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  1. 1. A Typical Chemical Plant
  2. 2. Chemical Process Diagrams (Flow sheets)  Engineering drawings that defines the Chemical Process Steps in proper sequence Pictorially More elaborate diagrammatic representations of Equipments, Sequence of Operations, and Performance of a Plant  Necessary for clarity and to meet the needs of various persons engaged in Design, Cost estimating, Purchasing, Fabrication, Operation, Maintenance and Management  During plant design, for understanding the process requirements  During Operations, forms a basis for comparison of operating performance with design  Can be used by operating personnel for the preparation of operating manuals and training Key documents in understanding Process, during Operation and Maintenance
  3. 3. Types of Chemical Process Diagrams  Block Flow Diagrams (BFDs)  Process Flow Diagrams /Process Flowsheet (PFDs)  Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams (P&IDs)  Utilities Flow Diagrams (UFDs) Block Flow Diagram Complexity Increases Conceptual Understanding Increases
  4. 4. 1. Genesis of P&ID
  5. 5.  BFD represents entire process in a single sheet. Rectangles in Block Flow Diagrams represents unit operations.  Blocks are connected by straight lines representing process flow streams. Process flow streams may be mixtures of liquids, gases and solids flowing in pipes or ducts, or solids being carried on a conveyor belt.  In PFD you can find some detailed information like plant operating conditions, process flow. It is is a type of flowchart that illustrates the relationships between major components at an industrial plant  P&IDs provide detail information when compared to above two drawings. They use standard nomenclature, symbols, and tag numbers to fully describe the process.
  6. 6. Fluid transportation system - Compressor Used to increase the pressure of a gas (compressible fluid) Examples Increase the pressure for instrument air systems (to get control valves to operate), transport gases such as hydrogen, nitrogen, fuel gas, etc. in a chemical plant
  7. 7. Centrifugal compressor
  8. 8. Positive displacement compressor Compressor engineering symbol
  9. 9. Positive displacement compressor Compressor engineering symbol
  10. 10. Positive displacement compressor Compressor engineering symbol
  11. 11. Chemical engineering equipment Pump engineering symbol
  12. 12. Chemical engineering equipment Pump engineering symbol
  13. 13. Introduction to P&ID  Diagram in the process industry which shows the Piping of the process flow together withthe installed Equipment and Instrumentation  Institute of Instrumentation and Control (UK) defines as- “A diagram which shows the interconnection of Piping, Process Equipment and the Instrumentation used to control the process”  In simple words, Schematic representation of all Equipment, Piping and Process Instrumentation Provides the basis for the development of system control schemes, allowing for further safety and operational investigations , such as HAZOP  P&ID is used during most plant activities such as- • Normal operating conditions • Startup & Shutdowns • Regular Maintenance • Emergency Situations “Piping & InstrumentationDiagram”
  14. 14. The Piping & Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID) Sometimes also known as Process & Instrumentation Diagram
  15. 15. Purpose of P&ID  To show –  Material Flow  Piping between various sections  Major pieces of mechanical Equipments  Valves and directions of process flow  Field Mounted instruments  Electrical Equipments  Communication Links  Not to show- Process Information Physical dimensions of equipment Piping Details Control Logic
  16. 16. Standards and Codes used in Instrumentation-  American National Standards Institute (ANSI)- All Products & Services  American Petroleum Institute (API)- Oil & Natural Gas  American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM)- All Products & Services  American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)-Pressure vessels & Pipes  American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE)- Manufacturing Processes  Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN)- Rules and symbols for flow-sheet  International Society of Automation (ISA)- Process control “ Goal of uniformity in the field of Instrumentation ” P&ID Symbology
  17. 17. P&ID Symbol Contents  Equipment Symbology  Equipment Layout  Equipment Identification & Numbering  Nozzles  Miscellaneous  Piping Symbology  Piping Layout  Line Identification  Line Continuation  Piping Components  Utility Piping  Instrument Symbology  Instrument Layout  Instrument Identification  Interconnecting Piping  Instrument Piping  Instrument Control Item Status N E R V F M - New - Existing - Tobe Relocated - Vendor Supplied Packages - Future - Tobe Modified
  18. 18. Equipment Symbology I) Equipment Layout  Relative Shape e.g. Spheres, Tanks, Columns, Pumps  Relative Orientation e.g. Horizontal, Vertical, Sloped  Relative Position Location relative to otherequipment  Relative Size Size relative to otherequipment  Equipment Status e.g. New, Existing, Relocated, Future, Vendor S.
