatlong Maria.
Betelgeuse- famous red supergiant star on the right shoulder of Orion
Rigel- a bluish white star located at the left knee of Orion.
STARS’ COLORS AND TEMPERATURE PP251-253
NAME OF STAR COLOR SURFACE
RIGEL BLUIS-WHITE ABOUT 20 000 WELDING TORCH
SIRIUS WHITE ABOUT 11 000 FLOURECENT LIGHT
SUN YELLOE ABOUT 6 000 SODIUM LIGHT
PROCYON YELLOE ABOUT 6 000 SODIUM LIGHT
BETELGEUSE RED ABOUT 3 000 LIGHTEDCIGARETTE
BASED on the table above, rigel is the hottest, followed by Sirius, sun procyon, and
Betelgeuse..temperature of the sun is based on the color it relfects. Bluish white is the hottest while red
is the coolest
3 000- 30 000®C- range of stars’ surface temperature.
Yellow stars- moderate temperature.
Nuclear reaction- the process that takes place in the stars’ surface. There are fusion and fission
Helium- the combination of two hydrogen atom in the stars’ surface called fusion..therefore, the mkore
hydrogen gas the stars have, the younger its is.
However when almost all the hydrogen used up. A star is gradually becomes white star in color- the
coolest. Our sun is yellow star which is relatively young star and the procyon is yellow white star which
is older than our star.
Rigel is a mature star based on its color. It has a bkuish white color.
STARS; THEIR SIZE, COLOR AND BRIGHTNESS PP245-250
STARS –do not really twinkle, they appear to twinkle because we see them through layers of air
Sun- is a star of medium size.it is about 1 380 000 kms across.
Supergiants stars-stars that a thousand of times larger than that of our sun.
Betelgeuse and Antares- example of supergiants stars.
Giant stars- are stars smaller than supergiants but bigger than the sun.
Capella and arcturus are examples of giant stars.
Dwarf stars- are stars smaller the the sun.
NGC 2440- EXAMPLES of dwarf stars
APPARENT MAGNITUDE- the apparent brightness of stars that due to their size and distance from Earth.
Light year- refers to the distance of the stars from earth.
Proximacentauri- 4.27 light years from earth
Alpha centauri- 4.34 light years
Sirius – 8. 70 light years
300 000 km/s- light travel at this speed.
9 500 000 000 000- light travel in one year.
So 4.27 times 9 500 000 000 000 = is the distance of proximacentauri from the earth.
Apparent magnitude of Antares star is 1.0 and 120 light years
Apparent magnitude of Betelgeuse is 0.8 and 150 light years
Sirus is -1.4 apparent magnitude and 9 light years.
Therefore stars with magnitude below 1 isconsideredas first magnitude stars. They are brightest in the
Faintest are the stars in th 24th
Jupiter, the largest planet in the solar system has an apparent magnitude of -2.8 while our moon has an
apparent brightness of -12.6
Distant sun- stars that wee see in the sky.
Spectra, absolute magnitude, and surface temperature- classifies the stars.
EIJNAR HERTZSPRUNG AND HENRY NORRIS RUSSELL- formed the hertzsprung-russell or HR- diagram
that plots the absolute magnitudes of stars against their spectral class.
hertzsprung-russell or HR- diagram -This is just like comparing the amount of energy radiated in a
specific period of time against the surface temperature. It also classified stars as giant or dwarf.
Main sequence- the part of the diagonal band with an asterisk where almost stars are found.
Below the main sequence- stars are classified as dwarfs.
Gianst are found on the left sequence of h-r diagram
Supergiants stars are found above the sequence of h-r diagram.
Brighter stars are blue, while least bright are red.
GAZING AT STARS PP 242-244
TELESCOPE- tube used to observe the sky, it is an instrument used by astronomers to gather information
ASTRONOMER- person specially trained to study stars and other heavenly bodies.
There are different kinds of telescope we have REFRACTING AND REFLECTING TELESCOPE and radio
SPECTROSCOPE- A SCIETIFIC INSTRUMENT that collects light by means of a camera attached to the
Space craft- example space probe- are carry instruments that travel into outer space to gather
information about the stars, planet, moons and other heavenly bodies.
