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APOGEE - smArt adaPtive videO
GamEs for Education:
the Game Generation Platform
Boyan Bontchev
Department of Software Engi...
Computer games as a new media
APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 2
Credits:
Hitbox Team
Computer
games
Video
games
Computer video games
Text
games
3
APOGEE
Audio
games
COMPUTER
VIDEO
GAMES
Tablet
games
TV/Conso...
A Video Game Generation Platform
4
Entertainment games
APOGEE
APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 5
Serious Games (SG)
Digital interactive applications that allow users to make
spe...
Differences between entertainment games
and SG
 Games
Criterion
Serious games Entertainment games
Task vs. rich
experience...
The three kernels of SG design
APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 7Source: Serious Games for education and
training, ...
SG development concepts
 Challenges – to be confronted with a problem you have
to solve
 Reification – to create, produc...
A taxonomy of serious games
APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 9
Source: Sawyer and Smith, 2008
Types of Serious Video Games for Education
1/2
1. 3D role-playing action/adventure games applied to specific
scientific or...
Types of Serious Video Games for Education
2/2
4. Board, word, and logic games applied for education
purposes – make use o...
Serious Problems with the Serious games
 Higher development cost
 Lower attractiveness compared to entertainment games
...
The greater challenges:
 Higher development cost …
and, on the other side,
 … lack of enough free and customizable platf...
The APOGEE Project: Goals 1/2
 construction, automatic generation and
customization of educational video games based on
f...
The APOGEE Project: Goals 2/2
 3D virtual players in the game (so called non-
player characters, or NPCs) will apply inte...
What type of educational games will be
generated? 1/2
Our choice – educational labyrinths (mazes), because:
 Mazes are br...
What type of educational games will be
generated? 2/2
 Furthermore, mazes can be combined with board/logic/
word games su...
Manually
created XML
document +
audio/video
content
Unity3D API
Unity3D Game
Editor
Didactic
game tasks
Maze Builder Onlin...
Note: blocks in dotted line are future extensions
Textual content
Graphics
Audio content
Generated
XML +
A/V
content
Unity...
Existing platforms for automatic creation of
serious games
Criteria/
Solution Quandary Qedoc Quiz
Maker ADAPTIMES Maze Bui...
OUR GOAL: To provide a FREE and open
solution based on a popular game engine
Criterion 
Game Engine
Unreal
engine 4
CryEng...
Conceptual process of the Maze Builder
APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 22
Unity 3D
Game Platform
Maze Builder
Cust...
Performance
The performance testing of the Maze Builder with creating
a six room maze game was performed on a developer
la...
Restrictions to the maze construction 1/2
 Each node (i.e., room) can have maximum four
doors
 The maze connectivity gra...
Restrictions to the maze construction 2/2
Each room can have a game with balls, circles
and/or rings
Each room can have ...
The APOGEE workflow
APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 26
Prefabs
Labyrinth
class
MazeBuilder
class
2. Deserialize XM...
Importing the Maze Builder package in Unity 3D
APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 27
After the import: Custom panel of the
Maze Builder platform in the Unity editor
APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 28
A Sample XML maze description
APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 29
The maze is generated just after the XML
import
APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 30
Case study: Educational 3D Maze Games
for Carpet Handicraft in Bulgaria
 Target: vocational training and education in Bul...
RoomCenter
Intro
RoomNorthW
est
Tciprovtzi - 2
RoomWest
Tciprovtzi - 1
RoomEast
Kotel - 1
RoomNorth
Sliven
RoomNorthE
ast
...
A screenshot of the initial view of the
game (the central room)
APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 33
Current types of didactic game tasks
1. Answering a question for unlocking a door to
another room
2. Rolling balls marked ...
Answering the question for unlocking the
door to the west room
APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 35
Rolling a ball to the location of the town of
Tsiprovtci
APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 36
A game task for rolling three balls (right) to
their correspondent rings (left)
APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 37
Finding a semitransparent hidden object
(in this case, hanging from the top)
APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 38
Future types of didactic game tasks
1. Answering several (selected adaptively!) questions for
unlocking doors to other roo...
Towards an online game generation platform
of intelligent and adaptive online games
 Automatic online maze generation usi...
Practical experiment
with two groups of users
 Educators - passed though a demonstration of generation
of a maze game and...
View of the Web page with the generated
game (http://adaptimes.eu/carpetgame/)
APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 42
Videos
A video about the maze creational process
available at
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3IBqY
ooKwQg (2:39 min.)
A...
Results for the question “Do you think that educational video
maze games are an effective tool facilitating education?”
AP...
