NOUNSA noun (Latin nomen, “name”) is anaming word used to identify ordenote a persons, things, places,ideas, quality, or actions. In short, itrefers to anything that can be namedor it tells you what is being talkedabout
OUR NATIONAL SYMOLS Our national flag is a picture of our beloved country. Its colors areblue, red, and white. On the triangular white cloth are three stars which stand for thethree main island of our country-Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. In the middle is a sunwith eight rays. The eight rays stands for the eight provinces who fought against theSpaniards. These eight provinces are Cavite, Bataan, Tarlac, Bulacan, NuevaEcija, Pampanga, Pangasinan, and Zambales. Jose P. Rizal is our national hero. He awakened the Filipinos to fight forfreedom through the novels he wrote. The sampaguita is our national flower. It is a small, white flower that is knownfor its fragrance. It stands for the Filipino women. The mango is our national fruit. It is delicious especially when it is ripe. The anahaw is our national leaf. Its wide leaves are sure protection from theheat of the sun. The narra is our national tree. It is known for its strength and hardness. The Philippine eagle is our national bird. It is known for its strength andalertness. The milkfish is our national fish. Its scale are white and shiny. The carabao is our national animal. It is a beast of burden that helps thefarmer in his fields. It is a symbol of the Filipinos‟ strength and industriousness. The cariñosa is our national dance. It shows the Filipinos‟ love for the arts. The barong tagalog and the baro’t saya are our national costumes. Thebarong tagalog is worn by the men while the baro‟t saya are worn by the women.
ExamplesPersons Places Things Animals EventsJose Rizal Philippines Anahaw Carabao Feast of NazarenHero Country Leaf Bufalo FiestasTeacher Lucena Bags Dogs New Years
Nouns can be • 1.Proper Nouns • 2. Common Nouns • 3.Concrete Nouns • 4. Abstract Nouns • 5. Compound Nouns • 6. Collective Nouns • 7. Mass Nouns • 8. Count Nouns• 9. Special Singular nouns • 10.Special Plural Nouns • 11. Uninflected Nouns
Proper NounsKinds Definition Example -name specific people- Carlos, Asia, Japan, persons, continents, Ilocos Norte, Texas, countries, provinces, Roman Catholic,1. Proper Noun states, counties, Southeast Asia, parishes, geographic Sunday, January, regions, days of the Christmas, week, months of the Panagbenga Festival year. Holidays, and 1. Abraham Lincoln is festivals but not known throughout seasons. They always the world for his begin with capital letter. humanity. 2. I will call a doctor.
Common NounsKinds Definition Example -generally name a book, boy, linguist, person, place, or thing. writer, waiter, summer, They do not begin with wood.1. Common Noun capital letter. 1. He ran east in three hours. 2. A beach is unsurpassed for relaxation.
Concrete NounsKinds Definition Example -are nouns that can be Pres. Benigno “Pnoy” touched or S. Aquino III, curtain, felt(something tangible) birds, television, house,1. Concrete Noun clothes, books, stars. 1. Our puppy has black spot on his nose. 2. My teacher drives scooter to school every morning.
Abstract NounsKinds Definition Example -are the names of Care, faith, kindness, qualities or general love, honor, truth, and ideas objectively patience.1. Abstract Noun perceived, or which 1. Angels love to play have no physical her dolls. existence. THEY DO NOT HAVE PLURAL FORMS.
Compound NounsKinds Definition Example -are the names formed Officer-in-charge, by joining together two daughter-in-law, book- ore more names with keeper, classroom.1. Compound Noun different meaning to 1. Our book-keeper form a new names with always checks the new meaning. book we borrows. 2. The new officer-in- charge(OIC) assume his duty as the head of this school
Collective NounsKinds Definition Example -convey the idea of a Audience, team, army, group or denote things jury, club. which are considered1. Collective Noun as a unit or as a one. They need a singular verb when they are considered as one and take plural verb when considered as individuals.
Mass Nouns Kinds Definition Example name non countable Sugar, music, coffee, things and are not soap, sunshine, inflected, although cement, blood, luck, 1. Mass singular or plural dirt, milk, salt, smoke, Noun(determiners: markers precede them. thunder, lightning, much and little, is and They are special nouns laughter, dust. isn‟t) that are always SINGULAR in forms.Mass nouns determinerGlass full of milk There is much milk in the glass.Half full of milk There is some milk in the glass.Little bit of milk There isn‟t much milk in the glass.Empty glass There isn‟t any milk in the glass
Count Nouns Kinds Definition Example -name countable things Class-classes and may have both Speech-speeches singular and plural Child-children 1. Count Nouns forms. They can be Church-churches (determiners: many inflected regularly and Tooth-teeth and a few) irregularly. Foot-feetCount nouns determinerTray of eggs There are many eggs in the tray.Half tray There are some eggs in the tray.2 pieces of eggs There aren‟t many eggs in the tray.Empty tray There aren‟t any eggs in the tray.