Which of the following can be used to collect information about star’s composition from earth?
a. Telescope b. space shuttles c. space probes d. spectroscope
Which is the first space probe launched into space?
a. Mercury b., Mariner c. Spunik d. Venera
Why does medium-sized star appeared brighter than others?
a. Because of its great distance
b. Because ot its nearness to earth
c. Because of its great size
d. Both b and c
How are Sirius and betelgeuse alike?
a. They are both constellation
b. They are brighter sky in the sky
c. They are both red stars
d. They are both white stars
Why is light year preferable to use than kilometer when expressing the distance of stars?
a. Light year is longer
b. Light year is more accurate
c. Light year is more unique
d. Both a and b
Why are stars’ also considered distant sun? This is because
a. Stars are balls of hot burning gases like our sun
b. Stars may have planets orbiting around them
c. Stars give off heat and light
d. Stars have same composition as planet
To which lighted object can you compare Rigel
a. Cigarette b. welding torch c. sodium light d. florescent light
Which of the following is the color of young star?
a. Red star b. yellow star c. bluish white star d. both a and b
Which of the following does not affect the color of a star?
a. Size b. shape c. surface temperature d. age or stage
Why do billions of stars appear as big patches of light in the night sky? Because they ____.
a. Are very far from Earth
b. Are close to one another
c. Produce light
d. Are very bright
What is one of man’s greatest achievement in space exploration?
a. His first walk in space
b. His first orbit around Earth
c. His first manned flight on Earth
d. His landing on the moon
What will happen to man if he does NOT wear spacesuit in outer space?
a. man will float in outer space
b. man will explode in outer space
c. man will walk in outer space
d. both a and b
Why was Viking 1 sent into outer space?
a. To analyze Mars’ soil
b. To orbit the planet Venus
c. To photograph Mercury’s surface
d. to determine Venus’ atmosphere
Which of the following space probes was able to photograph the craters on the Mercury’s surface?
a. Mariner 10
b. Pioneer 2
c. Venera 9
d. Voyager 1
How will you describe a vacuum? An area that is ___?
a. Airless c. has no particles at all
b. Weightless d. both a and b
THE CHANGING EARTH PP195-198
EARTH- is a planet that is almost spherical in shape and is made up of land, (lithosphere) water,
(hydrosphere) and air(atmosphere).
Continents- is the large mass of land. The earth comprise about one-fourth of its surface.
¾ parts-remains of earth filled with water ( oceans, seas, falls, rivers, lakes, gulfs, mars, etc)
Atmosphere- the blanket of air that contains several gases such as nitrogen, Oxygen, carbon dioxide,
and other gases in smaller amount.
LAYERS OF EARTH
CRUST- the outer most layer of the solid earth. It is made p of loose solid rocks where continents
and oceans are located.
10-65 kms.- various range of the thickness of continents and oceans.
MANTLE- located bellow the earth crus, andaboout 2 880 kms. thick. It is composed of solid rocks in
its upper portion. The lower portion is believed to be composed of very hot molten rocks. Because of its
uniform compositions, results earthquake waves.
ANDRIZA MOHOROVICIC- discoveredthe boundary between crust and mantle.
Mohorovicic discontinuity or moho-is the boundary between rust and mantle which varies from place
CORE- beneath the mantle. It is divided into two sections: the outer and inner cores.
Outer core- about 2 800 to 4 960 kms thick and is composed of molten iron and nickel. Studies of
earthquakes waves suggest that the outer core is said to be liquid.-molten metals
Inner core- is believed to be solid materials. Has a diameter of 2 560- 2880 kms. The entire core has app
temperature of 4 700®C.
Tremendous pressure- present at the core.
Seismograph- instrument use to gather information about earth surface. It measures the forces and
direction of waves(earthquake).
THE MOVING CRUSTH OF THE EARTH—PP199-201
CRUSTAL plates-the composition of continental and oceanic parts with several large and small moving
rock layers. This paltesmove due to great forces acting on them.
The seven crustal plates are: 1. Antarctic plate, 2. Eurasian 3. African 4.Pacific 5.Indian 6.Australian and
About 200 million years ago there were no crustal plate to speak f. there was only one super continent
PANGAEA- idea suggested by ALFRED WENEGER a German scientist. According to him Pangaea broke
into pieces (crustal plate ) and slowly move until they reached their present position.
