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Art Therapy


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Art Therapy

  1. 1. Expressions of Grief and Bereavement WendyTuckerGarrean,M.A.,Expressive Therapist Arts LegacyHospiceServices-McMinnville5O3472-9685 LegacyGoodSamaritan Healing Cancer Center 503413-8404 Expressive Therapy oftenreferred as a multi-modal multi-arts Arts is to or therapeutic modality to the utilization manycreative due of means expression of suchas visualarts,movement writing, arts, drama, and music. Various organizations individuals displaying and are deepinterest utilizing in the expressive as a healing arts modality informational for groupand and lens individualtherapeutic support.Thiswidespread interest beenshownby has teachers, socialworkers, occupational therapists, community outreach program leaders, psychologists, medical and personal, namea few. Suchgrowing to interestis an indication the effectiveness creative of of intervention providing in an avenue withwhichindividuals ableto communicate innermostself. are their Junge(1985), Mclntyre (1990), Simon and (1981),report findings that showmanybereaved individualsrespond favorably oftenmore and quicklywith the creative therapies arts thanwithtraditionalverbalinterventions. Using creativeapproaches griefcounseling in encourages expression one's full of thoughts and feelingswhena lovedone dies. Examples creative of approaches are'. " Aft Making: expression art aids in reflection feelings of and experiences shared withthe deceased helpsbringclarity and to one'sunique grieving process. * Useof Symbols Analogr'es: and encourages mourner share the to photos,letters, tapes,articles clothing, significant of and objects belonging the deceased encourages bereaved explore to and the to personalsymbols images healing. and of * Witing:writinglettersto the deceased of helpsthe expression thoughts feelings and regarding possible unresolvedissues between mourner the and the deceased. * Commemoration: pictures, creating bookof stories, a poems, drawings memorabilia, and helpsthe bereaved reminisce and eventually mourn deathwitha morerealistic the imageof the deceased. ritualscan helpeasethe painthroughengaging "HealingRituals: in an outwardexpression memorializing loved-one of the and promoteshealing throughcreating sacredact of expressing a one's experience. Johnson(1987)explains the practice art makingas an aid to the that of healingprocess not a newconcept."Humankind havedeveloped to is may art alf eviateor containfeelings anxietylear,crisis, of , (Johnson1987 p. andthreat" , , 7). Dissanayake (1988) supports opinion, this that stating art making marksthe importance eventssuchas death, of through creation visualimagery. the of
  2. 2. Hatcher p. (1985, 7) offers anthropological of whycreative an view is expression exploredduringtheseprofound points life: in Whatever theoretical the explanation,is clearthatart it somehow helpshuman beingscopewiththe trauma of death. Beauty and art formshavebeenpartof funeral ceremonies sinceNeanderthal times.Thisuniversal human problem meteverywhere symbolic is with solutions satisfy mindand aesthetic to the solutionsto (pp release emotions 106-107). the Simon(1981 p. 7) suggests artistic , that expression the bereaved from representseffortsof workingthrough conflict and usually occursin threestages: stageone-expression the conflict, of allowing greaterconscious awareness the of feelings withinthe stress;stagefwe-the artisticimageenables suffering the expressed stageoneto findcontainment in whileit is converted mourning; to stagethree-bringsresolutionand greatercopingskills. Hill describes benefits groupart therapy the bereaved the the of for in following way. " Hastens GriefProcess Promotes the and Coping Skills-lna supportive environment, resolutionthrough creativeexpressionand in containment art freescreativeenergynecessary dealwith to dailyliving. " Remember Commemorate Deceased-Creativity and the in art therapy also"leadto remembering, experiencing rage can to the and the loss,andto regaining pastin all itswarmth the and its mourning losses of andto getting knowoneself to andothers" (Fleming, p 1983, 7). * Creation Healing of Rituals-According (1987), to Johnson "Art origlnally developed a meansof expression andrelieffrom as of traumaticexperiences. song,drama, Art, and dancein primitive timesweremotivated a needfor catharsis gaining by and control overthreats the community" 8) to (p. * Helpsto Organize Regain and of Sense Containment-Junge (1985) explains the ovenryhelming that feelings thoughts and resulting froma lovedone'sdeathcan be contained within symbolism. container artistic The of symbolism presents senseof a controland organization,whichallowsgreater productivity daily in life and resolution the griefprocess. of * Promotes Exploration Feelings-Artistic of images promote can discussions maynot havebeenacknowledged that previously (lrwin, 1991; 1985). Simon, * FacilitatesCathartic Effectand KinestheticRelease-Cathartic expression through releases art emotions grief, of andthe experience catharsis of allowsthe healingprocess begin(Furth, to 1988; Rubin, 1987',lrwin, 1991;Junge, p 1985; 8).
