Click To Get FREE A+ Practice Exams & Study Aid at Now!            Basic System                              ...
Click To Get FREE A+ Practice Exams & Study Aid at Now!-LPX: Has a riser card. It is difficult to upgrade and...
Click To Get FREE A+ Practice Exams & Study Aid at Now!   Troubleshooting Of                                 ...
Click To Get FREE A+ Practice Exams & Study Aid at Now!            Motherboards                              ...
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  1. 1. Click To Get FREE A+ Practice Exams & Study Aid at Now! Basic System Multimedia Devices: Facilitates the data communication between a computer and a user. The It is present on the back of the PC and it uses a 25 pin female connector. Components data can contain text, video, audio, graphics, gaming and virtual reality. - Universal Serial Bus (USB) Port: Used for supporting data transfer from USB devices. Mice,Processor: Manages the processing and logical Network Card: Expansion card that enables one modems and keyboards (with USB interface) can beoperations of a computer system. The two main computer to connect and communicate with one or attached through this port.components of a processor are the Arithmetic Logic more than one computer(s). - Infrared port: Used for wireless connectivityUnit (ALU) and the Control Unit (CU). The ALU Specialized Cards: Used b y specific utilities. Some between a device and the computer. There is nohandles arithmetic and logical operations. The CU commonly used specialized cards are Sound Card physical contact between the two communicatingdecodes and executes the memory instructions. that enhances the audio capabilities of a system by machines.Processor is also commonly known as allowing it to manipulate record and output sound. - Registered Jack (RJ) connector: Used to connectmicroprocessor or Central Processing Unit (CPU). Video Card that enhances the displaying properties of telephone lines (RJ-11) and 10baseT or EthernetMotherboard: The biggest and most important text and graphics. (RJ-45) cables.circuit board of a computer system. The components Basic Tips on Preventive Maintenance: Cable: Wire or bundle of wires, which act as aon a motherboard are CPU, Binary Input Output - Check all wires for wear and tear transmission medium. A cable is insulated and has aSystem (BIOS), memory, mass storage interfaces, - Clean the peripherals regularly connector at both the ends, mainly used forparallel and serial ports, controllers and expansion - Vacuum clean your computer case regularly computer networking. Types of cables:slots. It handles all memory, system resources and - Check the voltage - Serial Null Modem cable: Allows some signals tothe processor. - Do not smoke near your computer pass through but other signals are routed to differentMemory: Storage space in the computer where Tools used for maintenance: data is stored. The main physical memory is -Liquid cleaning compounds -Straight through cable: Allows all the signals tocalled Random Access Memory (RAM) which allows -Vacuum cleaner pass through it straight without any interference withdata to read and written into it. The different types of -UPS the flow.memories are - Random Access Memory (RAM) and -Power suppressors - Parallel: Used by parallel ports, where data andRead-Only Memory (ROM). Software utilities: signal transmission takes place simultaneously.Some commonly used storage devices are floppy -Disk defragmenter - USB: Connects two USB ports and allowsdisk, hard disk, compact disk, digital videodisk and -Scandisk information to be transferred between them.tape drive. Maintenance for Basic System Components: Connector: Component of a cable that is insertedInput Device: Any device, which allows a user to - System unit: Should be vacuum cleaned on yearly into the port to attach a device to the computer. It isenter the desired data into the computer system. basis. classified as male and female connector. A MaleSome commonly used input devices are mouse, - Monitor: Screen should be cleaned with a soft cloth connector has one or more exposed pins and akeyboard, scanner, joystick and touch screen. on monthly basis. Female connector has holes.Display Unit: Machine, which displays the data and - Keyboard: Vacuum clean on monthly basis. Types of connectors:information being entered, retrieved and the results - Mouse: Clean the ball and rollers on monthly basis. - Serial: Used with serial cables. DB-9, DB-25, RJ-11of the processed data from the system. Some - Floppy drive: Clean monthly using the floppy drive and RJ-45 are examples of a serial connector.commonly used display devices are monitor, Liquid cleaning kit. DB connectors: Specifies the physical configurationCrystal Display (LCD) panel and touch screen. Installation Of Peripheral Devices: A peripheral of the connector not the use of lines. Available as 9,Adapter: Circuit in a computer system, which device is not a fundamental part of the computer. It 15, 25,37and 50 pins type.supports a particular device. Video adapters are may be an external device also. Tips for installation of DIN