ASTHENOSPHERE- liquid rock where crustal plates is said to be float. The movement of crustal is said to
be moving forward or away from one another.at the edges of the plate, there may be sinking or uplifting
at the point where crustal plates collide. (quakes)
Denser plate- goes under the outer plates when crustal plates collide.
Trench- formed when continental plates collide with oceanic plates. This is a very deep place on the
EARTHQUAKE TREMORS- is the energy released during collision. This may be weak or strong.
Magma- molten rocks that moves slowly upward the crack or the opening o earth, ocean and basin. This
movement causes the sea floor to spread out.
EARTHQUAKES PP. 202-205
PREASSURE- from above and beneath the crust causes the plates to move. It also produces cracks and
Earthquakes- it is defined as the movements where the energy is released from moving crustal plates,
the surrounding rock layer trembles and shakes.
Tectonic earthquake- the shifting or movement of crustal plates.
Volcanic earthquakes- is quakes cause by volcanic activity
Epicenter- is the point on the surface of the earth located directly above the center of an earthquakes’
Focus- the center or source of the earthquake.
Intensity- the extent of damage caused by an earthquake, such tremor damages to people, buildings,
bridges road and vegetation.
Rossi-Forel Scale- usually measures earthquake intensity. It is range from I-IX
I-Hardly perceptible shock Felt only by experienced observer under favorable
II-Extremely feeble shock Felt by a small number of persons at rest
III-very feeble shock Felt by several persons at rest; duration and
direction may be perceptible; sometimes dizziness
or nausea is experienced
IV- feeble shock Felt generally indoors, outdoors by few; hanging
objects swing lightly; creaking of houses’ frames
V- Shock of moderate intensity Felt generally by everyone; hanging objects swing
freely; overturn of all vases and unstable object’
light sleepers awaken
VI-fairly strong shock Generally awakening of those asleep; stopping of
pendulum clock; oscillation of hanging lamps,
slight damage in every old or poorly-built
VII- Strong Shock Overturn of movable objects; slight damage in
most well-built houses, considerable in old or
poorly-built structures, old walls; some landslides
from hills and steep banks; crack on road surfaces
VIII-Very Strong Shock People panic, trees shaken strongly; changes in the
flow of prings and wells; sand and mud ejected
from fissures in soft ground; small landslides
IX- Extremely strong shock General panic; partial or total destruction of some
buildings; fissures in the ground; landslides and
MAGNITUDE- is the amount of energy released by an earthquake.
Charles F. Ritcher- American scientist developed a scale to indicate the magnitude of an earthquake this
scale used numbers 1-10
Ritcher Magnitude Scale-popular known from his author Ritcher. It is used to scale the magnitude of an
Earthquake magnitude description Explanation
M below 1 Only detectable when ultrasensitive
seismograph is operated under
M below 3 The hardly perceptible Most are not felt; recorded only by
seismographs shocks nearby station
M3-4 The very feeble shock Only felt near epicenter
M4-5 The feeble shocks Damage not usually reported
M5-6 The earthquake s of moderate strength Felt over wide areas, causes small,
local damage near the epicenter
M6-7 The strong earthquakes Accompanied by local damages
near the epicenters; well-equipped
seismological stations record them
whenever they occur within the
M7-8 The major earthquakes Can cause considerable damages
near the epicenters, under the sea;
small tsunamis produced
M8-9 The great earthquakes Occur once or twice a year; on land
much damage over wide areas,
under the sea, considerable
tsunamis produced, many after
shocks in areas approximately 100-
1 000 km in diameter.
M over 9 Have never occurred since the data
bases on seismograph observations
Seismograph- device used to measures the movement of earth’s crust. it can detect and record the
vibration on the earth surfaces.
EARTHQUAKES, ENVIRONMENT, AND PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES PP 206-209
LANDSLIDE- the falling of loose rocks along mountainsides.
Chasms- wide open up on the part of some area causes by violent crustal shakes. It is produces by strong
Tsunami- if earthquake is said to be happen under the sea can cause giant waves in the ocean or simple
giant waves in the ocean caused by earthquakes under the sea.
Foreshock- occurrence of low-magnitude in tremors. It can be predicted in observing the changes in the
water level in wells, or changes in animal behavior.
VOLCANO- is a mountain or hill with an opening that extends from its summit down to Earth’s interior. It
expels hot molten rocks usually accompanied by an earthquake or several rumblings beneath the Earth’s
Vent- billowing cloud of smoke escapes out of small holes or cracks beneath the earth’s crust.
