Content <ul><li>What is energy? </li></ul><ul><li>World energy data </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with (without) energy </li></ul><ul><li>Why is renewable energy important? </li></ul><ul><li>Technology challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Energy strategy </li></ul>
What is Energy? Energy is the Ability To Do Work. Energy can be found in a number of different forms. It can be chemical energy, electrical energy, heat (thermal energy), light (radiant energy), mechanical energy, and nuclear energy.
FIRST ENERGY LAW ENERGY CAN BE TRANSFORMED INTO ANOTHER SORT OF ENERGY. BUT, IT CANNOT BE CREATED AND IT CANNOT BE DESTROYED. ENERGY HAS ALWAYS EXISTED IN ONE FORM OR ANOTHER.
SECOND ENERGY LAW “ ENTROPY TENDS TO INCREASE” It means that no process is 100% efficient, so there is no such thing as a perpetual motion machine
Forms of Energy Electrical energy is the flow of electrons along a circuit. It can be transformed into: • mechanical energy by an elevator • thermal energy by a space heater Thermal energy is the use of heat as the source of energy. It can be transformed into: • mechanical energy using a steam engine. Chemical energy is generated from chemical reactions in which the chemical bonds of a substance are broken and rearranged to form new molecules that can provide energy. It can be transformed into: • thermal energy by burning wood • mechanical energy through digestion of food in our bodies • electrical energy by burning coal.
Forms of Energy Radiant energy comes from a light source, such as the sun. Energy released from the sun is in the form of photons. It can be transformed into: • electrical energy using solar panels Mechanical energy refers to an object that is doing work by being in motion. Mechanical energy can be transformed into: • electrical energy using a wind turbine Nuclear energy is generated when parts of the atoms in certain materials split off in a controlled environment. This process produces heat (thermal energy) for various uses, including electricity generation. Nuclear energy can be transformed into: • thermal energy in a fission reactor • electrical energy in a nuclear power plant
International Energy Outlook indicates that over the next 2 0 years … <ul><li>Energy use will grow strongly, especially among the developing countries (2.7% per year in the developing world) </li></ul><ul><li>There will be continued reliance on fossil fuels through 2025; oil remains the dominant fuel type (39 % of total world energy use) </li></ul><ul><li>Natural gas is the fastest growing source of primary energy (2.2% per year) </li></ul><ul><li>Coal will continue to be the predominant source for electricity generation, but natural gas will be an important supply source for power generation in many parts of the world, given its efficiency and environmental benefits. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels will continue to grow (1.9% per year) </li></ul>
There are two energy-related crises: <ul><li>Climate change threat that demands international co-operation rather than competition and conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome: Politicians and businesses aim to collaborate to radically reduce dependence on fossil fuels. </li></ul><ul><li>2) Oil and gas deficits are occurring through scarcity and power politics leading to higher prices. </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome: Politicians and businesses look for energy supply security and compete to find and control more cheap oil, coal and gas supplies. </li></ul>
What do people want? Technical solutions?? Social benefits?? Employment Wealth retention in communities New skills Social cohesion Local investment Protection of recreational areas Pride and independence Improved quality of life Stable climate Good health Secure energy supplies Equity Happiness…….
SOLUTION ? <ul><li>The development of alternative clean energies and new technologies could reduce dependence on fossil fuels AND reduce GHG emissions. </li></ul><ul><li>But , can they be developed and deployed fast enough to reduce the growing demand for oil, gas and coal? </li></ul>
WORKSHOP: RENEWABLE ENERGY <ul><li>What is renewable energy? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is it important? </li></ul><ul><li>Is renewable energy solution? </li></ul>
WHY IS RENEWABLE ENERGY IMPORTANT? Environmental Benefits Renewable energy technologies are clean sources of energy that have a much lower environmental impact than conventional energy technologies. Energy for our children's children's children Renewable energy will not run out. Ever. Other sources of energy are finite and will some day be depleted. Jobs and the Economy Most renewable energy investments are spent on materials and workmanship to build and maintain the facilities, rather than on costly energy imports. This means your energy dollars stay home to create jobs and fuel local economies, rather than going overseas. Energy Security Renewable energy is locally consumed resources and thus decrease dependence on imported energy.
