Week 11

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Week 11

  1. 1. Teaching productive skills: an overview Language Teaching Methodology 1 Lecture Week 11
  2. 2. Speaking / Writing <ul><li>Historically: spoken -> written records legitimacy and accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Face to face talk -> removed communication </li></ul><ul><li>distancing </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in society: local -> global </li></ul><ul><li>sociocultural changes in communication </li></ul>
  3. 3. Some differences between speaking and writing: <ul><li>purpose and use </li></ul><ul><li>distancing between speaker / writer and listener / reader </li></ul><ul><li>grammatical ‘accuracy’ / structure </li></ul><ul><li>lexical density / ‘content words’ </li></ul><ul><li>linguistic and communicative competencies required </li></ul><ul><li>Nunan, 1999: chpt 10 </li></ul><ul><li>Leech & Svartvik, 1974:23 </li></ul>
  4. 4. What have language teaching methodologies done with these differences? <ul><li>Grammar-translation: speaking and writing not differentiated, sociocultural differences in purpose and use not addressed </li></ul><ul><li>Audio-lingualism: de-contextualised formulaic drills, grammatical accuracy not specifically linked to language use </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>PPP: repetition and controlled language practice inflexible for spontaneous interaction and individual expression </li></ul><ul><li>Communicative approaches: focus on content and realistic communicative tasks, emphasis on fluency rather than accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Harmer, 2001:Chpt 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Ur, 1996: Module 9 </li></ul>
  6. 6. Some issues for language teachers to address <ul><li>Grammatical accuracy : </li></ul><ul><li>in spoken / written exchange .. needs .. impacts </li></ul><ul><li>Communicative competence: </li></ul><ul><li>.. spoken / written </li></ul><ul><li>The role of the Teacher: </li></ul><ul><li>.. teacher dependency / independent L use </li></ul>
  7. 7. Choices of Teaching Methods and Materials Teaching Goals in relation to Learner groups Grammatical Accuracy The Role of the Language Teacher Communicative Competence
  8. 8. Discussion <ul><li>IN PAIRS look at one of the British Council Trio Student Book lessons outlines ( 1 , 2 or 3 ): </li></ul><ul><li>-> what age group is the series aimed at? </li></ul><ul><li>-> what macroskills does your Book cover? </li></ul><ul><li>-> discuss the grammatical progression in </li></ul><ul><li>lessons </li></ul><ul><li>IN GROUPS OF 6 ask and tell each other about the different books ( Trio 1,2 and 3 ) </li></ul><ul><li>-> can you think of any age-related factors </li></ul><ul><li>(any age) that need to be taken into account? </li></ul><ul><li>-> would you call this a communicative syllabus design? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Language skills and the human brain <ul><li>different parts of the human brain are responsible for different activities and functions </li></ul><ul><li>we use and coordinate different combinations of these for speaking and writing, (as well as listening and reading). </li></ul><ul><li>Fromkin & Rodman, 1974: chpt 12 </li></ul>
  10. 10. Visual ↔ Verbal continuum <ul><li>Visual ←———————————-> Verbal </li></ul>
  11. 11. References <ul><li>Fromkin,V. & Rodman,R. (1974) An introduction to language. </li></ul><ul><li>N.Y. Holt, Rinehart and Winston Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Harmer, J. (2001) The practice of English language teaching. </li></ul><ul><li>Harlow, Pearson Education Ltd. </li></ul><ul><li>Leech, G. & Svartvik, J. (1975) A communicative grammar of English. </li></ul><ul><li>London, Longman. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Nunan, D. (1999) Second language teaching and learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Boston, Massachusetts, Heinle & Heinle Publishers. </li></ul><ul><li>Ur, P. (1996) A course in language teaching. </li></ul><ul><li>Cambridge, CUP. </li></ul>

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