The years of 1865-1895 1850’s- 1866 1859 1900Bessemer Process- Social Darwism- Buffalo Soldiers-Developed Published in 1859, Were members ofindependantly by the book was on the the U.S. 10th CalvaryBritish manufacturer evolution of of regiment of the U.S.Henry Bessemer and humans in society. army. Formed onAmerican iron maker Grew from Charles sept. 12, 1866 inWilliam Kelly around Darwins theory. Kansas. Nickname1850. This process Led to the idea that was given to negroeventually made 90% of business success Calvary by thethe nations steel. Was and failure is by native Americans.later replaced by the natural law.open hearth process.
1864 1866 1860’s+Mug Wumps- Samuel Gompers- Socialism-Republican party led the cigar makers economicactivist who bolted international union government systemfrom the U.S to join with other in which therepublican party by craft unions. Was government controlssupporting president of the AFL everything, from jobdemocratic worked for better profession to livingcandidate Grover labor conditions quarters and evenCleveland in the such as hours and wages.election of 1864. pay. Were successful in later years.
1862-1890 1862-1890 1876 Great Plains- GrasslandHomestead Act- Exodusters- African extending through the west-Congress passed this Americans who central portion of the Unitedact which offered 160 moved from the post- States. Highly developedacres of land for free reconstruction Southto any free citizen or Native Americans lived in to Kansas, took these western plains.intended citizen who advantage of the Natives use to use this landwas head of the Homestead Act. to hunt buffalo and tradehousehold. Over goods made from the land.600,000 families tookadvantage of thisoffer. Many wereexodusters.
Nov. 29, 1850-1871 1868-1881 1864 Sitting Bull-(Tatanke Lyotanka)Sand Creek Massacre- Transcontinental Railroad- Leader of the Sioux, Never signedCheynne returned to Government invested heavily in the Treaty of Fort Laramie (saidColorado’s Sand Creek Railroads, 170 million acres, half the Sioux would live on areserve for the winter. a billion dollars. In the 1860’s 2 reservation along the MissouriThey thought the U.S companies began racing to race river) The Treaty was eventuallyGovernment was still track, one from the east and one forced upon the leaders in 1868.protecting them. from the west. Both companies Other tribes signed the Treaty butGeneral S.R Curtis, Army reached Utah in the spring of still expected to use theirCommander ordered 1869. 15 years later the country traditional hunting grounds.John Chivington to attack had boasted 5 transcontinental Sitting Bull defeated Generalthe Natives. Killed over railroads. Custer at thh Battle of Little Big150 inhabitants, mainly Horn. In 1881 he was killed bywomen and children. police after resisting arrest.
1870’s 1870’s 1870’sGraft- The illegal Kickback- Illegal Political Machines-use of political payments for their Organization thatinfluence for services from the controlled thepersonal gain. companies. The activities of aPolitical persons workers/companies political party in abegan to scam would “kickback” city. Also offeredcompanies harshly. these portions of services to the income. voters, and businesses in exchange for political or financial support. Political Machines began during the Civil War.
1870’s 1870’s 1870’s+Monopoly- Complete John D. Rockefeller- Trusts- People in acontrol over and became a billionaire trust agreementindustry’s production, through trust turned their stockwages, and prices. agreements. He over to people in aThe steel and oil eventually gained group of trusties-company’s at this complete control of people who rantime were the oil industry. He separate companiesmonopolys. gained this control by as one large selling oil for less cooperation. In than it cost to return the companies produce, then when were entitled to divide he gained complete the profits earned by control he raised the trusts. Trusts were prices super high. not legal mergers.
1874-1876 1874 1870’sGeorge Armstrong Battle of Little Big Longhorns- wereCuster- Colonel, in Horn- This is where sturdy, short1874 he reported General Custer was tempered breedsthe Black Hills had defeated by Sitting accustomed to thegold “from the grass Bull. Battle only dry grasslands ofroots down.” He lasted an hour, none Southern Spain.was defeated early of Custer’s men They were raised byin June, 1876 at survived. The Spanish for food andLittle Big Horn River Natives knew Custer later Americansby many Native was coming so they raised them for food.Tribes including prepared, that’s why This was theSitting Bull. they were victorious. beginning of cowboys and the first masses of food.
1870’s 1862- 1880’s 1890’s+Long Drives- Overland Homesteader- Soddy- A sodtransport that lasted Settlers on the free home, often madeabout 3 months. Typical land given to them freestanding housesdrive consisted of 1 by the Homestead by stacking blocks ofcowboy for every 250- Act. Only about prairie turf. Were300 cattle, A cook who 10% of the land was warm in the winterdrove the chuck wagon actually settled by and cold in theand set up camp, and a families in need, summer. Offeredwrangler who cared for most of is was used little light or air andextra horses, also a trail for business. were heaven toboss who earned over snakes and little$100 negotiating with insects. Weresettlers and Natives. fireproof but leaked badly when it rained.
1867- 1870’s 1886 1870’sOliver Kelly- Started Grange- National Farmers Alliance-the patrons of Organization of Organized by R.M.Husbandry. An farmers started by Humphrey in 1886, inorganization for Oliver Kelly. Original Houston Texas. Membersfarmers that became purpose was to be a in the colored alliance had topopularly known as social outlet and work separately from thisthe grange. provide an alliance to avoid violence. educational forum Some accepted blacks, for isolated farm many did not. Group families. They later worked mainly against the spent most of their Railroads because of the time fighting against high prices for transport. the Southern Railroads.