Special Singular NounsKinds Definition Example -remain singular in Physics, mathematics, meaning and have athletics, mumps, plural terminations. linguistics, news,1. Special Singular statistics, measles,Nouns gymnastics, genetics, economics, calisthenics
Special Plural NounsKinds Definition Example -nouns do not have Panties, briefs, trunks, singular forms and are eyeglasses, manners, permanently used as goods, fliers, tongs.1. Special Plural Nouns plural.
Properties of nounsa. Person- the property of nouns that indicates the person speaking (first person), the person spoken to (second person) and the person spoken of (third person)b. Number – the property of nouns that indicate whether the noun is one (singular) or more than one (plural) in number.
Noun Functions • Subject of a verb • Direct object of a verb • Object of a preposition • Object of a verbal • Indirect object of a verb • Predicate complement• Modifier of another noun
Subject of a verb1. Houses built after 1950 are usually of poor construction.2. Beauty is in the eyes of a beholder.3. Indian art has many admirer.4. Despite all assurances, the young dancer found his debut trying.5. New York City appears to have reached a stable size.6. Swimming was his greatest pleasure.Subject: Verb
Direct Object of a verb1. The hunter shot three deer. (Verb shot; direct object deer)2. The automobile forced the cows off the road.3. African hunters found agriculture impossible to sustain.4. They liked dancing (the gerund dancing functions here as the direct object of liked.)
Object of Preposition1. They walk about the mall.(preposition about, object of preposition mall)2. For his part, he would remember that day forever.3. Up and down the river, there was nothing but solid ice.4. She performed most of her chores during the afternoon. prep·o·si·tion [prèppə zíshn] (plural prep·o·si·tions) noun word used before noun: a member of a set of words used in close connection with, and usually before, nouns and pronouns to show their relation to another part of a clause. An example is "off" in "He fell off his bike" and "What did he fall off?" [14th century. < Latin praeposition- "putting before, preposition" < praeponere "put before" < ponere "put"]
Object of a Verbal 1. Swimming the channel was more than he could manage.(verbal swimming; channel, object of the verbal swimming) 2. To pass his examinations easily was all he wanted. 3. Fighting the rain, he slowly made his way home. 4. Having found his wallet, he decided to retire for the nigh. 5. The consulting engineer offered yet another suggestion for solving the problem.ver·bal [vúrbl]adjective1. using words as opposed to pictures: using words or language, especially as opposed to pictorial representation a verbal picture of the scene outside 2. usingwords as opposed to action: relating to or consisting of words, as opposed to physical action or confrontation verbal protest 3. oral as opposed to written: relatingto or consisting of spoken words, as opposed to written words They made a verbal agreement. 4. relating to words alone: relating to words alone, as opposed totheir meaning a purely verbal distinction 5. involving skill with words: involving skill in the use and understanding of words and language verbal dexterity 6.GRAMMAR relating to verbs: relating to or derived from a verb or verbs in general 7. GRAMMAR forming verbs: used to form verbsnoun (plural ver·bals)GRAMMAR word formed from verb: a word formed from a verb, especially one used as a noun or an adjective, e.g. a gerund or participle[15th century. Via Old French < late Latin verbalis < Latin verbum "word"]
Indirect Object of a verb 1. The lawyer gave her secretary a brief letter. (verb gave, indirect object secretary.) 2. We showed the curator the new acquisition. 3. The pitcher threw the fielder the ball 4. The messenger gave Juan an envelop. 5. Teachers assign their classes enough work to keep anyone busy.In all these examples, the word order can be rearranged so that the indirect object can be made the object of a preposition: the lawyer gave a brief letter to her secretary.(plural in·di·rect ob·jects) nounperson or thing action is done to: the recipient of the action shown by a verb andits direct object, e.g. "the cat" in "She gave the cat a meal”
Predicate Complement1. In the eyes of many of her clients, she is the best lawyer n town.(verb is, predicate compliment lawyer. And the verb is, is a copulative verb.)2. Christianity is the religion of many European.3. She is the youngest teacher in our school.4. The main difficulty of hat country is the poverty of most of the population.5.Words processors can be a blessing for those of us who write illegibly.com·ple·mentsGRAMMAR sentence part: a word or group of words, excluding theverb, that complete the predicate of a sentence or
Modifier of Another Noun1 Stone walls were built throughout New England.(noun stone, modify noun walls.)2. The peace talks settled the long war.3. Glass doors were installed in the kitchen.4. Tennis champions played many tournaments that year.5. John collected postage stamps.