Magma- a moving molten rocks spewing out of vent. This phenomenon is usually accompanied by groud
Lava- flowing out magma, it becomes solid when it cool down and accumulated in the area
Cone- is develop called low- elevated landform.
Plateau- formed by slow moving lava covering large area.
Violent eruption- characterized by released of high columns gas of tremors, loud sounds
Pyroclastic materials- involves volcanic bombs, rock and dust that are releases during volcanic eruption.
Active volcanoes- are those volcanoes that have erupted or shown sign of activity within the past 600
Inactive volcano on the other hand is the reverse explanation of the above mentioned
VOLCANIC ERUPTION AND THEIR EFFECTS PP. 213-216
GEOTHERMAL ENERGY- source of heat beneath the earth surface. Some areas with geothermal energy
are TIWI, ALBAY, MAKILING, BANAHAW LAGUNA AND TANGONAN, LEYTE.
CAGSAWA CHURCH- belfry half buried lava flow after volcano erupted on February 1, 1814.
PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES BEFORE AND AFTER VOLCANIC ERUPTION PP. 217-218
PHILVOLCS- philippne institute of volcanology and seismology- is the agency that monitors earthquakes
and volcanic activities. They determined volcanic danger zones.
VOLCANIC DANGER ZONES- are places that can be directly affected by volcanic ashes and molten
materials released during eruptions.
CLIMATE PP 219-223
WEATHER- is the condition of the sky that changes from time to time and from day to day. It is influence
by cloud formation, water evaporation, location, temperature wind speed and direction, and rainfall or
Climate- is the average of all weather conditions that prevail in particular area for a long period of time.
Factors affects climate are ALTITUDE, LATITUDE, BODIES OF WATER, WIND SYSTEM AND AMOUNT OF
ALTITUDE- the height of a particular place above sea level. This means higher the particular place, the
cooler the temperature.
LATITUDE- runs parallel that imaginary divides the earth going north and south. These lines are divided
into degrees. Places near equator have low latitude, places near poles have high latitude. Areas on the
equator receives direct sunlight so hot climate/temperature experience in their areas. While those who
are near poles have cold climate.
BODIES OF WATER- such as oceans, seas affects climate. Those places near coastal have cooler climate
than the others.
WIND SYSTEM- wind movement also affects climates in particular places.
Winds moving across the bodies of water carry a lot of water vapor. Winds coming from poles are dry
Doldrums-winds at the equator. It hardly move at all and are usually hot. Ships cannot move in this area.
This is because ships need the power of the wind to move.
Areas lying near in the equatorial region experience tropical climate
Tropical climate- characterized by distinct hot rainy months. Philippines is an example.
Trade winds- are those that blow from the northeast or from the southeast. Places where these winds
blow experience few storms.
Horse latitudes- are special winds that are found 32® north and 30® south latitude. Air in this areas are
fairly cool and dry. The high pressure areas produce hot dessert places.
Sahara desert in Africa and Arabian deserts’ in the middle east are examples of desert in horse latitude.
Polar easterlies and westerlies- bring about short cool summers and long cold winter. Greenland and
Iceland have cool polar climates. There are abundant rains in areas around the equator. However about
45® to 55® latitude experienced more rain. Above these areas, rainfall less frequent.
AMOUNT OF RAIN FALL-when it seldom rain in the area, that place has pronounced dry season. When
always rain that place is wet most of the year.
Lutunendo, Colombia- in south America the rainiest area in the world. It experiences about 11 770mm
of rain every year.
THE EARTH’S WIND SYSTEMPP 224-227
GLOBAL WIND SYSTEM- CAUSED BY UNEQUAL HEATING OF THE EARTH SURFACE.
Low pressure areas- are those where rapid evaporation of water takes place.this area is warm and there
is a lot of water vapor in the air. The world’s wind blow from high pressure area to low pressure area.
World’s wind do not move up and down. One reasons is that the earth’s rotation causes the winds
moving from the poles toward the equator to be deflected or turn sideward. Or simple called CORIOLIS
EFFECT. THE SECOND IS THE UNEQUAL HEATING OF LAND AND WATER.