connectors: Round multipin electrical connector.used to support graphics monitor. Network adapters peripheral devices: Available as 4, 5 and 8 pin sizes. Used forallow a computer to communicate with another - Check if the device is compatible with the keyboards and Also called expansion board, add-ons, configuration of the motherboard of the system. -Parallel: Used with parallel cables. DB-25 andadd-ins or cards. - Create a copy of the data stored on the system for centronics for printers are examples of parallelPower supply: Provided through a Power Supply backup. connectors.Unit (PSU) to the computer. Continuous power input -. Follow the device’s instruction manual for the right Centronics: It has 8 data lines and other lines foris required for the proper functioning of the system, installation procedure. control and status information. It is found at the backwhich can be provided through a direct power - For installation of an external device, simply connect of printer and has 36 pins and for scanners andsupply. Surge suppressors, power conditioners and and attach the device to an external port present on SCSI devices has 50 pins.Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) are commonly the PC. -USB: Used for the USB port connectivity with theused for regulating the power input to the computer. - For installing an internal device you have to wear an computer.Cooling system: Used to drain out the extra heat antistatic wristband as a protection against high -Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineersfrom the CPU. Equipment like fans, liquid coolants voltage. (IEEE): Standard serial connector RS-232C.and heat sinks are used to drain the heat out which - Internal devices are installed in the CPU, by -Audio connectors: Specially designed for audiois very important for the proper functioning of the attaching them to the right ports and connectors. frequencies. Available as digital and A cooling fan should maintain the Tips For Maximizing PC Performance: -BNC connectors: Used for 10base2 coaxial cabletemperature up to 90-110 degrees Fahrenheit. - Using the right cooling technique for the CPU to and wireless system antenna. It is a male type andCombination of a heat sink and cooling fan called avoid overheating. has a rotating ring that locks it with a femalecooler is also used. -Disk partitioning-creating subdivisions of a single connector.Other Components:Floppy Drive Controllers: Circuitry that is hard drive for better memory management. - Using additional cards for increasing the specific Casesresponsible for managing transmission of data from equipment’s performance. Form Factors: Define the size, shape, andthe computer to the floppy drive and vice-versa. - Using recent antivirus software to prevent the configuration of a hardware part. Form factors forHard Drive Controllers: Circuitry that is system and data from getting corrupted. case and power supply depend on the motherboardsresponsible for the managing transmission of data form factor.from the hard drive to the computer and vice-versa. Ports, Cables And Types of form factors:Internal Modem: Transforms data from analogsignals to digital and vice versa to facilitate data Connectors - AT: Full AT measures 12” x 13.8 “ Full AT case cannot be used with any other motherboard case.transfer over cable and telephone lines. Internal Port: Interface present on the computer, which is used -Baby AT: measures 13” x 8.7” and provides moremodem is integrated on the expansion board The to attach any peripheral device to the computer. Types flexibility. Power supply for this form factor allows airmain features of a modem are: Speed: Measured in of ports: to be blown out of the case.Bits Per Second (bps); Auto Answer feature: Modem - Serial: Used for connecting a modem and a mouse -ATX: Measures 12” x 9.6” and components of theanswers the call automatically in the user’s absence; to the computer. It is a 9-pin or 25-pin male connector. motherboard are better positioned. A single powerData compression. - Parallel: Used for connecting printer and scanner connector P1, for the motherboard and the power supply is present. Copyright © 2005 All Rights Reserved
  2. 2. Click To Get FREE A+ Practice Exams & Study Aid at Now!-LPX: Has a riser card. It is difficult to upgrade and isnot compatible with fast processors. following features available in the CMOS and OS. -Green timer: Allows setting number of minutes of Small Computer-NLX: Motherboard has only one expansion slot and it isused with low profile cases. It provides flexibility and idle time of the CPU after which it should go into sleep mode. Systems Interfacespace efficiency.Types Of Cases: - Doze time: Time limit after which the system reduces its power consumption by 80%. Devices-(SCSI) SCSI is a standard for attaching peripheral devices-Desktop: Acts as a monitor stand and has 4 drive bays -Standby time: Time limit after which the system to computer through a parallel interface. It is fast, butand six expansion slots. Occupies space so not reduces its power consumption by 92%. complicated and permits both internal, externalcommonly used now. Low Profile or Slim line case is -Suspend time: Time limit after which the system devices and many more devices to be connectedanother type. reduces its power consumption by 99%. through it to the computer. A SCSI chain requires-Tower: Two feet high and can accommodate many - Hard drive standby time: Time limit after which only one Interrupt Request (IRQ) Line for the wholedrives. Mini tower, mid size tower and full size tower are the hard drive shuts down. chain.the variations of this case.