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Solving Difficult Digitalisation Problems

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Solving difficult problems in the world of digitalization and disruption with the Cynefin Framework, systems thinking and root cause analysis

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Solving Difficult Digitalisation Problems

  1. 1. SOLVING DIFFICULT PROBLEMS IN THE WORLD OF DIGITALISATION AND DISRUPTION ITSMF LEADERSHIP SUMMIT 2018 6 July 2018 © 2018 National University of Singapore. All Rights Reserved. 1
  2. 2. Agenda • Simple and Difficult Problems • Cynefin Framework • Complicated Complex • Complex Context • Chaotic Context • Disorder Context • Summary © 2018 National University of Singapore. All Rights Reserved. 2
  3. 3. Introduction – Simple Problems • Example – user complains printout from printer looks faded? • Is this a simple problem? • Why? • Known Known • Realm of known… • Best Practices • SOPs • Solve using • Sense • Categorise (and find solution in SOP) • Respond © 2018 National University of Singapore. All Rights Reserved. 3
  4. 4. Difficult Problems © 2018 National University of Singapore. All Rights Reserved. 4 "9/11 WTC Photo" by 9/11 Photos is licensed under CC BY 2.0 Signal interference issue plagues Circle Line again MONDAY 25 JUNE 2018 https://www.todayonline.com/singapore/no-service-6-circle- line-stations-disruption-caused-signal-fault-widens https://www.economist.com/business/2017/06/03/british- airways-botches-its-response-to-its-latest-technical-woes Vs Are these Difficult Problems? Can these be solved in same way as simple problems? i.e. Sense, Categorise (i.e. find correct best practice), Respond?
  5. 5. Agenda • Simple and Difficult Problems • Cynefin Framework • Complicated Complex • Complex Context • Chaotic Context • Disorder Context • Summary © 2018 National University of Singapore. All Rights Reserved. 5
  6. 6. Cynefin Framework © 2018 National University of Singapore. All Rights Reserved. 6 Complex Complicated Chaotic Obvious (Simple) Disorder • Different Problem Contexts • => Different Approaches
  7. 7. Agenda • Simple and Difficult Problems • Cynefin Framework • Complicated Complex • Complex Context • Chaotic Context • Disorder Context • Summary © 2018 National University of Singapore. All Rights Reserved. 7
  8. 8. Complicated Context © 2018 National University of Singapore. All Rights Reserved. 8 • Known UnKnowns (or unknown known?) • ITIL uses the word “known” also – where is it used? • Known Error • Able to resolve once unknown if known • Solve using • Sense • Analyse • Respond • One of the analysis techniques • Kepner-Tregoe Is-IsNot technique
  9. 9. Complicated Context - Kepner Tregoe Is-IsNot (KT) © 2018 National University of Singapore. All Rights Reserved. 9 Technical knowledge & Tools Analysis Process Ingredients for successful Complicated Problem Analysis Kepner Tregoe Is-IsNot IS IS NOT WHAT Signal interference Other technical issues (e.g. door, circuit breaker etc.) WHERE Circle Line all stations Near stations as well as along the lines Some Circle Line stations Other lines Only at stations Only away from stations WHEN Started on Aug 29 2016 Both peak period as well as non-peak period Earlier than Aug 29 Only peak period Only non-peak period EXTENT Intermittent Consistent Growing Decreasing Signal interference issue plagues Circle Line again MONDAY 25 JUNE 2018
  10. 10. Complicated Context – KT Technique © 2018 National University of Singapore. All Rights Reserved. 10 http://www.charaderie.co.uk/index.php/team-building-games/ http://beckystevens.blogspot.com/2011/04/wh y-it-was-miss-stevens-with-boardgame.html Recognise items on left? <- Cluedo board game Like Kepner Tregoe • Gather facts • Make sense of it • Develop Hypotheses • Gather more facts • Prove/Disprove Hypotheses • Until Root Cause Found
  11. 11. Complicated Context - KT - MRT Facts and Hypotheses © 2018 National University of Singapore. All Rights Reserved. 11 https://blog.data.gov.sg/how-we-caught-the-circle-line- rogue-train-with-data-79405c86ab6a
  12. 12. Complicated Context - KT - MRT Make Sense of Data / Prove Hypothesis © 2018 National University of Singapore. All Rights Reserved. 12 https://blog.data.gov.sg/how-we-caught-the-circle-line- rogue-train-with-data-79405c86ab6a
  13. 13. Complicated Context - KT – MRT Prove Hypothesis © 2018 National University of Singapore. All Rights Reserved. 13 https://blog.data.gov.sg/how-we- caught-the-circle-line-rogue-train- with-data-79405c86ab6a
  14. 14. Complicated Context - Not Uncommon in Age of Digitalisation © 2018 National University of Singapore. All Rights Reserved. 14 25 Apr 2018 The IT crisis engulfing TSB has entered a sixth day, with customers still experiencing problems accessing their accounts despite assurances from the bank that its internet and mobile services are now up and running. https://www.theguardian.com/business/2018/apr/25/tsb- customers-share-experiences-it-crisis
  15. 15. Agenda • Simple and Difficult Problems • Cynefin Framework • Complicated Complex • Complex Context • Chaotic Context • Disorder Context • Summary © 2018 National University of Singapore. All Rights Reserved. 15
  16. 16. Complex Context © 2018 National University of Singapore. All Rights Reserved. 16 Preventive Measures Digital Disruption • Unknown Unknowns • Unable to resolve with certainty once unknown if known • Solve using • Probe • Sense • Respond • Why not able to know and solve with certainty?