Results for “The idea to use text in XML format for describing video maze
games is very good and has future”
APOGEE A Vide...
Results for “The utilized learning tasks, answering test questions
for unlocking doors and finding hidden objects, are ver...
Results for the question “The time spent on game and
amusement obtained is GREAT”
APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform ...
Current and future works
 New extensions of the platform:
 JavaScrips for controlling texts over pictures
 Other embedd...
Conclusions
The market space of both entertainment and applied
video games entertainment games and applied will
continue ...
Thank you for your attention!
 Questions ?
 Proposals !
 Remarks …
 Disappointments 
 Doubts 
 Congrats 
 Donati...
Games create illusions but are reality
APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 51
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Online generation of smArt adaPtive videO GamEs for Education (APOGEE)

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APOGEE - smArt adaPtive videO GamEs for Education: the Game Generation Platform

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Online generation of smArt adaPtive videO GamEs for Education (APOGEE)

  1. 1. APOGEE - smArt adaPtive videO GamEs for Education: the Game Generation Platform Boyan Bontchev Department of Software Engineering, Fac. of Math. and Informatics, Sofia University St Kliment Ohridski, Bulgaria February, 2018 http://www.apogee.online/
  2. 2. Computer games as a new media APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 2 Credits: Hitbox Team
  3. 3. Computer games Video games Computer video games Text games 3 APOGEE Audio games COMPUTER VIDEO GAMES Tablet games TV/Console games Web games Handheld games A Video Game Generation Platform
  4. 4. A Video Game Generation Platform 4 Entertainment games APOGEE
  5. 5. APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 5 Serious Games (SG) Digital interactive applications that allow users to make specific experiences that promote active and experiential paths of learning in various domain of human existence,  through virtual/augmented simulations  through ludic and playing formats “A serious game or applied game is a game designed for a primary purpose other than pure entertainment” (Abt, 1970) “A serious game is a digital game in which education is the primary goal, rather than entertainment” (Micheal & Chen, 2006) SG enable self-controlled, active and playfully learning 5
  6. 6. Differences between entertainment games and SG Games Criterion Serious games Entertainment games Task vs. rich experience Problem solving in focus Rich experiences preferred Focus Important elements of learning To have fun Simulations Assumptions necessary for workable simulations Simplified simulation processes Communication Should reflect natural (non-perfect) communication Communication is often perfect APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 6 Source: Susi, Johannesson and Backlund, 2007.
  7. 7. The three kernels of SG design APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 7Source: Serious Games for education and training, Alessandro De Gloria et al., 2014 Theory Contents Game design Pedagogy Cognition Psychology Flow/presence Perception Behaviour Learning Museums History Mathematics Science HCI Goals A/V (audio/video) Storytelling Rules 2D/3D graphics AI Levels Programming
  8. 8. SG development concepts  Challenges – to be confronted with a problem you have to solve  Reification – to create, produce and make experiments  Socialities – to communicate and take part in communities and social networks  Achievements – to get acknowledgment and enjoy respect  Pleasure – to interact in sensitive and pleasurable situations  Exploration – to explore and act on basis of curiosity  Self interpretation – to search and experiment identities APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 8 Source: Sørensen, 2002
  9. 9. A taxonomy of serious games APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 9 Source: Sawyer and Smith, 2008
  10. 10. Types of Serious Video Games for Education 1/2 1. 3D role-playing action/adventure games applied to specific scientific or cultural domain – include language training games and games for acquisition of cultural/language knowledge, intercultural skills, and intangible heritage such as traditions and habits, with high-fidelity 3D cultural settings (Bontchev, DIPP’2015) 2. Interactive virtual museums and environments - use gaming technology for both entertaining and educating visitors usually by incorporating some exploration and reassembling tasks and quizzes 3. Historical documentary games, prototypes and demonstrators – take the players to a specific historical epoch using increasingly realistic behavioral and realistic visual simulations with historical accuracy of political, religious and artistic walkthrough (Fullerton, 2008) APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 10
  11. 11. Types of Serious Video Games for Education 2/2 4. Board, word, and logic games applied for education purposes – make use of structured didactic content shown in puzzles, Hangman, anagrams, etc. (Bontchev, 2012) 5. Simulators and simulator games – e.g., a car driving simulator, flight simulators, etc. 6. Social tagging and knowledge acquisition SG – such as games collecting information about cultural artifacts embedded into the games for further knowledge verification and mining APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 11
  12. 12. Serious Problems with the Serious games  Higher development cost  Lower attractiveness compared to entertainment games  Transition between instructional design and actual game design implementation - how Game Mechanics impact and interact with the Learning Mechanics  Assessment - effectively tracking and analyzing of the right parameters related to learners’ progress (knowledge gain, reflection and application)  How psychological theories should be used in the design of realistic and convincing NPCs?  How different pedagogical paradigms relate to SG and SG mechanics - reference framework needed! APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 12 D1.6 GALA Roadmap 2, Nov. 2011