Rules in Forming the Plural form of Nouns Grammar points to rememberNouns have different ways of forming theirplural. Most nouns follow definite patterns. These nouns are called regular nouns.
Adding –s. most nouns form their plural by adding –s.• Girl-girls; hug-hugs; lip-lips; home-homes.• Example. The girl is pretty(singular) The girls are pretty.(plural) • Exception to practice; • 1. add –es when a noun • Ends in s: kindness- kindnesses, lens-lenses • Ends in z: fez-fezzes, quiz-quizzes (note the doubling of z) • Ends in sh: hash-hashes, flash, flashes • Ends in ch: lunch-lunches, bunch- bunches. • Ends in x: mix- mixes, box- boxes.
Noun ends in /y/ preceded by a consonant, change /y/ to /i/ and add -es Singular Plural Harmony Harmonies Baby Babies Burglary Burglaries Lady Ladies Army Armies City CitiesNote: if /y/ preceded by a vowel, the plural is formed by adding –s.Examples:boy-boys, monkey-monkeys, valley-valleys.
Some nouns ending in /f/f or /fe/, change /f/ to /v/ and add –es or –s Singular Plural Calf Calves Knife Knives Half halves
Nouns taken directly from foreign languages, form the plural as it is formed in those languages singular Plural Alumnus Alumni (male) Alumna Alumnae(female) Erratum Errata Stimulus Stimuli Phenomenon phenomena Datum Data Formula Formulae/formulas Index Indexes Curriculum curriculumsThere is a tendency to drop this practice and use the letter –s to form theirplurals of words taken directly from foreign languages. Thus the plural ofmemorandum is now more often memorandums than memoranda. It is betterto consult current dictionary in deciding questions of pluralization.
Certain nouns do not change in forming plurals• Deer• Goods• Headquarters• Scissors• Species, etc
There are few nouns that do not follow therules that were mentioned. They have their ownways forming their plural. These nuns arecalled irregular nouns• Change the middle letter /a/ to /e/. – man-men.• Change the middle letter /oo/ to /ee/. – Foot-feet• Chang the letters //ous/ to /ic. – Louse-lice, mouse-mice• There is no change in spelling, singular and plural forms are spelled the same way. • Sheep-sheep, deer-deer.• Add an extra syllable /ren/ or /en/ – Child-children, ox- oxen
The nouns below show the previously explained rules. These are that have come down from Anglo-Saxon retain their Anglo-Saxon plurals: Singular Plural Foot Feet Tooth Teeth Woman Women Man Men Child Children Ox Oxen Goose Geese Brother brethren A child should get enough sleep; The goose slept Children should get enough sleep; The geese slept
Certain nouns ending in /o/ form the plural by adding –s. other add -es• Radio-radios• Cameo-cameos• Video-videos• Potato-potatoes hero-heroes• Tomato-tomatoes• Echo-echoes
Noun Clauses -has a subject and verb and functions as noun. Noun clauses are usually introduced by that, what, who, whoever, whatever, why, when, where, how or which.Noun as Example ExplanationSubjects That a politician can act that way Subject of occurred after years in office never occurred to me.Objects She insisted that she would Object of insisted change her waysPredicate Life is whatever you make it. Complement of is.complimentsObject f He is taking action on all problems Object of of.prepositions of which you complained. Object of for. I purchase the book for which you bid.