-Notebook cases: Smallest cases are called sub Integrated Drive Types Of Interfaces: Narrow: The SCSI bus in this type of SCSI is 8 bitsnotebook cases. Design allows for portability, spaceefficiency, less heating and less power consumption. Electronics Devices in width. Wide: The SCSI bus in this type of SCSI is 16 bits inMicroprocessors (IDE) width.Comparison chart for processors based on some A standard interface, which is used to connect the Low Differential Voltage (LVD): Low voltagecommon properties: hard disk or other massive storage tools, to the differential interface, which is present in the ultra2 Micropro CPU L2 FRONT TRAN computer. In an IDE Device the controller is and ultra3 SCSI. It is a common name for Ultra2 cessors SPEE CACH SIDE SISTO incorporated in the drive internally. IDE is a very wide SCSI. D E BUS RS easy to use but a very restrictive interface. It is High Voltage Differential (HVD): Refers to the high SPEED incorporated within the motherboard and permits voltage differential type of SCSI bus. The effect of CELERON 1.06 256 KB 133 MHz 7,500,0 only four internal devices to be connected through noise interference in HVD is highly reduced. GHz - at full and 400 00 it. Internal Vs External devices: An adapter card called 2 GHz speed MHz Types Of Interfaces: the Host Adapter is used to support both internal - Enhanced integrated Drive Electronics (EIDE): and external devices by the SCSI bus. The Host PENTIUM 500 256 KB 100 MHz 28,100, The recent version of the IDE. It is faster and is Adapter and all the devices form a daisy chain. III XEON MHz - - 2 MB 000 1 GHz at full capable of handling high capacity data storage Identification: IDs are assigned to devices on the devices. SCSI channel so that there is no conflict about speed - Advanced Technology Attachment (ATA): IDE accessing the devices. The ID has to be unique for PENTIUM 1.4 - 256 KB 800 MHz 55,000, which supports one or two hard drives. It allows each device. For narrow SCSI the IDs are from 0-7 IV 3.4 at full 000 cd-rom and tape drive support. and for wide SCSI the IDs are from 0-15. The Host GHz speed - Programmed Input Output (PIO) - Technique Adapter generally has an ID 7 or 15. ATHLON 1.67 384 KB 266 MHz 37,500, used for transfer of data between two devices by Cabling: For the standard SCSI device the cable XP GHz at full 000 using the processor as a medium. length should be 6 meters and it should have 50 speed pins. For the fast SCSI device the length of the cable Redundant Array Of Independent Disks (RAID) DURON 700 - 64 KB 200 MHz N/A Type of disk drive arrangement that allows more should be 3 meters and it should have 50 pins. For 800 at full than two drives to be grouped for efficiency and the fast wide SCSI device the length of the cable MHz speed fault tolerance. A RAID can have different types of should be 3 meters and it should have 68 pins. For POWERP 400 - 1 MB 100 MHz 10,500, levels. Level 0 has data striping but does not ultra SCSI device the length of the cable should be C G4 800 at half 000 provide fault tolerance. Level 1 has mirroring and 1.5 meters and it should have 50 pins. MHz speed duplexing features and it uses 2 hard disks only. Terminators: Termination is used to stop the noiseCPU Packages: Level 2 has error correction coding. Level 3 has bit from spreading at the end of the SCSI daisy chain-Pin Grid Array (PGA): Pins are present at the bottom interleaved parity. Level 4 has dedicated parity and corrupting the data transmission.and can be inserted in the socket in one way. Alsoavailable as plastic PGA, flip chip PGA, flip chip PGA2. drive. Level 5 has block interleaved distributed parity and it requires a minimum of 3 hard disks. Upgrading Components-Single Edge Contact Cartridge (SECC): Processor is Level 6 has independent data disks with double An upgrade refers to the implementation of thecovered in black housing to which a heat sink and fan is parity. Level 0+1 has mirror of stripes. Level 10 current edition of any hardware.attached. Also available as SECC2. has a stripe of mirrors. Level 7 adds caching to Upgrading Tips:- Pin Array Cartridge (PAC) and Single Edge Processor level 3 and 4. -Check if the hardware you are upgrading to is the(SEP) are other types of CPU packages. How Hard Drives Work : (IDE) latest model or not.