  3. 3. * Encourages Awareness-"The Self pro@ssof making allowsfor art self-awareness the artworks safeoutlets individuals and are for to expresstheirgriefat theirownrate,withthe emphasis on discovering investigating and relevantpersonalconcerns (Schimmel Kornreich, & p. 1993, 9). * FinalProduct Permanence-Persons and in griefcan lookat finished overtimeand continue gaininsight artwork to fromthe work. Theycan engage withthe images,increasing self understanding a pacethatis appropriate them. at for lmplementing creative therapies substantially arts can increasethe beneflts groupsupport.According Aldridge of to (1993) andMalchiodi(1991) creativetherapiesoffermodalities well-suited the needsof to grieving individuals. Thisis in partdueto the difficulty fullyexpressing through of grief wordsalone. Art therapyoffersa multimodal non-verbalmeanswithwhichto discover new possibilitiescoping in withloss(Grant, 1995;Graves, p 1994, 7). Hospice programs beginning implement are to moreart therapy their into bereavement groupsessions. (1990), Mclntyre reports the goalsof group that art therapyservestwo purposes; provide to of socialsanction the expression for grief,and to promote mourning adaptive responses. and Schimmel Kornreich (1993)suggest, "Thesharing artwork of augments deepens connections and the madeduringnormal verbal communications groups.Theseimportant in interadions between participants, art therapist, the art process and helpthe participant movefromisolation and loneliness connection empowerment; denialto acceptance; loss to and from from and anxiety relief; fromdespair hope"(p 10) of control to and to and Schimmel Kornreich (1993) discuss art therapy an bereavement groupfor thosewidowed lessthanone year. The groupincluded weekly sessions lastingfor the periodof one yearand was looselystructured after Kubler-Ross's (1969) stages griefandacceptance death, five of of andYalom andVinogradov's (1988) bereavement work. "Thegoalsof the groupwereto identify emotional the experiences the groupmembers that couldshare,how members couldhelponeanother, howtheymightgainrelief and fromsadness, continue withtheirlives, andgrowemotionally'' 10). The participants (p. were presented with art therapydirectives,helping facilitate expression their to the of experiences. Results showed the artistic that processbrought the participants to recognition thoughts feelings, an alleviation sorrow 10) of and and of (p
  4. 4. References Aldridge, (1993). D. Hope,meaning the creative therapies the and arts in treatment of group grief. ln M. Hill,Healinggrief throughart: art therapybereavement workshops (p 8) Nowack, (1997). gift:my self. SelfPublished. Chitwood J. My Dissanayake, (1988). E. Whatis art for? In M. Hill,Healinggriefthroughart:art therapy group workshops 7) bereavement (p Doka,K. (1988). therapy Art withincarcerated women the who haveexperienced deathof a lovedone.Art Therapy:Journal theAmerican Therapy of Art Association, (4),192. 21 Ferszt,G. (2000). therapywith incarcerated Art womenwho haveexperienced Journal the American Therapy the deathof a lovedone.Art Therapy: of Art Association, (4),192. 21 Ferszt, Hayes, DeFedele, & Horn, (2004). G., P., S., L. Arttherapywith incarcerated women who haveexperienced deathof a lovedone.Art the TherapyJournal the American Therapy of Art Association, -198. 21(4),191 Fihgerald, The H.(1994). Mourning NewYork, Simon Handbook. NY: and Schuster. Fleming, (1983). M. Earlyobject lossand its relation creativity expressed to as through group art therapy.In M. Hlll, Healinggrief throughart: aft therapybereavement (p. workshops 7) G.M.(1988). Furth, The Secret through Boston, Healing Worldof Drawings: Art. MA: SigoPress. Grant, (1995). A. The Healing Journey: Manual a GriefSupport for Group. M. In Hrll,Healing gief throughart: aft therapybereavement group workshops(p. 7). Graves, (1994). S. Healing. Expressionsof InM. Hill,Healinggrief throughart: groupworkshops 7) art therapybereavement (p Hatcher, (1985). as Culture. M. Hill,Healing E. Art In griefthroughart: art therapy bereavement groupworkshops 7) www.drawntogether.@m. (p. Hays,R. E. & Lyons, J. (1981). therapy S. Art women withincarcerated who Journal the haveexperienced the deathof a lovedone.Art Therapy: of American Therapy Art Association, 21(4),193