Gender of Nouns -refers to the property of nouns that indicates whether the noun is masculine, feminine, common and nueter.Gender Definition Examples1.Masculine -refers to noun that is male sex Grandfather, father, uncle, brother, son2. Feminine -refers to noun that is female sex Grandmother, mother, aunt, sister, daughter3. Common -refers to nouns which can be either Teacher, friend, baby, male or female. engineer, student4. Neuter - For nouns without sex Clothes, table, book, house, pencil
Cases of Nouns-the property of nouns that indicates its relationship to the other words in the sentence. • Nouns possess three cases: – Nominative – Objective – possessive
Nominative Case -a noun is in nominative case when it is used as: subject, subject complement, nominative address, nominative of exclamation and appositiveNoun used as Explanation examplesSubject of sentence Classmate is the subject, My classmate passed the nominative case. final examination.Subject complement The noun that completes My daughter is a nurse. a linking verb and means Nurse link with the verb the same as the subject is. And tell that the daughter is nurse.Nominative of address The name of the person Come, Baby, it’s time for or thing directly you to take a bath! addressed.Nominative of The noun performs the Floodwater! Come on,exclamation function of an interjection run for your lives! to express a special feeling of emotion.Appositive The noun that explains Father Peter, our Parish another noun it follows priest, is very nice
Objective Case -a noun is in objective case when it is used as: direct object, indirect object, objective complement and object of prepositionNoun used as Explanation examples1. Direct object The noun that receives the action Father made a study table of the transitive verb for us.2.Indiredt object Nouns that indirectly receives the The principal gave the action done retiree a certificate of recognition.3.Objective Noun that follows the direct object The organization selected acomplement/ and help complete the meaning of skilful woman treasurer.predicate objective the transitive verb; or the noun that The chorale had chosen a tells what is done to the direct man soloist for their show. object.Object of the Noun that the preposition connects Daniel found a ring underpreposition to another word in the sentence. the chair Dorothy made a cake for Joel.
Possessive Nouns-noun is in the possessive(genitive)case when it shows ownership or possession
Possessive Forms of NounsTwo rules are helpful in forming possessive nouns
Two rulesRules Definition Examples1. With singular nouns and with plural Boy-boy‟s, child-child‟s, nouns hat do not end in /s/, add /„s/ to Jane‟-Jane‟s, brethren- form the possessive. brethren‟s, sisters-in- law-sisters-in-law‟s2. With plural nouns and with singular Boys-boys‟, girls-girls‟, nouns that end in /s/ add /‟/ or /‟s/ to Russians-Russians‟, form the possessive. Charles-Charles‟, Charles‟s, Yeats-Yeats‟, Yeats‟s
How to Recognize Noun(s) in the Sentence• Nouns can be recognized by: their form and their position in the sentence as well as by their naming function. Here are some things for you to look for when you are trying to identify the nouns in the sentence.
Recognizing noun(s) Tips Examples1. All nouns can occur before and after Her hair flows like silk.verbs. Love conquers all.2. Most nouns follows the article the or the The world is not enough.determiners such as my, this, and a/an. My heart belongs to you.3. All nouns can follow prepositions After summer; before Christmas; in his time(relationship words)4. Most nouns can take an –s or –es at the Writer-writers, bench-benches, book-booksend of the word to express the idea of morethan one (plural).5. Some nouns can start with a capital letter University of the Philippines, Europe,to indicate the names or the title of some James, January, Roman Catholic.specific thing or person.6. Some nouns end in –ness, -tion, and –ity. Resourcefulness, education, community.7. Some nouns can take an apostrophe by The girl‟s cabinet.itself to express belonging. The boys‟ room.
ArticlesThere are two types of articles:definite and indefinite. Articlesare considered as modifiers of nouns and pronouns.
Definite Articles • The definite article is /the/. It is used to indicate a specific class of nouns or pronouns or a specific member of a class of nouns or pronouns. • The whale is still an endangered species.(the whale as distance from other species.) • He gave me the assignment I requested. (he gave me a specific assignment.) • The teacher gave the class enough homework for the week. (a specific teacher, a specific class, a specific week.) • George Bush is the president I remember best. • They are the ones who own the property.Omission of the definite articleThe definite article is omitted when the writer does not specify a particular amountor quantity of the noun.
Indefinite Article• The indefinite article is /a/ and /an/. They are used as modifiers to indicate an unspecified class or member of a class of nouns.• Ms. Smith gave her father enough money for a week. (the week in unspecified).• A steak costs 25 in some restaurants. (this means unspecified steak.)• Carpenters may never again be paid 20 an hour in New York City. (This means unspecified hour regardless of when the work is performed.) Choosing between a and an: -a is used before a word beginning with a consonant sound -an is used before a word beginning with a vowel sound and with same as vowel sounds like hour./ou/
Reference– Mastering the English Language, Communication Arts and Skills, “Teresita C. Villa”,Quezon City: Gayo Publishing House, 2006– My World of English Reading, “Vida Socorro P. Ganchorre and Erlindsa M. Santiago”,Tarlac City:Books on Wheels Enterprises, 2006.– Learning English Grammar Easily, ”--”.Philippines:, 2004– English This Way worktext,revsd. “Chona H. Barrraquias, Cecilia B. Corsino”Philippines:, Phoenix Pub. House, 2002– ,