- Intel has introduced MMX for 3D games. AMD has - Partitions: Dividing the storage space into -Check whether the memory capacity will beintroduced 3DNOW for the same purpose. independent separate segments. Each segment sufficient for the new upgrade.Power Supplies behaves like a separate disk. It allows installing two separate operating systems in two separate -Check the compatibility of the new hardware device with all other components of the system.Measuring The Voltage: spaces on the same hard disk and hence -Check if the motherboard design allows for the new- Using a Multimeter: Measures voltage and current hardware to be integrated on it. increases efficiency as well as fault tolerance.both. Current and voltage should be measured when - File System Types: -Check if the processor supports the new hardwarethe current is on. Multimeter is a small, portable, battery !File Allocation Table (FAT): Used in DOS and version.powered unit and can be either digital or analog. Windows, is a 16 bit file system. The maximum -Check for device drivers for the new hardware.Instructions have to be given to the multimeter about size of a file is 2 GB, allows for only 512 directories -Check for future feasibility of the upgrade.what you want to measure, is it the current AC or DC in the root directory and supports the 8.3 file -Check the power input and output consumptionand what is the minimum and maximum level of naming system. limit.readings it has to allow. ! Virtual file allocation table (VFAT): Can use Components Involved:- For measuring the voltage of the power supply every virtual memory and virtual device drivers. The -Motherboardscircuit, which is supported by it, has to be checked. maximum size of a file is 4 GB, allows for only 512 -MemoryPower Management Techniques: directories in the root directory but in the non-root -Hard drives-Advanced Power Management (APA) -CPU directory number of files is unlimited. Supports 8.3-AT attachment: for IDE drives -BIOS and long file naming system-Display Power Management Signaling (DPMS) ! File Allocation Table 32 (FAT32): Supports file-Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) size of 4TB and there is no limitation to the numberPower management can be implemented by using the of files in the root and non root directory. Copyright © 2005 All Rights Reserved
  3. 3. Click To Get FREE A+ Practice Exams & Study Aid at Now! Troubleshooting Of called a node and each node has a specific address, so that, data can be routed correctly to the respective This address may be different in every new connection and it can also change while the device System Components node. Four main types of addressing techniques are : is connected to the network.Analyzing The Problem: - Media Access Control (MAC) addressing: Used for addressing the internal devices of a network not the Memory- Ascertain whether it is a software or a hardware devices outside the Local Area Network (LAN). Random Access Memory (RAM) is a volatile form ofproblem. -Internet Protocol addressing (IP address): Identifies memory storage because once the system is turned- Collect information about the environment in which the long distance addresses of devices on a off; the data stored on the RAM is lost.the user uses the system. transmission control protocol internet protocol Types Of RAM:- Understand the scenario in which the problem had (TCPIP) network. It is a 32 bit address. -Static RAM: Cache memory, which helps infirst appeared. - Character based names: Non –numeric character decreasing the access time to the main memory. It- Draw together as much information as possible addresses like host names and domain names. does not require constant refreshing and it is fast butfrom the user. - Port addressing: recognizes program running on a costly. No memory addresses are assigned in this- Combine the various symptoms indicated by the computer. It is a number between 0 and 65,535 and memory.user logically. also called IO address. -Dynamic RAM: Memory that needs to be refreshed- After establishing the problem, specific Protocols: Set of rules and regulations that define the constantly. The data is rewritten to the chip aftertroubleshooting steps can be followed to rectify the method of communication between two or more every millisecond. It is slower than static RAM.faults in the hardware. computers in a network. Types of protocols are: Memory addresses are assigned in this memory.Checklist for Replacing Parts: - Transmission Control Protocol Internet Protocol -Extended Data Output RAM – (EDO RAM): Is a- Wear an antistatic wrist strap. (TCPIP): Establishes connection between two better version of First Page Memory (FPM). It has a- Turn off the system power. computer systems that are used by the user from a faster access time but is still implemented on older- Unplug all cables from electronic circuits different location and transfer of information packets. motherboards.- Remove system cover when the power is off. IP deals only with packets. It defines their format and -Synchronous DRAM (SDRAM): Works in- Do not remove parts from their antistatic covers the addressing method. TCP and IP are coupled synchronization with the system clock and itsbefore you are ready to replace them. together to setup a virtual network between a source performance is evaluated based on the clock speed.