The transport of wine over long distances


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The transport of wine over long distances

  1. 1. The transport of wine over long distances By Boran Xu 2009003998
  2. 2. History of Wine Transportation • Until the end of the 18th century, the narrow gorge was obstructed by a waterfall formed by gigantic outcrops of rock making it impossible to navigate upstream into the remote eastern reaches of the Douro. In 1780 the arduous work of demolishing the stone slabs began. By 1789 the first vessels were able to pass through the gorge and in 1791 the work of clearing the channel was finally completed, although the task of negotiating the fast running rapids of the Cachão remained extremely hazardous. • The amphorae were used by the ancient Greeks and the Romans to transport and store wine. The Romans transported their wine by sea in earthenware containers. After that the Romans learnt of barrels from the Gauls in 3rd century AD. Barrels were used for almost 2000 years.
  3. 3. Dolium • Dolium is a large earthenware vase or container used in ancient Roman times for storage or transportation of goods. Dolium are much larger than amphorae. European were used to transport wine and store wine and grapes. It is so risky for using these dolium in the ancient time. Because it is big and heavy. At that times so many shipwrecks happened for carrying the dolium.
  4. 4. Barrels • Barrel is a hollow cylindrical container, traditionally made of wooden staves bound by wooden or metal hoops. Traditionally, the barrel was a standard size of measure referring to a set capacity or weight of a given commodity. • The Romans began to use barrels in the 3rd century AD, as a result of their commercial and military contacts with the Gauls. • Bulk wines are sometimes flavored by soaking oak chips in them instead of being aged in a barrel.
  5. 5. Amphorae Dolia Barrel
  6. 6. Nowadays There are two options for wine producers transport wine over long distances.  Transportation of wine in bulk.  Transportation of wine in bottle
  7. 7. Bulk • ISO tanks • Flexitanks
  8. 8. Bulk Advantages Transporting wine in bulk will be cheaper than the bottles also cost less energy and carbon emissions. Disadvantages More risk than transporting with bottles. If just a small problem happens will be possible to lose all the wine. and spoilage, oxidation due to defective a seal on tank.
  9. 9. Bottles
  10. 10. Bottles • Advantages Bottles of wine are easy to sell once arrival at end destination. Convenient for wineries and retailers. • Disadvantages More costs than bulks. Occur spoilage or oxidation of wine due to temperature variation. Need more energy and co2 emissions.
  11. 11. Challenges wine producers face when transporting wine over long distances  Oxidation  Taint and contamination  Re-fermentation  Temperature control  Avoiding breakages  Convenience  Reducing costs
  12. 12. Wine Transportation in the future • In the future the most important challenge for the wine industry is the carbon emissions. The carbon emissions can change the climate. Like use of biodegradable packaging and emissions trading scheme. • Bulk still will be the main method for wine transportation in the near future. • Finding ways to reduce carbon emission and environmental pollution.
  13. 13. References • Amphora. (2010). Retrieved on 25 July 2013 from • • Boehmer, A. (2008). Why Good Wines Go Bad. Retrieved on 25 July 2013 from • • Donald A. Dibbern Jr. (2007). A Shock to the System. Wine Expert (Sommelier) Wine Lover Page. Retrieved on 25 July 2013 from • • Graham, J. (2007). Can wine go the Distance? Wine Business International, 4, 60-62. • • Graziano A. (2011). Shipping wine over long distances. What changes in the sensory profile? Teatro Naturale International n. 5 Year 3 • • Hartley, A. (2008). Bulk shipping of wine and its implications for product quality. Retrieved on 25 July 2013 from • • History. (n.d). Retrieved on 25 July 2013 from • • Tinney, Mc. (2009). Product Review: Wine Shippers. Retrieved on 25 July 2013 from • • Rupp,K.J. (2008). Fine wine Export-Energy Use and CO2 Emissions A Case Study. Retrieved on 25 July 2013, from .