  13. 13. The greater challenges:  Higher development cost … and, on the other side,  … lack of enough free and customizable platforms for automatic creation of serious games … are addressed by the project APOGEE (2018 -2020) funded by the Bulgarian Fond of Scientific Research and aiming at creation and practical validation of an innovative open software platform for creation of smArt adaPtive videO GamEs for Education (APOGEE). APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 13 http://www.apogee.online/
  14. 14. The APOGEE Project: Goals 1/2  construction, automatic generation and customization of educational video games based on formal descriptive model including semantic structuring of both game and didactic content – this ambitious issue addresses the current lack of such platforms and tools in global aspect. Especially for a effective usage of the platform, a methodology will be created for facilitating non-IT professionals in creation of video games for education;  dynamic adaptation of features of created educational video games according to outcomes, arousal and emotional state of the individual player – the platform will allow game rules, dynamics and audio- visual effects to be tailored to the changes in the player model inferred in an implicit way at run time; APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 14
  15. 15. The APOGEE Project: Goals 2/2  3D virtual players in the game (so called non- player characters, or NPCs) will apply intelligent agents answering player questions using knowledge and facts extracted from lexical corpuses with didactic contents as learn books and Web pages;  the validation of both the methodology and platform for creation of smart adaptive video games will make use of practical experiments with construction of games for education in Bulgarian medieval history by educationalists and teachers, for assessing the usability of the game platform in terms of being used by non-IT professionals and, on the other hand, playability and learnability of the smart adaptive video games constructed by the platform. APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 15
  16. 16. What type of educational games will be generated? 1/2 Our choice – educational labyrinths (mazes), because:  Mazes are broadly used in entertainment games and that makes them very appropriate for interactive representation of content, like virtual museums and other interactive environments  Mazes can be used in various 3D role-playing action/ adventure games applied to specific scientific or cultural domain - the player explores the educational content in the maze and moves from one place to another by:  choosing one of the several options for an action  solving didactic tasks located in maze rooms  Mazes are good for procedural content generation  Maze graph, nodes, tasks, audio, etc… - in an XML doc APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 16
  17. 17. What type of educational games will be generated? 2/2  Furthermore, mazes can be combined with board/logic/ word games such as quizzes, puzzles, or other mini- games situated at appropriated places into the labyrinth that makes them suitable for game-based learning in any learning domain  The connecting graph of the labyrinth is to be designed by the educator, according a given learning curriculum, i.e. aligned with pedagogical goals and methods  Good for personalization and adaptation - while passing from a room to another, the player has solve additional didactic tasks appropriate to his/her current knowledge and outcomes  Mazes may have intelligent NPC for tutoring/helping the learnerAPOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 17
  18. 18. Manually created XML document + audio/video content Unity3D API Unity3D Game Editor Didactic game tasks Maze Builder Online games Unity3D game engine (browser plugin) Game managers 3D maze Maze Builder: the APOGEE platform for construction of 3D online video games for education – the current version APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 18
  19. 19. Note: blocks in dotted line are future extensions Textual content Graphics Audio content Generated XML + A/V content Unity3D API Unity3D Game Editor Didactic game tasks Metadata (XSD) Graph Editor Didactic tasks Property Editor Maze Editor Maze Builder Virtual players Intelligent Q&A agents Online games Unity3D game engine (browser plugin) Adaptive game managers Virtual players 3D maze Maze Builder: the APOGEE platform for construction of 3D online video games for education – the future version APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 19 Automatic game generation
  20. 20. Existing platforms for automatic creation of serious games Criteria/ Solution Quandary Qedoc Quiz Maker ADAPTIMES Maze Builder Distribution Web Desktop Desktop Desktop/Web/ Mobile/Console Type 2D 2D 3D 3D Game platform None None None Unity 3D Programming language None None Python C# Learning resources slides, test questions slides, test questions, learning games slides, test questions, arranging images slides, test questions, arranging 3D objects, hidden 3D objects Customization images, music, video, font images, font, sound effects Textures, rooms Textures, images, music Open code No No Yes Yes Price Free Free Licensed Free APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 20
  21. 21. OUR GOAL: To provide a FREE and open solution based on a popular game engine Criterion Game Engine Unreal engine 4 CryEngine Ogre 3D Blender Godot Unity3d Distribution Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Xbox One, PlayStation 4, HTML5, iOS and Android Windows, Linux, PlayStation 3, PlayStation 4, Wii U, Xbox 360, Xbox One, iOS and Android Windows, Linux, Mac OS X Windows, Linux, Mac OS X Windows, OSX, Linux, HTML5, iOS, Android, BB10 Windows, OSX, Linux, Windows Phone, iOS, Android, BlackBerry 10, Tizen, Xbox 360, Xbox One, Wii U, PlayStation 3/4, PlayStation Vita, Nintendo Switch, WebGL Supported languages C++, Blueprints C++, C#, Lua C++ Python C++, GDscript C#, JavaScrtipt Community and documentation Big Big Little Big Little Very big Price Free $9.90/month Free Free Free Free Requirements for developer PC High High Low Medium Medium Medium Graphic quality Very high Very high Medium Medium Medium High Extensibility Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 21
  22. 22. Conceptual process of the Maze Builder APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 22 Unity 3D Game Platform Maze Builder Custom Package XML Maze Description Game Assets (text, images, audio) 3D Maze 3D Maze Game Read Import Generate Build Import Arrange 4 min 2 weeks 5 min 4 days 2 s 20 s 4 h 12 min Guess the timing for creating a six room maze game?