- Hold parts by their edges and metal brackets. and a destination system. -Double Data Rate RAM (DDR RAM): Type of- Avoid rubbing parts with one another. - Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet SDRAM which is better and faster than the SDRAM.- Do not apply pressure to any component. Exchange (IPXSPX): Deals with information and data -RAMBUS DRAM: Type of dynamic RAM that uses a- Do not solder or heat any component. packets called datagram in a connectionless network system bus which has very high speed.- Do not disassemble any component or circuit. environment. SPX is a higher level protocol, which is -Video RAM: RAM which deal only with the display- Avoid static causing surfaces. used for rectification and recovery from errors. of the bitmap graphics .It is present on the video or Networking - AppleTalk: Communication protocol that has seven layers and deals with the range of apple Macintosh graphics card. It can be read and manipulated at the same time and it is faster than the ordinary RAM.A network is a collection of computers linked to one - Read Only Memory (ROM): Allows only data to be products.another allowing information and resources to be - NetBIOS Enhanced User Interface (NETBEUI): read from it does not allow writing data into it. Itshared between them. stores the instructions for system start up. ROM is a Superior version of the NetBIOS protocol meant forSetting Up A Network: A network is setup by non-volatile memory. network operating systems.connecting the various computers through the Types of ROM: Network Models:cables, connectors and connectivity devices such as -Peer-to-Peer (P2P): Network in which each system -Programmable Read Only Memory (PROM): Usedhubs or switches along with which necessary to store a set of instructions but it cannot be reused shares the same level of performance competenceprotocols for enabling communication between them to store anything else. PROM is a non-volatile and responsibility. This type of network is simple butare implemented. Any computer can access a memory. under heavy workload it does no have a consistentnetwork directly by using a network adapter -Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory performance. In this type of network, there are noexpansion card also known as Network Interface (EPROM): type of erasable PROM. dedicated servers. Every system acts as client as wellCard (NIC) and a network cable. -Electrically Erasable PROM (EEPROM): type of as server.Required Parameters: - Client/Server: Every computer will either be a client PROM that is electrically erasable. Also known asCabling: Types Of Cables are: Flash ROM. or a server. A client is the system which the user uses- Coaxial cable: Contains a central wire which is Form Factors: to access the resources on the main server system.insulated and on top of which there is a grounded -SINGLE IN LINE MEMORY MODULE (SIMM): The server is a powerful system which controls all thelayer of braided wire. Coaxial cables can carry more resources and the processes. The server caters to all Uses FPM methodology and it has two versions. Indata and are less prone to interference. one the edge connector has 30 pins and the other the needs of a client.- Plunem cable: Has an outer shield made of Teflon, one has 70 pins. Another SIMM technology uses the -Wireless network: Does not use any wires or cableswhich is a fire repellant, and which does not produce EDO methodology and it has 72 pins. for networking .It uses high frequency radio signals forpoisonous fumes when burnt. -DUAL IN LINE MEMORY MODULE (DIMM): Has interaction between the systems. An example of the- Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) cable: Two coupled versions which have used EDO and SDRAM wireless technology is infrared network.and twisted wires so that the noise of the two methodology. It has 168 or 184 pins. Networking Technologies:separate wires that are covered in a shield of foil, so -Local Area Network (LAN): A computer network that -RAMBUS IN LINE MEMORY MODULE (RIMM): Itthat data transmission is safer. is also called RDRAM. It uses a 16 or 32 bit data spans a relatively small area. The important types of- Fiber Optic cable: Made of plastic, glass or hybrid path. models for a LAN are the Ethernet, wireless LAN andfiber, which transmits data in the form of light SO DIMM: small outline DIMM: It is used in laptop token ring.signals. It is expensive but has high speed and - Digital Subscriber Line (DSL): Allows the systems.ensures security in data transmissions. Operational Characteristics: transmission of information through simple copperConnectors: Some commonly used connectors in a PARITY: It is used in the error checking procedure. It telephone are BNC, RJ-45, AUI, STSC, and - Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN): is a procedure for testing the validity of the data bits,IDCUDC. which are transmitted and also those, which are Worldwide established standard for transmitting voice,Network Cards: Transmit and receive information in stored in the RAM. video and information through digital and normalthe parallel mode to and from the system bus and in