  19. 19. Piping Symbology  Piping is shown schematically, in a logical sequence, not as it is actually piped in the field  Piping specification differentiate between various piping systems e.g. pigging line system, cooling jacket pipeline etc.  The various piping parts are shown according to following category:  Drains  Vents  Flush connections  Steam and Air traps  Reducers  Relief devices  Each pipeline will have a label that gives a unique identifier, size and piping specification code  Piping length and elevation, isometrics, and stress considerations are not shown
  20. 20. Interconnecting Line types Types of Connections:  Main Line(Pipeline)  Process Connections  Pneumatic Signals  Data Links  Capillary Tubing  Hydraulic Signals  Electromagnetic /Sonic Signal
  21. 21. Pipe support and hangers (British Standard)
  22. 22.  Line Continuation In almost all processes in chemical plant, various materials are transferred to different parts of the plant. In such cases, one P&ID sheet is not sufficient to show all piping systems of that material spread in various parts of plant.  We have to continue the pipeline flow in the next sheetsalso  Line continuation symbols Line continuation symbols show piping connections between different P&IDs.  It helps to correlate the connections of some materialsin different processes within the plant.
  23. 23. Miscellaneous Piping Items:  All manual valves  Self-contained regulating valve  Rupture/Safety devices  Drains  Vents  Flush connections  Steam and Air traps  Reducers /Expanders Piping Components
  24. 24. Valves on Piping A valve is a device that regulates, directs or controls the flow of a fluid (gases, liquids, fluidized solids, or slurries) by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways.
  25. 25. Instrument Symbology An instrument is a device that measures a physical quantity such as flow, temperature, level, distance,pressure. Instrumentation is the use of measuring instruments to monitor and control process. As a chemical plant has different processes occurring and we use instruments for the following reasons:  Reduce Variability  Increase Efficiency  Ensure Safety  P&IDs shows all instruments present over the plant in various processes. Every instrument is identified and shown both schematically and symbolically on the P&IDs. Instrument specifications give the particular type, service, range, and manufacturer.
  26. 26. Instrument Identification Item location  No Line  Solid Line  Dash Line  Double Solid Line  Double Dash Line  On Field  In control Room Panel  In control Room Behind panel  On Remote Panel  Behind Remote Panel
  27. 27. 1 4 3 2 Industry to P&ID
  28. 28. Tag Symbols Tag Prefixes Item Location
  29. 29. Instrument Connections  Welded, threaded or flanged in-line  Welded or threaded instrument process tap  Flanged instrument process tap  Welded or threaded thermo well sensoror sample probe  Flanged thermo well sensor or sampleprobe  Non-intrusive instrument element e.g. Temperature, Pressure, Level Instruments
  30. 30. Instrument Control System
  31. 31.  Instruments –Tomeasure and record all process parameters  Transmitters- To produce an output signal often in the formof electrical current signal Computerized controller –To monitor and controlthe parameters at PLC/DCS  PLC/DCS –Tointerpret it to readable values and used to control other devices andprocesses Computer devices play a significant role in both gatheringthe information from the field and changing the field parameters -KEY PARTSOF CONTROL LOOP  These devices are shown by some “CPU I/O Symbols ”. ‘DCS-Distributed Control System Instrument Control System Instruments PLC/DCS Controller Transmitters
  32. 32. Detailed graphical representation of a process including the hardware and software (i.e piping, equipment, and instrumentation) necessary to design, construct and operate the facility. Common synonyms for P&IDs include Engineering Flow Diagram (EFD), Utility Flow Diagram (UFD) and Mechanical Flow Diagram (MFD). The Piping & Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID) Sometimes also known as Process & Instrumentation Diagram
  33. 33. Basic Loop Process Sensing Element Measuring Element Transmit Element Control Element Final Control Element Transmitter
  34. 34. Basic Loop Transmitter Controller Orifice (Flow Sensor) Set point Fluid Fluid
  35. 35. SENSORS (Sensing Element) A device, such as a photoelectric cell, that receives and responds to a signal or stimulus. A sensor is a device that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an instrument. For example, a mercury thermometer converts the measured temperature into expansion and contraction of a liquid which can be read on a calibrated glass tube. For accuracy, all sensors need to be calibrated against known standards.