The wind is deflected or bends to the right IN THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE, AND bens to the left IN THE
POLAR EASTERLIES, PREVAILING EASTERLIES, AND NORHTERN TRADE WINDS – are the three maor sets
of winds in the northern hemisphere. Southern hemisphere also have the same major sets of winds.
ITCZ or inter tropical convergence zone- the area where the trade winds converge together.
Thunderstorm and rains occurs in ITCZ because of different temp and pressure.
In the philippnes cold winds or NORTHEAST MONSOON also known as AMIHAN coming from Siberia. The
weather becomes cold and a high pressure area develop FROM DECEMBER TO JANUARY.
HABAGAT OR SOUTHEAST MONSOON- winds comes from Malaysia from march to may. It brings much
rain or planting season.
SEASONS IN THE PHILIPPINES PP 228-231
LATITUDE IS THE DISTANCE MEASURE IN DEGREES.FROM THE EQUATOR TO THE NORTH OR SOUTH
Equator is the imaginary line dividing the earth into halves: northern and southern hemisphere. It is 0®
Prime meridian-another imaginary lines drawn from north to south that divides the earth into western
and eastern hemisphere. A zero line which is located at Greenwich, England was chosen in 1884 by all
nation and is called prime meridian.
Philippines experience two seasons the wet and dry season.
Monsoon- seasonal winds experienced in the Philippines.
THE FOUR SEASONSPP 232-235
REVOLUTION- earths movement around the sun with 365 and ¼ days.
Rotation- is the movements of earth from its axis in east west direction.
Rotation and revolution causes the four seasons. These are summer, autumn, winter and spring.
Earth’s face directly to the sun experience day hour while the other half night. The earth’s axis remain
parallel as its revolves around the sun. the axis points to the same direction in space and is always points
to north star—polaris.,
June 21-22- on these dates, the northern hemisphere experience the shortest day called summer
Summer solstice- where the northern hemisphere receives more direct rays of the sun while the
southern hemisphere receive less.
December 21-22 on these date, the northern hemisphere experience shortest day while the southern
hemisphere experiences longest day called winter solstice.
Winter solstice- The southern hemisphere receives more direct rays of the sun this time.
Winter season- most of the trees shed their leaves, snow falls and very cold season.
Fall or autumn- trees begins to shed off their leaves.
Spring is the season when trees begin to grow new leaves.
Summer- seasons when there is abundance of sunlight. Trees proudly display their foliage and flowers
are in bloom.
TYPES OF PHILIPPINE CLIMATE
TYPE DESCRIPTION AREA IN THE PHILIPPINES
FIRST TYPE Dry season for 6 mos (Nov. to
April) and wet from (may-
METRO MANILA, BAGUIO,
WESTERN LUZON, PANAY,
MINDORO, NEGROS ISLAND,
SECOND TYPE No dry season with maximum
rainfall from November to
SORSOGON, SAMAR, AND
CAMARINES NORTE, QUEZON,
THIRD TYPE Short dry season from one to
three months; rainy for the rest
of the year
CENTRAL CEBU, ISABELA, NUEVA
VISCAYA, SOUTHERN QUEZON,
MASBATE, MOST OF EASTERN
NEGROS, PALAWAN, PARTS OF
FOURTH TYPE Rains evenly distributed
throughout the year.
WESTERN PART OF CAMARINS
NORTE, EASTERN MINDORO,
In what layer of the earth do most life forms exist?
a. Mantle b. crust c. moho d. core
Why do earthquakes occurs?
a. Due to movement of materials beneath the Earth surface
b. Crustal plates float over liquid rock
c. Lose rocks fall from mountainsides
d. The earth’s crust thinning out considerably.
When are volcanic eruptions considered beneficial?
a. When they build new landform such as volcanic island.
b. When they make the surrounding area fertile
c. When they hasten the growth of certain microorganism
d. Both a and b
In what part of the mountain can a person experience the coolest air temperature?
a. At the peak b. at the left slope c. at the right slope d. at the bottom
How does southwest monsoon affect the Philippine climate?
a. It bring hot summer moths.
b. It causes a lot of rainfall
c. It causes the winds from the poles to move toward the equator
d. It brings long rainy season
This part of the Earth receives direct rays of the sun resulting in __.
a. The occurrence of four seasons
b. High pressure
c. Low pressure
d. Wwarm weather throughout the year.