It has two basic methods –the even parity and the phone lines.serial mode to and from the network. It handles the odd parity. For even parity the total number of 1s Other commonly used technologies include Dial –Up,conversion of information to a compatible format as has to be even and for odd parity the total number of cable, Satellite, and wireless.per the network. Domain Name System (DNS): It maps the domain 1s has to be odd.Bandwidth: Quantity of information that can be Error Correction Code (ECC): It is a technique used names into corresponding IP addresses.transferred in a specific time unit. The unit for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP): in current memory types .It can detect as well asbandwidth is Bits per Second (bps). Higher the correct the parity error. Memory modules have ECC Protocol used for allocating dynamic IP addresses tobandwidth, faster is the data transfer. and if they do not have then they are called non devices like printers and client computers connectedAddressing: Every computer on the network is also ECC modules. to a network. Copyright © 2005 All Rights Reserved
  4. 4. Click To Get FREE A+ Practice Exams & Study Aid at Now! Motherboards Other Features: -Audio Modem Riser (AMR) slots -A standard and one line is printed each time the head passes on the paper. A matrix of small dots is used to printTypes Of Motherboards: developed by Intel which specifies a new design for on the paper. It uses around 480021200 dots perAT: It is the oldest available motherboard, which is the motherboards. The analog input output functions inch. It generally includes separate black and colorstill used in some systems. The power connections are placed on a separate card which is fitted at a right ink cartridges.available in this motherboard are for 5 and 12 volt angle with the mother board and not directly -Dot Matrix printers: Print multicopy documents. Itlines. It uses P8 and P9 power connections. integrated on the motherboard. This improves the has a print head, which prints along the width of theATX: Developed for Pentium systems by Intel. Has a overall audio quality and performance. paper by using pins to form a matrix of dots. A clothbetter motherboard layout and features for power -Communication Network Riser (CNR) slots: A card ribbon contains the ink and the lubricant for the pins,management as compared to the AT layout. It uses developed by Intel for ATX motherboards. It specifies which hit against it for printing. Printer head shoulda P1 connector and supports 5, 12 and 3.3 volts a new motherboard riser card and interface, which can be kept as cool as possible for efficiency.lines. tolerate heavy and increased workload. -Thermal printers: Are non-impact printers. It usesComponents Of A Motherboard: -Chipsets: A group of integrated circuits. A chipset can wax-ink which is hit by hot pin heads and melted inkThe main components of a motherboard are the perform a specific function. It signifies the core gets imprinted on the paper. The head, whichCU and its chipset, the system clock, the ROM operations of a motherboard. contains the pins, is as broad as the paper. MostBIOS, the RAM, the system bus with expansion Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor useful for printing bar codes and price tags.slots, jumpers and DIP, power supply connections (CMOS) Memory Features: is also known as the real -Solid Ink printers: Ink is stored in solid blocks calledand communication ports like the serial, parallel, –time clock/non-volatile ram chip. ColourStixs which are used as required. Through theUSB and infrared ports. -It does not loose the data stored on it even when the breadth of the paper the solid ink is melted in theTypes Of Slots And Sockets: system is switched off. print head. The head takes around 15 minutes to-Slot 1: Used by Pentium II and III CPUs. It has 242 - CMOS uses very less amount of power and does not heat up before printing starts.pins in 2 rows. generate a high amount of heat also, as it uses both - Dye Sublimation Printers: Are a type of thermal-Slot 2: Used by Pentium II and III Xeon range of the negative and positive polarity. This feature makes printers. They are used for printing access cards andCPUs. It has 330 pins in 2 rows. it usable in computer systems. identification cards.-Slot A: Used by AMD Athlon CPUs. It has 242 pins -A battery powered CMOS memory is used in the Interfaces: For sharing a printer, every computerin 2 rows. computers to store date, time and system setup on the network should have a printer driver installed-Socket A: Used by AMD Athlon and Duron CPUs. It information. on it.has 462 pins. -CMOS also contains the systems BIOS setting - Parallel: use an IEEE 1284 compliant printer-Socket 7: Used by Pentium MMX, Fast Classic information. cable.36 pin male /female connector.Pentium, AMD KS and Cyrix M CPUs. It has 321 -Facilitates the real time clock for the system. -Serial: Not very commonly used for printers now.pins. -The data stored in the CMOS can be changed -USB: Minimum transfer rate of 12 Mbps.