  36. 36. Temperature Sensor A thermocouple is a junction between two different metals that produces a voltage related to a temperature difference. Thermocouples are a widely used type of temperature sensor. 1. Thermocouple
  37. 37. Flow Sensor Example :-Turbine Meter In a turbine, the basic concept is that a meter is manufactured with a known cross sectional area. A rotor is then istalled inside the meter with its blades axial to the product flow. When the product passes the rotor blades, they impart an angular velocity to the blades and therefore to the rotor. This angular velocity is directly proportional to the total volumetric flow rate. Turbine meters are best suited to large, sustained flows as they are susceptible to start/stop errors as well as errors caused by unsteady flow states.
  38. 38. Flow Sensor Venturi Meter A device for measuring flow of a fluid in terms of the drop in pressure when the fluid flows into the constriction of a Venturi tube. It consists of a venturi tube and one of several forms of flow registering devices.
  39. 39. TRANSMITTER Transmitter is a transducer* that responds to a measurement variable and converts that input into a standardized transmission signal. *Transducer is a device that receives output signal from sensors. Pressure Transmitter Differential Pressure Transmitter Pressure Level Transmitter
  40. 40. CONTROLLER Controller is a device which monitors and affects the operational conditions of a given dynamical system. The operational conditions are typically referred to as output variables of the system which can be affected by adjusting certain input variables Indicating Controller Recording Controller
  41. 41. FINAL CONTROL ELEMENT Final Control Element is a device that directly controls the value of manipulated variable of control loop. Final control element may be control valves, pumps, heaters, etc. Pump Control Valve Heater
  42. 42. Industrial Applications The detailed design approach requires various departments to supply agreat deal of data with other. Listed are various fields that use P&IDs:  Process Engineers  Piping/Mechanical Engineers  Electrical Engineers  Instrumentation Engineers  Structural/Civil Engineers
  43. 43. The Piping & Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID) Sometimes also known as Process & Instrumentation Diagram Exercise  Figure below shows pH adjustment process where pH 6.5 need to be maintained. pH in the tank is controlled by NaOH dosing to the tank. But somehow, the flow of waste (pH 4.5) also need to considered where excess flow of the waste shall make that pH in the tank will decrease. Draw a cascade control loop system. Process variable need to be controlled = pH NaOH Tank pH Adjustment Tank Waste, pH 4.5 pH 6.5
  44. 44. The Piping & Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID) Sometimes also known as Process & Instrumentation Diagram Answer  Figure below shows pH adjustment process where pH 6.5 need to be maintained. pH in the tank is controlled by NaOH dosing to the tank. But somehow, the flow of waste (pH 4.5) also need to considered where excess flow of the waste shall make that pH in the tank will decrease. Draw a cascade control loop system. Process variable need to be controlled = pH pHT FT pHC FC Y NaOH Tank pH Adjustment Tank Waste, pH 4.5 pH 6.5