  17. 17. Complex Context – Preventive Measures - MRT Case • Why did MRT train PV46 have the signal interference fault? • Why was it not avoided during the component design phase? • Why was it not avoided or detected/corrected during the component manufacturing phase? • Why was it not detected/corrected during the testing phases? • Why was it not detected/corrected during the assembly/integration and commissioning phase? • Why was it not detected/corrected during the operations phase? © 2018 National University of Singapore. All Rights Reserved. 17 • PEOPLE • ORGANISATION • PROCESSES • TOOLS / TECHNOLOGY • etc. Can you guarantee that preventive measures you come up with will definitely work? Why not?
  18. 18. Complex Context – Digital Disruption © 2018 National University of Singapore. All Rights Reserved. 18 ComfortDelGro shares rev up on back of Uber deal 11 Dec 2017 Shares of taxi giant ComfortDelGro rose on Monday (Dec 11), following the announcement that it will acquire a majority stake in Uber's rental car business for about S$642 million. Would it be respite or wreckage for ComfortDelGro as Grab acquires Uber's Southeast Asia business? 26 Mar 2018 ComfortDelGro Corporation’s long-drawn plan to strike a strategic alliance with Uber Technologies could now be in limbo. This comes after Grab today put an end to months of speculation and confirmed it will be acquiring Uber’s Southeast Asia operations.
  19. 19. Complex Context – Action and Reaction © 2018 National University of Singapore. All Rights Reserved. 19 My NS Training - Planning an Attack Anticipate & Plan for Enemy Reactions - War-Gaming
  20. 20. Complex Context - E.g. Amazon Whole Foods & Reaction © 2018 National University of Singapore. All Rights Reserved. 20 How Wal-Mart And Target Are Handling Amazon's Acquisition Of Whole Foods Market • Walmart - “expanded online assortment, two-day free shipping with no membership fee and over 1,000 online grocery pickup locations… Wal-Mart will also be working on one-hour delivery services” • Target - cutting prices on, "thousands of items, from cereal and paper towels to baby formula, razors, bath tissue and more" https://seekingalpha.com/article/4118110-wal-mart-target-handling- amazons-acquisition-whole-foods-market
  21. 21. Complex Context – Side Effects © 2018 National University of Singapore. All Rights Reserved. 21 Example: Typical preventive measure for IT - Add reviews - Add item to review checklist Any side effects?
  22. 22. Complex Context – Feedback Loops © 2018 National University of Singapore. All Rights Reserved. 22 Example: Will the side-effect or reaction boomerang back to hit you?
  23. 23. Complex Context – Techniques • Causal Loop • Business Ecosystem Design • Design Thinking / System Design • Lean Startup © 2018 National University of Singapore. All Rights Reserved. 23
  24. 24. Complex Context - Casual Loop Technique – Simple Introduction © 2018 National University of Singapore. All Rights Reserved. 24 Incidents Checklist Items & Reviews Quality Paperwork Morale & Time for Actual Work Casual Loop - Technique to understand and map different factors at play in a complex context. Nb: This slide is a simplification for conceptual understanding. It does not use the full set of conventions normally used for causal loops. How to solve problem so that it is prevented from happening again?