  23. 23. Performance The performance testing of the Maze Builder with creating a six room maze game was performed on a developer laptop with Windows 10:  Importing of Maze Builder unity package – 4 minutes  Importing of 4 audio files with total volume 28MB - 176 s  Importing of 86 images with total volume of 212MB – 65 s  Importing of a XML document describing a 6 room maze and generation of the maze - 12 seconds  Building a desktop standalone (executable) – 3 minutes 20 seconds  Building a WebGL game distribution - 12 minutes APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 23
  24. 24. Restrictions to the maze construction 1/2  Each node (i.e., room) can have maximum four doors  The maze connectivity graph must be planar  Cycles are possible within the maze graph  A par of incoming and outgoing doors is shown as a lack of door  Each door can be unlocked by correct answering a question  Each question may have text and raster graphic  Walls have maximum one door per wall  Walls have maximum two slides per wall  Each slide may have text and/or raster graphic in JPG, PNG, TIFF or BMP format APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 24
  25. 25. Restrictions to the maze construction 2/2 Each room can have a game with balls, circles and/or rings Each room can have zero or N hidden objects. Each room can have textures for the walls, ceiling and the floor Each room can have no more than one map laid over the floor Each room can have no more than one audio file for playing while the player is inside it (one or in repeating mode) The maze should have one starting room APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 25
  26. 26. The APOGEE workflow APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 26 Prefabs Labyrinth class MazeBuilder class 2. Deserialize XML 3. Return instance of Labyrinth Room HiddenObject BallBoard CircleBoard TorusBoard GameManager GlobalGameManager Open scene 4. Instantiate prefabs 5. Set properties and positions in 3D space Game Content 1. Import of content
  27. 27. Importing the Maze Builder package in Unity 3D APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 27
  28. 28. After the import: Custom panel of the Maze Builder platform in the Unity editor APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 28
  29. 29. A Sample XML maze description APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 29
  30. 30. The maze is generated just after the XML import APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 30
  31. 31. Case study: Educational 3D Maze Games for Carpet Handicraft in Bulgaria  Target: vocational training and education in Bulgarian ethnography.  Focus: the game is dedicated to the fabrication of carpets in Bulgaria since 17th century to the present times.  Maze connectivity graph: six rooms interconnected by doors APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 31 RoomCenter Intro RoomNorthWest Tciprovtzi - 2 RoomWest Tciprovtzi - 1 RoomEast Kotel - 1 RoomNorth Sliven RoomNorthEast Kotel 2DoorE DoorE DoorW DoorW DoorS DoorNDoorN
  32. 32. RoomCenter Intro RoomNorthW est Tciprovtzi - 2 RoomWest Tciprovtzi - 1 RoomEast Kotel - 1 RoomNorth Sliven RoomNorthE ast Kotel 2 DoorE DoorE DoorW DoorW DoorS DoorNDoorN The maze from top camera view in Unity APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 32
  33. 33. A screenshot of the initial view of the game (the central room) APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 33
  34. 34. Current types of didactic game tasks 1. Answering a question for unlocking a door to another room 2. Rolling balls marked with given content to specific positions on the floor map 3. Rolling balls marked with given content to specific rings on the floor 4. Finding/discovering hidden semi-transparant objects and gaining points APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 34
  35. 35. Answering the question for unlocking the door to the west room APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 35
  36. 36. Rolling a ball to the location of the town of Tsiprovtci APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 36
  37. 37. A game task for rolling three balls (right) to their correspondent rings (left) APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 37
  38. 38. Finding a semitransparent hidden object (in this case, hanging from the top) APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 38
  39. 39. Future types of didactic game tasks 1. Answering several (selected adaptively!) questions for unlocking doors to other rooms 2. Unlocking a door by solving a 2D puzzle (generated automatically) 3. Labyrinth traversal by using an interactive map of the maze 4. Finding/discovering objects hidden within other interior objects (with dynamic adaptation of difficulty!) 5. Collecting found objects into an asset store and viewing them 6. Selecting appropriate found objects for leaving them on a specific position (e.g., items of a treasure into a box or area) 7. Asking a NPC for help 8. Putting questions to a NPC presenting an intelligent agent retrieving knowledge from a lexical corpus (Wikipedia) 9. What more (please propose more ideas)? …. APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 39