1880’s- 1876 1876 1890’sThomas Edison- A Alexander Ghram Andrew Carnegie-pioneer who Bell- Revealed the He created theestablished the telephone to the Carnegie’s steelworlds first research world. Him and his industry whichlaboratory in Menlo parter finally made produced more steelpark, New Jersey. communication than any BritishThere he perfected across the nation company. He gainedthe incandescent light almost instant. control of the steelbulb, and later a industry by verticalpower plant that integration. 1901 heproduced and controlled almost thedistributed power. entire industry.
1879 1880 1880’s+Dumbbell Jacob Rii’s- Urbanization-Tenements- Also Described the growth of cities,called the old law conditions of the mostly in regions oftenements called sweaters working n the Northeast anddumbbell tenements the tenements. Mid-west. Thisafter the slope of a There were no lunch growth was mainlydumbbell. The or dinner breaks, the caused by thenarrow wasted slope workers ate while overflow ofof a dumbbell. Built they worked, the immigrants enteringin N.Y after the days were extremly the country.tenement act of long, 10-12 hours.1879, before the N.Ystate tenement.
1881 1892 1895Booker T. Ida B. Wells- W.E.D. Du BoisWashington- Became an editor of -First AfricanAfrican American a paper in Memphis. American to receiveeducator , believed Three of her friends a doctorate fromthat racism would were killed, she Harvard. Foundedend when blacks believes they were the Niagaracould prove to be killed because they movement, whichskilled workers and were black and insisted that blacksskilled in society. wealthy. should seek aWas born a slave, Liberal artslater became the education so thathead of the state of African AmericansAlabama. can become well educated leaders and supported civil rights for blacks.
1880’s 1881 1888Fredrick Law Booker T. George Eastman-Olmsted- Washington- Invented the firstLandscape architect, African American portable camera’s helped draw upon a educator that that anyone couldplan for believed racism buy and use. He“greensward” which would end once released his firstwas selected to blacks acquired Kodiak camera inbecome central useful labor skills 1888, cost 25$ andpark, in N.Y. city. and proved their had 100 picturesHe later designed economic value to worth of film.many other area’s of society. Was laterSt. Louis and head of theBoston. University of Alabama.
1890 1890 1890Sherman Anti-Trust Vaudeville- Theatre Collectiveact- Made it illegal where many Black Bargaining-to for trusts that performers Negotiation betweeninferred with free entertained representatives oftrade between states audiences here. labor andor with countries. Shows initially management, toThis law was poorly enforced racism, but reach writtendefined and poorly later became normal agreements onenforced. theatres. wages, hours, and working conditions.
1890’s 1890 1890’sSettlement House- Jane Adams- One Urbanization-Community centers of the most Growth of cities,in slum influential members mostly in regions ofneighborhoods that of the improvement the northeast andprovided assistance of settlement Midwest. Thisto people in the houses. Founded growth was mainlyarea, especially the Locust caused by the hugeimmigrants. settlement house in flow of immigrantsSettlement workers Hampton, Virginia. into the country.lived in the houses Was the firstto understand the settlement forproblems first hand. blacks.
1892 1890’s 1890’s+Scab- Ellis Island- Place in Melting Pot- MixtureStrikebreakers, used N.Y where of people of differentto help keep immigrants had to cultures and racescompanies operating go to gain who blended togtherwithout strikes citizenship. 20% of by abandoning theirruining companies immigrants were native languagesprofits. held for more than a and cultures. Many day, only 2% of refused to give up these people were their cultures. As sent home. more immigrants entered the country, the hatred for them increased.
1850’s- 1866 1859 1900Bessemer Process- Social Darwism- Buffalo Soldiers-Developed Published in 1859, Were members ofindependently by the book was on the the U.S. 10th CalvaryBritish manufacturer evolution of of regiment of the U.S.Henry Bessemer and humans in society. army. Formed onAmerican iron maker Grew from Charles sept. 12, 1866 inWilliam Kelly around Darwins theory. Kansas. Nickname1850. This process Led to the idea that was given to negroeventually made 90% of business success Calvary by thethe nations steel. Was and failure is by native Americans.later replaced by the natural law.open hearth process.
1896 1896 1896William McKinley- William Jennings Bryan- Cross of GoldRepublican party stated Former Nebraska Speech- Speechthe gold standard and congressmen, editior of the delivered by Williamnominated McKinley for Omaha World Heralds. Jennings. Said thatpresident. Had millions of Delivered the cross of gold men would not befunds backing him unlike speech at the Democratic crucified by gold.his opponent. Spoke on convention. He won the He rejected makinghis front porch while other Democratic nomination, gold our moneyspread his word. Got 7 populist liked him but not standard.million votes to 6.5 million. his V.P.. His funds and The East and Middle support was no match forwest carried him to McKinley.victory.
1900 1900 1909Patronage- The Civil Service- Orville and Wilburgiving of gov. jobs to Government Wright- Werepeople who helped a administration. bicyclescandidate get Reformers began to manufacturers fromelected, known as press for the Ohio. Experimentedthe spoil system. elimination of with new engines patronage. Believed strong enough to government jobs carry objects should go to through the air. qualified people. They first built a glider, then a biplane. Their first successful flight was in Kitty Hawk N.C.
1870’s 1877 1870’sLiteracy test- used Grandfather Clause- Segregation-in the south mainly Used by southern separation of Blackstowards African states, stated that and whites in publicAmericans to restrict even if a man failed and private facilities.their voting rights. the literacy test or Later known as theBlacks were asked could not afford the Jim Crow Lawsmore difficult poll tax, he was still named after aquestions that entitled to vote if his famous song at thewhites. father or grandfather time. Southern had been eligible to states enforced vote before January these laws strongly. 1, 1867.
All images are from the Library of Congress.