Heating and Cooling - the Sleeping Giant Around 40-50% of total consumer energy is used for heating and cooling, yet most policy emphasis goes on electricity and biofuels. There is high potential to more than double renewable heating and cooling from bioenergy, solar and geothermal in the next decade if many countries would replicate cost-effective policies as used by other leading countries.
Croatian incentive system from July 2007. <ul><ul><li>Min imum share of electrical energy from renewables : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incentive : guaranteed prices </li></ul></ul>19 TWh** 13 TWh Total electrical consumption 5,8% 2010. 0,6% 2002. Share of renewables in el. consumption .
KEY TECHNOLOGY CHALLENGES in the next 10 years for 2020 <ul><li>S econd generation biofuels ; </li></ul><ul><li>Double the power generation capacity of the largest wind turbines , with off-shore wind as the lead application; </li></ul><ul><li>C ommercial readiness of large-scale Photovoltaic (PV) and Concentrated Solar Power ; </li></ul><ul><li>Enable a single, smart European electricity grid able to accommodate the massive integration of renewable and decentralised energy sources; </li></ul><ul><li>M ass market of more efficient energy conversion and end-use devices and systems, in buildings, transport and industry, such as poly-generation and fuel cells; </li></ul><ul><li>C ompetitiveness in fission technologies , together with long-term waste management solutions; </li></ul>
<ul><li>generates and distributes electricity more effectively, economically, securely, and sustainably </li></ul><ul><li>integrates innovative tools and technologies, products and services, using advanced sensing, communication, and control technologies </li></ul><ul><li>provides customers with greater information and choice, including power export, demand participation and energy efficency </li></ul>Smart Grids
KEY TECHNOLOGY CHALLENGES in the years for 2030-2050 <ul><li>N ext generation of renewable energy technologies ; </li></ul><ul><li>B reakthrough in the cost-efficiency of energy storage technologies ; </li></ul><ul><li>Develop the technologies and create the conditions to commercialise hydrogen fuel cell vehicles ; </li></ul><ul><li>N ew generation (Gen-IV) of fission reactors for increased sustainability; </li></ul><ul><li>Elaborate alternative visions and transition strategies towards the development of the Trans-European energy networks and other systems necessary to support the low carbon economy of the future; </li></ul><ul><li>B reakthroughs in enabling research for energy efficiency : e.g. materials, nano-science, information and communication technologies, bio-science and computation. </li></ul>
WORKSHOP: ENERGY STRATEGY <ul><li>Objectives (SMART) </li></ul><ul><li>Goal </li></ul><ul><li>Roles and responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>First steps </li></ul>
ENERGY STRATEGY FOR CROATIA <ul><li>Intention is to present situation in energy sector and consequences of development options on the basis of broad public discussion and made political decision about national strategy </li></ul>
ENERGY STRATEGY FOR CROATIA <ul><li>Objective is to define development of energy sector in next 10-20(30) years </li></ul><ul><li>Goal is to build sustainable energy system with balanced development, environmental protection, competition and safety of supply. </li></ul>
BASIC FACTS <ul><li>Croatia is candidate for EU </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directive 20-20-20 by 2020 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Energy community </li></ul><ul><li>Kyoto protocol </li></ul><ul><li>High energy prices and volatility in the market </li></ul>
BASE SCENARIO <ul><li>NEW 300 MW IN HPPs BY 2020 </li></ul><ul><li>NEW 1545 MW IN RENEWABLE PPs BY 2020 </li></ul><ul><li>ADDITIONAL 100 MW IN ZAGREB AND 250 MW IN SISAK TPPs BY 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>NEW 300 MW IN COGENERATION BY 2020 </li></ul><ul><li>TOTAL: ~ 2500 MW </li></ul>
BLUE SCENARIO <ul><li>2 TPPs WITH NATURAL GAS AND 2 TPPs WITH COAL </li></ul><ul><li>2013, GAS TPP ~ 400 MW </li></ul><ul><li>2015, COAL TPP ~ 600 MW </li></ul><ul><li>2019, COAL TPP ~ 600 MW </li></ul><ul><li>2020, GAS TPP ~ 400 MW </li></ul>
GREEN SCENARIO <ul><li>2 TPPs WITH NATURAL GAS, 1 NUCLEAR </li></ul><ul><li>2013, GAS TPP ~ 400 MW </li></ul><ul><li>2015, GAS TPP ~ 400 MW </li></ul><ul><li>2020, NUCLEAR PP ~ 1000 MW </li></ul>
WHITE SCENARIO <ul><li>1 TPP WITH NATURAL GAS, 1 TPP ON COAL, 1 NUCLEAR </li></ul><ul><li>2013, GAS TPP ~ 400 MW </li></ul><ul><li>2015, COAL TPP ~ 600 MW </li></ul><ul><li>2020, NUCLEAR PP ~ 1000 MW </li></ul>
