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Beton:
Hét bouwmateriaal
voor de toekomst
ir. Gerard H.P. Hol
Raadgevend ingenieur /
Specialist materialen en duurzaamheid
Inleiding
'Beton van Romeinen superieur aan moderne variant'
Beton dat vele eeuwen geleden werd geproduceerd
door de Romeinen is in veel opzichten superieur aan
modern beton. Bron:Nu.nl.

Met andere woorden in plaats van
innovatie is er sprake van achteruitgang
Wat zien we eigenlijk van deze Romeinse bouwwerken ?

De top 2% procent van alles wat
gebouwd is en op dit moment niet
meer gebruikt wordt
Cement produktie 3600 10^6 ton
7 miljard inwoners
Dit komt neer op 2 kubieke meter
beton per jaar per wereldburger
de gemiddelde consument in de
wereld -- 1.385 kubieke meter per
jaar.
Concrete

“When happiness was a common thing”

Cement

Sand

Aggregate

Water

C20
C30
C40
C8

“It has become
complicated”

C12
C20
C25

Recycled aggregates

C30

Cement

Slag

C35
Water

C40

Air entrainer

Light weight Concrete

Selfcompacting concrete

C45
C50
Super
plasticizer

C90

Retarder

C100

Fly ash
Sand
Fibre reinforced concrete

“Property defined concrete”
Gravel

Silica fume

B200
Stabilizer

Accelerator

Water
entrainer

B800
Polymer fibers Steel Fibers

Fillers
Keuzes in bindmiddel
Formation of major reaction
products
dQ/dt
[J/g]

C3S
C2S
C3A
C4AF
other

time

Major reactions and reaction products:
C3A:

3CaO.Al2O3 + 3CaSO4 +6H2O → 3(CaO.Al2O3.CaSO4.14H2O) + 870 J/g C3A
Ettringite

C3S:

3CaO.SiO2 + xH2O → 2CaO.SiO2 + Ca(OH)2 + (x-1)H2O

(C2S):

2(2CaO.SiO2) + 4H2O → 3CaO.2SiO2.3H2O + Ca(OH)2 + 25 J/g

Total:

2(3CaO.SiO2) + 6H20 → 3CaO.2SiO2.3H2O + 3Ca(OH)2 + 504 J/g C3S

CSH = Calcium Silicate Hydrate;

CH = Calcium Hydroxide
Het produceren van 1 ton
portlandklinker produceert ca.
0,9 ton CO
2

Dus andere bindmiddelen
Meer keuze straks
voorbeeld
Dé oplossing voor brandveiligheid
van tunnels

Fire Fighting Layer ®
Eisen bij brand
De plaat moet bij een brand aan de volgende eisen
voldoen:
I.De hoofddraagconstructie beschermen
I.

Temperatuur in het betonoppervlak < 300 C
25 mm vanaf het buiten oppervlak

II.

Temperatuur wapening < 250 C

III. Niet bezwijken bij brand dit geldt ook voor
ankers
Spalling mechanisms in reinforced concrete

Spalling due to thermal dilation

Spalling caused by vapour pressure
Ozawa et al. 2012
Construction and Building Materials, Volume 37,
December 2012, Pages 621–628
Concrete in fire (after Khoury, 2000)
Temperature (°C)

What happens

1000
900

Air temperature in fire rarely exceed this level, but flame temperatures
can rise to 1200 °C and beyond

800
700
600
550 – 600

Above this temperature concrete is not functioning at its full structural
capacity
Cement-based materials experience considerable creep and loose their
load-bearing capacity

400
300
250-420
November 7, 2013

Strength loss starts, but in reality only the first few centimeters of
concrete exposed to a fire will get any hotter than this, and internally the
temperature is well below this.
Some spalling may take place, with pieces of concrete breaking away
18
from the surface
Fracture surface in HPC concrete
• Explosive spalling of 100 mm HPC cubes
• The temperature range of spalling 480 to 510°C
• Heating duration was around three minutes

HPC-70 with 100% moisture content

HPC-110 with 88% moisture content

HPC-120 with 100% moisture content
Peng, G. F. (2000)
Concrete column in fire (after Khoury, 2000)

(a) whole column spalled

(b) cover layer spalled

Fire spalling of a column
Kodur, V. K. R. and Phan L. (2007).
Fire Safety Journal, Vol. 42, p. 82-488.
Trekkrachten op ankers
Ondanks dat we het materiaal nog steeds
beton noemen zijn er veel innovaties geweest:

Nieuwe bindmiddelen
Andere verwerkings eigenschappen
Nieuwe eigenschappen

Dus zeer innovatief

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B&i2013 donderdag 11.30_zaal_c_beton, hét bouwmateriaal van de toekomst