  25. 25. Complex Context – Causal Loop - real-world complexity © 2018 National University of Singapore. All Rights Reserved. 25 http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid =S2224-78902014000100008
  26. 26. Complex Context - Ecosystem Design for Digitalised Businesses © 2018 National University of Singapore. All Rights Reserved. 26 https://image.slidesharecdn.com/business-20ecosystem-20design-130831085446- phpapp01/95/business-ecosystem-design-21-638.jpg?cb=1379181577
  27. 27. Complex Context - Design Thinking / Service Design Technique © 2018 National University of Singapore. All Rights Reserved. 27 https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Design_Thinking_process_in_the_Chapters_Dialogue_project.png • Complex Context • Solve using • Probe • Sense • Respond
  28. 28. Complex Context - Lean Startup Technique © 2018 National University of Singapore. All Rights Reserved. 28http://theleanstartup.com/principles • Complex Context • Solve using • Probe • Sense • Respond
  29. 29. Agenda • Simple and Difficult Problems • Cynefin Framework • Complicated Complex • Complex Context • Chaotic Context • Disorder Context • Summary © 2018 National University of Singapore. All Rights Reserved. 29
  30. 30. Chaotic Context © 2018 National University of Singapore. All Rights Reserved. 30 "9/11 WTC Photo" by 9/11 Photos is licensed under CC BY 2.0 • Unknownables • More pressing need is to establish order rather than to solve a problem • With order established, situation can be changed from Chaotic to Complex or Complicated • Then can solve problem
  31. 31. Chaos – Omaha Beach Jun 6, 1944 © 2018 National University of Singapore. All Rights Reserved. 31 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DSKerypwUDM
  32. 32. Chaos – Omaha Beach Jun 6, 1944 © 2018 National University of Singapore. All Rights Reserved. 32 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DSKerypwUDM
  33. 33. Chaotic Context - 1. Visible Leadership © 2018 National University of Singapore. All Rights Reserved. 33 Gen Norman Cota – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=26-dPApD8mE
  34. 34. Chaotic Context - 1. Visible Leadership © 2018 National University of Singapore. All Rights Reserved. 34 Gen Norman Cota – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=26-dPApD8mE
  35. 35. Chaotic Context - 1. Visible Leadership © 2018 National University of Singapore. All Rights Reserved. 35 "There are only two kinds of people who are staying on this beach: those who are already dead and those that are gonna die. Now get off your butts, you're the fightin' 29th." http://www.strijdbewijs.nl/film/longeng.htm
  36. 36. Chaotic Context - 2. Principles © 2018 National University of Singapore. All Rights Reserved. 36 https://www.mindef.gov.sg/oms/imindef/mindef_web sites/atozlistings/safmc/about_us/logo.html https://www.leadthewayfund.org/
  37. 37. Chaotic Context - 3. Effective Delegation © 2018 National University of Singapore. All Rights Reserved. 37 http://www.eclat-consulting.com/3-empowering-steps-for-effective-delegation/ Share Information Share These: - Objectives and goals - Expected Outcomes Establish Boundaries Establish These: - Delivery time - Dos and DON’Ts Give Autonomy Give These: - Trust - Opportunity to grow
  38. 38. Chaotic Context - 4. Sense-Making © 2018 National University of Singapore. All Rights Reserved. 38 https://www.slideshare.net/BenShneiderman/info-vis-122012v17shneiderman
  39. 39. Chaotic Context - 5. Triage © 2018 National University of Singapore. All Rights Reserved. 39 “Being the worst makes you first” works for A&E departments Does it work for your situation?
  40. 40. Agenda • Simple and Difficult Problems • Cynefin Framework • Complicated Complex • Complex Context • Chaotic Context • Disorder Context • Summary © 2018 National University of Singapore. All Rights Reserved. 40
  41. 41. Disorder © 2018 National University of Singapore. All Rights Reserved. 41 • When you have multiple contexts happening at the same time • Example • What did you think were the contexts that Gen Norman Cota was dealing with before he led the charge up the hill? • Chaotic • Complex
  42. 42. Agenda • Simple and Difficult Problems • Cynefin Framework • Complicated Complex • Complex Context • Chaotic Context • Disorder Context • Summary © 2018 National University of Singapore. All Rights Reserved. 42
  43. 43. Summary © 2018 National University of Singapore. All Rights Reserved. 43 Complex Complicated Chaotic Obvious (Simple) Disorder • Different Problem Contexts • => Different Approaches
  44. 44. For Further Information • Please refer to: • http://www.iss.nus.edu.sg/ • Or email Goh Boon Nam at: • issgbn@nus.edu.sg • ISS courses: • (Solving Difficult Problems) Systems Thinking and Root Cause Analysis - https://www.iss.nus.edu.sg/executive-education/course/detail/nicf--systems- thinking-root-cause-analysis/it-service-management • https://www.iss.nus.edu.sg/executive-education © 2018 National University of Singapore. All Rights Reserved. 44
  45. 45. Thank You © 2018 National University of Singapore. All Rights Reserved. 45

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