Myth 1*: solar power is too expensive to be of much use Spanish and German companies are installing large-scale solar power plants of this type in North Africa, Spain and the south-west of America; On hot summer afternoons in California, solar power stations are probably already financially competitive with coal. Europe, meanwhile, could get most of its electricity from plants in the Sahara desert. We would need new long-distance power transmission but the technology for providing this is advancing fast, and the countries of North Africa would get a valuable new source of income. * Chris Goodall, guardian.co.uk
Myth 2: wind power is too unreliable Wind power is financially viable today in many countries, and it will become cheaper as turbines continue to grow in size, and manufacturers drive down costs. Some projections see more than 30% of the world's electricity eventually coming from the wind. Turbine manufacture and installation are also set to become major sources of employment, with one trade body predicting that the sector will generate 2m jobs worldwide by 2020.
Myth 3: marine energy is a dead-end The thin channel of water between the north-east tip of Scotland and Orkney contains some of the most concentrated tidal power in the world. The energy from the peak flows may well be greater than the electricity needs of London. Similarly, the waves off the Atlantic coasts of Spain and Portugal are strong, consistent and able to provide a substantial fraction of the region's power.
Myth 4: nuclear power is cheaper than other low-carbon sources of electricity The new nuclear power station on the island of Olkiluoto in western Finland should start with Electricity production in this year, but the latest news is that the power station will not start generating until 2012. The impact on the cost of the project has been dramatic. When the contracts were signed, the plant was supposed to cost €3bn (£2.5bn). The final cost is likely to be more than twice this figure and the construction process is fast turning into a nightmare.
Myth 5: electric cars are slow and ugly The Tesla electric sports car, sold in America but designed by Lotus in Norfolk, amazes all those who experience its awesome acceleration. Urban delivery van has a range of over 100 miles, accelerates to 70mph and has running costs of just over 1p per mile. The cost of the diesel equivalent is probably 20 times as much.
Myth 6: biofuels are always destructive to the environment Making some of our motor fuel from food has been an almost unmitigated disaster. Within a few years we will be able to turn agricultural wastes into liquid fuels by splitting cellulose, the most abundant molecule in plants and trees, into simple hydrocarbons.
Myth 7: climate change means we need more organic agriculture The world cannot feed its people and produce huge amounts of cellulose for fuels if large acreages are converted to organic cultivation.
Myth 8: zero carbon homes are the best way of dealing with greenhouse gas emissions from buildings In most countries, only about 1% of the housing stock is newly built each year. Tighter building regulations have no effect on the remaining 99%. Second, making a building genuinely zero carbon is extremely expensive. The few prototype UK homes that have recently reached this standard have cost twice as much as conventional houses. Careful attention to detail in both design and building work has produced unexpectedly large cuts in total energy use. The small extra price paid by householders is easily outweighed by the savings in electricity and gas. Rather than demanding totally carbon-neutral housing.
Myth 9: the most efficient power stations are big Large, modern gas-fired power stations can turn about 60% of the energy in fuel into electricity. The rest is lost as waste heat. New types of tiny combined heat and power plants are able to turn about half the energy in fuel into electricity, almost matching the efficiency of huge generators. These are now small enough to be easily installed in ordinary homes. Not only will they generate electricity but the surplus heat can be used to heat the house, meaning that all the energy in gas is productively used. Some types of air conditioning can even use the heat to power their chillers in summer.
Myth 10: all proposed solutions to climate change need to be hi-tech Biochar is an astonishing idea. Burning agricultural wastes in the absence of air leaves a charcoal composed of almost pure carbon, which can then be crushed and dug into the soil. Biochar is extremely stable and the carbon will stay in the soil unchanged for hundreds of years. The original agricultural wastes had captured CO2 from the air through the photosynthesis process; biochar is a low-tech way of sequestering carbon, effectively for ever.