The transport of wine over long
History of Wine Transportation
• Until the end of the 18th century, the narrow gorge was
obstructed by a waterfall formed by gigantic outcrops of rock
making it impossible to navigate upstream into the remote
eastern reaches of the Douro. In 1780 the arduous work of
demolishing the stone slabs began. By 1789 the first vessels
were able to pass through the gorge and in 1791 the work of
clearing the channel was finally completed, although the task of
negotiating the fast running rapids of the Cachão remained
• The amphorae were used by the ancient Greeks and the Romans
to transport and store wine. The Romans transported their wine
by sea in earthenware containers. After that the Romans learnt
of barrels from the Gauls in 3rd century AD. Barrels were used for
almost 2000 years.
• Dolium is a large earthenware vase or container used
in ancient Roman times for storage or transportation
of goods. Dolium are much larger than amphorae.
European were used to transport wine and store wine
and grapes. It is so risky for using these dolium in the
ancient time. Because it is big and heavy. At that times
so many shipwrecks happened for carrying the dolium.
• Barrel is a hollow cylindrical container, traditionally
made of wooden staves bound by wooden or metal
hoops. Traditionally, the barrel was a standard size of
measure referring to a set capacity or weight of a
• The Romans began to use barrels in the 3rd century
AD, as a result of their commercial and military
contacts with the Gauls.
• Bulk wines are sometimes flavored by soaking oak
chips in them instead of being aged in a barrel.
Transporting wine in
bulk will be cheaper
than the bottles also
cost less energy and
More risk than
bottles. If just a small
problem happens will
be possible to lose all
the wine. and
spoilage, oxidation due
to defective a seal on
Bottles of wine are easy
to sell once arrival at
Convenient for wineries
More costs than bulks.
Occur spoilage or
oxidation of wine due
Need more energy and
Challenges wine producers face when
transporting wine over long distances
Taint and contamination
Wine Transportation in the future
• In the future the most important challenge for the
wine industry is the carbon emissions. The carbon
emissions can change the climate. Like use of
biodegradable packaging and emissions trading
• Bulk still will be the main method for wine
transportation in the near future.
• Finding ways to reduce carbon emission and
• Amphora. (2010). Retrieved on 25 July 2013 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amphora
• Boehmer, A. (2008). Why Good Wines Go Bad. Retrieved on 25 July 2013 from
• Donald A. Dibbern Jr. (2007). A Shock to the System. Wine Expert (Sommelier) Wine Lover Page. Retrieved on 25
July 2013 from http://www.wineloverspage.com/dibbern/shock07.phtml
• Graham, J. (2007). Can wine go the Distance? Wine Business International, 4, 60-62.
• Graziano A. (2011). Shipping wine over long distances. What changes in the sensory profile? Teatro Naturale
International n. 5 Year 3
• Hartley, A. (2008). Bulk shipping of wine and its implications for product quality. Retrieved on 25 July 2013 from
• History. (n.d). Retrieved on 25 July 2013 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oak_(wine).
• Tinney, Mc. (2009). Product Review: Wine Shippers. Retrieved on 25 July 2013 from
• Rupp,K.J. (2008). Fine wine Export-Energy Use and CO2 Emissions A Case Study. Retrieved on 25 July 2013, from