  40. 40. Towards an online game generation platform of intelligent and adaptive online games  Automatic online maze generation using a metadata-driven XSD-based maze editor with a Web-based visual graph editor and checker, used by non-IT professionals for creation of video games for education, based on a generation of the XML maze description  Creation of intelligent agents for question answering based on extraction of facts from domain content (Wikipedia)  Dynamic adaptation of features of created educational video games according to outcomes, arousal and emotional state of the individual player – the platform will allow game rules, dynamics and audio-visual effects to be tailored to the changes in the player model inferred in an implicit way at run time, by using a RAGE game component for recognizing the player excitement based on electrodermal activity (http://rageproject.eu/) APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 40
  41. 41. Practical experiment with two groups of users  Educators - passed though a demonstration of generation of a maze game and arrangements of didactic objects embedded into it and watched a video about the maze creational process. Next, they filled in a questionnaire about platform usability and game playability  Students – learners through the generated serious game available online at http://adaptimes.eu/carpetgame/ and who played the game  either online by a Firefox browser with Unity Web Player Plugin installed from https://unity3d.com/webplayer,  or offline by downloading the desktop version of the game from this Web page. Next, they filled in a questionnaire about game playability APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 41
  42. 42. View of the Web page with the generated game (http://adaptimes.eu/carpetgame/) APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 42
  43. 43. Videos A video about the maze creational process available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3IBqY ooKwQg (2:39 min.) A video containing a demonstration of a game session with the generated game is available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZLH4F6gq 9Gs (3:21 min.) APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 43
  44. 44. Results for the question “Do you think that educational video maze games are an effective tool facilitating education?” APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 44 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 70.00% definitely no more likely no I can't say more likely yes definitely yes
  45. 45. Results for “The idea to use text in XML format for describing video maze games is very good and has future” APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 45 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% definitely no more likely no I can't say more likely yes definitely yes
  46. 46. Results for “The utilized learning tasks, answering test questions for unlocking doors and finding hidden objects, are very appropriate for educational games” APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 46 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 70.00% definitely no more likely no I can't say more likely yes definitely yes
  47. 47. Results for the question “The time spent on game and amusement obtained is GREAT” APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 47 0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00% 30.00% 35.00% 40.00% definitely no more likely no I can't say more likely yes definitely yes
  48. 48. Current and future works  New extensions of the platform:  JavaScrips for controlling texts over pictures  Other embedded mini-games – e.g. a puzzle game for unlocking a door  More prefab objects – e.g. torches instead lamps, stony doors instead wooden doors, etc.  More than one question for unlocking a door  Text decorations specified in the XML document  Collecting hidden objects and placing them on specific places  Sounds for events like unlock/open/close a door, find a hidden object, etc.  Interactive map showing the current player location in the maze  More …?  Other application of the ball games – e.g. a game ordering the balls in a line  Using the platform for other case studies, with greater number of participants APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 48
  49. 49. Conclusions The market space of both entertainment and applied video games entertainment games and applied will continue to grow in next years The impact of serious video games will be higher thanks to their synergy of story, art and technological achievements including affective and adaptive gameplay. Applied maze games for cultural heritage will be used more and more for immersive cultural presentation, teaching, assessment and training Open and free gaming platforms will be a must APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 49
  50. 50. Thank you for your attention!  Questions ?  Proposals !  Remarks …  Disappointments   Doubts   Congrats   Donations €  Sth else ® Write to:  Boyan Bontchev, bbontchev@fmi.uni-sofia.bg  http://www.apogee.online/ APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 50
  51. 51. Games create illusions but are reality APOGEE A Video Game Generation Platform 51

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