  • 1. Beton: Hét bouwmateriaal voor de toekomst ir. Gerard H.P. Hol Raadgevend ingenieur / Specialist materialen en duurzaamheid
  • 2. Inleiding 'Beton van Romeinen superieur aan moderne variant' Beton dat vele eeuwen geleden werd geproduceerd door de Romeinen is in veel opzichten superieur aan modern beton. Bron:Nu.nl. Met andere woorden in plaats van innovatie is er sprake van achteruitgang
  • 3.
  • 4. Wat zien we eigenlijk van deze Romeinse bouwwerken ? De top 2% procent van alles wat gebouwd is en op dit moment niet meer gebruikt wordt
  • 5.
  • 6. Cement produktie 3600 10^6 ton 7 miljard inwoners Dit komt neer op 2 kubieke meter beton per jaar per wereldburger de gemiddelde consument in de wereld -- 1.385 kubieke meter per jaar.
  • 7. Concrete “When happiness was a common thing” Cement Sand Aggregate Water C20 C30 C40
  • 8. C8 “It has become complicated” C12 C20 C25 Recycled aggregates C30 Cement Slag C35 Water C40 Air entrainer Light weight Concrete Selfcompacting concrete C45 C50 Super plasticizer C90 Retarder C100 Fly ash Sand Fibre reinforced concrete “Property defined concrete” Gravel Silica fume B200 Stabilizer Accelerator Water entrainer B800 Polymer fibers Steel Fibers Fillers
  • 9.
  • 10.
  • 12. Formation of major reaction products dQ/dt [J/g] C3S C2S C3A C4AF other time Major reactions and reaction products: C3A: 3CaO.Al2O3 + 3CaSO4 +6H2O → 3(CaO.Al2O3.CaSO4.14H2O) + 870 J/g C3A Ettringite C3S: 3CaO.SiO2 + xH2O → 2CaO.SiO2 + Ca(OH)2 + (x-1)H2O (C2S): 2(2CaO.SiO2) + 4H2O → 3CaO.2SiO2.3H2O + Ca(OH)2 + 25 J/g Total: 2(3CaO.SiO2) + 6H20 → 3CaO.2SiO2.3H2O + 3Ca(OH)2 + 504 J/g C3S CSH = Calcium Silicate Hydrate; CH = Calcium Hydroxide
  • 13. Het produceren van 1 ton portlandklinker produceert ca. 0,9 ton CO 2 Dus andere bindmiddelen Meer keuze straks
  • 14. voorbeeld Dé oplossing voor brandveiligheid van tunnels Fire Fighting Layer ®
  • 15. Eisen bij brand De plaat moet bij een brand aan de volgende eisen voldoen: I.De hoofddraagconstructie beschermen I. Temperatuur in het betonoppervlak < 300 C 25 mm vanaf het buiten oppervlak II. Temperatuur wapening < 250 C III. Niet bezwijken bij brand dit geldt ook voor ankers
  • 16.
  • 17. Spalling mechanisms in reinforced concrete Spalling due to thermal dilation Spalling caused by vapour pressure Ozawa et al. 2012 Construction and Building Materials, Volume 37, December 2012, Pages 621–628
  • 18. Concrete in fire (after Khoury, 2000) Temperature (°C) What happens 1000 900 Air temperature in fire rarely exceed this level, but flame temperatures can rise to 1200 °C and beyond 800 700 600 550 – 600 Above this temperature concrete is not functioning at its full structural capacity Cement-based materials experience considerable creep and loose their load-bearing capacity 400 300 250-420 November 7, 2013 Strength loss starts, but in reality only the first few centimeters of concrete exposed to a fire will get any hotter than this, and internally the temperature is well below this. Some spalling may take place, with pieces of concrete breaking away 18 from the surface
  • 19. Fracture surface in HPC concrete • Explosive spalling of 100 mm HPC cubes • The temperature range of spalling 480 to 510°C • Heating duration was around three minutes HPC-70 with 100% moisture content HPC-110 with 88% moisture content HPC-120 with 100% moisture content Peng, G. F. (2000)
  • 20. Concrete column in fire (after Khoury, 2000) (a) whole column spalled (b) cover layer spalled Fire spalling of a column Kodur, V. K. R. and Phan L. (2007). Fire Safety Journal, Vol. 42, p. 82-488.
  • 22.
  • 23.
  • 24.
  • 25.
  • 26.
  • 27.
  • 28.
  • 29. Ondanks dat we het materiaal nog steeds beton noemen zijn er veel innovaties geweest: Nieuwe bindmiddelen Andere verwerkings eigenschappen Nieuwe eigenschappen Dus zeer innovatief