-Socket 8: Used by Pentium Pro CPUs. It has 387 through the setup program in the ROM BIOS. -SCSI: Faster than parallel interface transfers data atpins. CMOS setup also has a power menu, which allows the rate of 8 bps and more.-Socket 423: Used by Pentium 4 CPUs. It has 423 you to change the power saving settings for the -Infrared: Place printer in the straight line view of thepins. system. infrared port on the PC.-Socket 478: Used by Pentium 4 CPUs. It has 478 -In the CMOS setup the power menu allows you to Steps To Troubleshoot Basic Printer Problemspins. change the power saving settings for the system. 1. Check if you can print from an application or not.Types Of Bus Architecture: -CMOS setup has a boot menu also to handle the If you cannot then try to print out a test page.-Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) Bus: This BOOTING of the system. 2. If you can print the test page then try toArchitecture was originally used in the IBM PC/XT - Controls the usage and access to the troubleshoot the application.and PC/AT. It is a very old technology used for system by setting up a password in the CMOS. 3. Check if you can print using the controls of theconnecting peripheral devices. -A battery powers the CMOS chip. If this battery printer and if no then try to check the cables and the-Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI): power is lost or interrupted the system setup data connectivity of the printer.Developed by Intel Corporation. It is a standard for stored on the CMOS is lost. 4. Check the power to the printer.local bus. It has a throughput rate of 133 MBps. - The coin cell type battery is the commonly used 5. Troubleshoot operating system and printer-Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP): A standard for battery for CMOS. drivers.interfaces developed by Intel. It caters to the needs Basic Input Output System (BIOS): Pre-integrated 6. Try to troubleshoot according to the errorof the throughput for 3-D graphics and has a software, which determines the actions of a computer messages displayed for the printing process.bandwidth of 266 MBps.-Universal Serial Bus (USB): An external bus, which which it, can perform without accessing the disk. Present in the ROM chip and contains code for Soundcan support peripheral devices up to 127. It is a very various functions and devices Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI):good replacement for serial and parallel ports. Music industry has established MIDI standard forInstalling a Motherboard: Printers managing the musical devices. Based on MIDI the1. Setting the jumpers and DIP switches based on Types Of Printers: components of sound include volume, pitch, length,the hardware you are installing. -Laser printers: Uses laser beam to print on the time delay and attack of the musical note. It has a2. A Universal Retention Mechanism (URM) is electrical charge on the drum .The drum is then rolled data transfer rate of 31,250 bits per second. It is apreinstalled in the motherboard in which the through the ink toner, which sticks to the charged serial and asynchronous interface through whichprocessor fits. Prepare the arms of the URM. parts. The toner is transferred to the paper through various musical instruments of different brands3. Insert the braces on the fan into the holes within heat and pressure. communicate. Sound data from musical instrumentsthe CPU package. Push the clamp to secure the fan. Six main steps of laser printing are: is stored as digital information. MIDI has 3 main4. Connect the fan power cord to the motherboard. 1. Cleaning Drum: To remove any traces of toner and types of files:5. Install the mother board in the case by performing charge. -0 MIDI: all information is stored on one track.the steps: 2. Conditioning Drum: So that it can hold a high -1 MIDI: more than one simultaneous track of data.- Install the face plate by inserting it in the hole at the electrical charge. -2 MIDI: More than one independent sequentialback of the case. 3. Writing: Low charge is emitted by laser beam on the single-track format.- Install the stand offs. sections where toner will get applied. The most important feature of the MIDI level 1 sound- Place the motherboard inside the case and attach 4. Developing: As charge gets lessened on the drum set is its defined list of sounds called patches. Itit with screws to the case. toner is placed on it. does not define how the sound is generated it only- Connect the power cord from the power supply to 5. Transferring: Is performed outside the cartridge. names the sound.the power connection on the motherboard. Applying the toner to the paper is done by pulling it off MIDI Utilities:- Connect the wire leads from the front panel of the the drum using a strong electrical charge. - MIDI file assembler disassemblercase to the motherboard. 6. Fusing: To bond the toner strongly to the paper - MIDI patch lister- To check which wire connects with which pin heat and pressure is applied. - MIDI file converterconsult the motherboard documentation. -Ink-jet printers: A printing head moves on the paper - MIDI device info tool Copyright © 2005 All Rights Reserved