Week 12

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Week 12

  1. 1. Speaking Language Teaching Methodology Lecture Week 12
  2. 2. What do we use speaking for? <ul><ul><li>Phatic Communion (Bronislaw Malinowski 1923) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small talk (Coupland & Coupland 1992) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conversational routines (Brown & Levinson 1987) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cf. Conversation Analysis (Sacks1992) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transactional / interactional use of language to get things done / for social purposes (Nunan1999:228) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentation of who we are to the world (Goffman 1959) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All of the above and more </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. What needs to be taught? <ul><li>BOTTOM UP: </li></ul><ul><li>auditory discrimination/ Pronuciation and articulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Segmentals and Suprasegmentals : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress/prominence, Rhythm and Intonation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contractions, weak forms, elision, connected speech/linking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Celce-Murcia (2001) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bowler & Parminter(1992) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary and word meanings </li></ul><ul><li>Lexis – appropriate choice of words for different </li></ul><ul><li>contexts </li></ul><ul><li>How to put words together to communicate effectively </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>TOP DOWN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discourse structure / schemata / genre </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Register (Martin & Christie 1984, Biber 1995) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conversational and interactional routines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Politeness (Brown & Levinson 1987) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural rules for spoken interaction in various contexts (Biber 1995) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. What some Language Teaching approaches have done with speaking <ul><li>Audio Lingual : drills and repetition in isolation, such as Language Lab practice </li></ul><ul><li>controlled </li></ul><ul><li>Aural / oral : presentation of grammatical sentence patterns for auditory recognition, then oral practice of these in pair, group or class work (Pitman, G. 1968) </li></ul><ul><li>controlled -> guided </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Communicative approaches: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Topic/Task based language practice: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pair-work, group work, role play </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussion activities (Ur 1996: Module 9) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-> guided </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community Language Learning (Dorothy Econimu, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UNSW IOL, 1980s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>guided -> co-constructed </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. What have some (English) Language text books done with these talk-related issues? <ul><li>Greetings, personal identification, introductions / meeting people </li></ul><ul><li>Topical task-based guided interaction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Families </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jobs and Occupations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asking and Giving directions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asking and Telling the time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using services: Bank, Post Office, Transport </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Vocabulary and Pronunciation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-taught </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modelled, practiced and then discussed (tapes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using dictionaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IPA and diagrams for articlation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discourse structure and interactional routines: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scripted, modelled dialogues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Task-based instructions for pair / group work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questions for discussion after interactional activities </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Are there any gaps? <ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural rules for spoken interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Politeness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Register </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reminders: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>** the trap of T-talk Vs. L-talk ** </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>** the importance of speaking for writing </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. References <ul><li>Biber, D. (1995)  Dimensions of Register Variation: A Cross-linguistic Comparison - group of 6 » D Biber - 1995 - books.google.com </li></ul><ul><li>Bowler, B. & Parminter, S. (1992) Headway Pre-Intermediate Pronunciation </li></ul><ul><li>Oxford, OUP. </li></ul><ul><li>Brown, P. and Levinson, S. (1987). Politeness: Some universals in language usage. Cambridge University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Celce-Murcia (2001) Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language, Third Edition. Boston MA Heinle & Heinle. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Coupland, J. and Coupland, N. (1992). &quot;How are you?: Negotiating phatic communion.&quot; Language in Society 21, p. 207-230. </li></ul><ul><li>Econimu, Dorothy 1980s Developmental work with CLL (unpublished) </li></ul><ul><ul><li> UNSW IOL Inservice AMEP Teacher Training. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goffman, E. (1959) The Presentation of the Self in </li></ul><ul><li>Everyday Life. </li></ul><ul><li>Harmondsworth, Penguin. </li></ul><ul><li>(1983). Forms of Talk . </li></ul><ul><li>University of Pennsylvania Press </li></ul><ul><li>Harmer, J. (2001) The practice of English language teaching. </li></ul><ul><li>Harlow, Pearson Education Ltd. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Malinowski, B. (1923). &quot;The problem of meaning in primitive languages.&quot; Supplement to C. Ogden and I. Richards The meaning of meaning . London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. Pp. 146-152. </li></ul><ul><li>Martin, J. & Christie, F. (1984) Language, Register and </li></ul><ul><li>Genre in Children’s Writing Geelong, Australia: Deakin </li></ul><ul><li>University Press </li></ul><ul><li>Nunan, D. (1999) Second language teaching and learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Boston, Massachusetts, Heinle & Heinle. </li></ul><ul><li>Pitman, G. (1973) Situational English </li></ul><ul><li>Canberra, AGPS. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Sacks, Harvey (1992) Lectures on Conversation, Volumes I and II </li></ul><ul><li>Edited by G. Jefferson with Introduction by E.A. Schegloff, </li></ul><ul><li>Blackwell, Oxford. </li></ul><ul><li>Ur, P. 1996 A course in langauge teaching </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Canbridge, CUP. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>

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