  5. 5. Helsing, J., & Szklo, (1981). K. M. afterbereavement. M. Hill,Healing Mortality In griefthroughart: art therapybereavement groupworkshops 2) (p www. drawntogether. com. griefthrough art therapy Hill,M. A. (nd). Healing art: group bereavement workshops. lrwin,H.J.(1991). depiction loss:Useof clients The of drawings bereavement in counseling In M. Htll,Healing group grief throughart: art therapybereavement (p workshops 8) Johnson,D.R.(1987) arts in and The roleof the creative therapies the diagnosis treatment trauma.In M. Hill,Healing of griefthrough art therapy art: bereavement groupworkshops 8) (p Junge,M. (1985) The bookaboutDaddy . dying: preventive therapy A art technique helpfamilies to dealwiththe deathof a familymember. M. Hill, In Healinggrief throughaft: art therapybereavement groupworkshops 8) (p. www. Kubler-Ross, (1969), deathanddying. E. On NewYork, MacMillan. NY: M. (1991). Leick, & Davidsen-Nielsen, N. Healing Attachment, and Pain: Loss In GriefTherapy. M. Hill,Healinggriefthrough art therapybereavement aft: groupworkshops 1) (p Liebmann, (1994). therapy M. Art withincarcerated women who have experienced deathof a lovedone.Art Therapy: the of Art Journal the American Therapy Association,2l(4), 9. Malchiodi, griefthrough art C.A.(1991)Art and loss.In M. Hill,Healing art. therapybereavementgroupworkshops 2) (p McCallum, Piper, M., !V.E.,& Morin,H. (1993).Affectandoutcome short-term in grouptherapy loss.In M. Hill,Healing for griefthrough art therapy art: bereavement groupworkshops 1) (p McCourt, (1994). therapy E. Art with incarcerated womenwho haveexperienced the deathof a lovedone.Journal the American Therapy of Art Association. 21(4),41-43. Mclntyre,B.B.(1990). art therapy An groupfor bereaved youthin hospice care. ln M. Hill, Healinggrief throughart. art therapybereavementgroup workshops (p 9) Parkes,C.M.(1986). Bereavement: Studies Griefin AdultLife.In M. Hill, of Healinggrief throughart. art therapybereavementgroup workshops 6) (p www.
  6. 6. Schimmel, F. & Kornreich,.2. ( 1993).Theuseof art and verbal B. T process with recently widowed griefthrough art therapy individuals. M. Hill,Healing In art: bereavement groupworkshops 9) (p Simon, (1981). R. griefthrough art Bereavement In M. Hill,Healing Art. art: therapy groupworkshops 7) bereavement (p Souter, & Moore, S.J T.E.(1989). bereavement A program survivors support for of cancerdeaths. description evaluation. M. Hill,Healing A and In griefthrough art: art therapybereavementgroupworkshops 1) (p Thompson, (2003).The expressive andthe experience loss. The B. arts of Forum. 29(2),1. Windholz,M.J.,Marmar,C.R., Horowitz, (1985). review the research & M.J. A of on conjugalbereavement: lmpact health on andefficacy intervention. M. Hill, of In Healinggriefthroughart: art therapybereavement (p groupworkshops 1). Weiss,R. S. (1988). griefthrough art Lossand recovery. M. Hill,Healing In art: therapybereavement groupworkshops 3) (p Worden,J.W.(1991) GriefCounseling Grief and Therapy: Handbook the A for Mental HealthPractitioner,2nd griefthrough art therapy Edtion. M. Hill,Healing In art: bereavementgroupworkshops 3). (p Yalom,l. & Vinogradov, (1988). S. Bereavement Groups:Techniques Themes. & fn M. Hill, Healinggrief throughart: art therapybereavement group workshops (p. 10)