Audience profiling lecture bolaji okusaga

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Audience profiling lecture bolaji okusaga

  1. 1. Lifestyle and Audience Profiling:Lifestyle and Audience Profiling: Its Effect onIts Effect on Communication ManagementCommunication Management ByBy Bolaji OkusagaBolaji Okusaga
  2. 2. OutlineOutline PART 1: Profiles andPART 1: Profiles and PerspectivesPerspectives  Introduction: Why ProfileIntroduction: Why Profile  Case study – The Flipside ofCase study – The Flipside of ProfilingProfiling  Perspective=Profile?Perspective=Profile? PART 2: The Media in thePART 2: The Media in the New AgeNew Age  The Media – What Does itThe Media – What Does it Really Mean?Really Mean?  Evolution of the Mass MediaEvolution of the Mass Media  The Media in the New AgeThe Media in the New Age PART 3: Lifestyle andPART 3: Lifestyle and MediaMedia SegmentationSegmentation  Lifestyle: A definitionLifestyle: A definition  Lifestyle and PsychologyLifestyle and Psychology  Lifestyle and MediaLifestyle and Media SegmentationSegmentation PART 4: Audience ProfilingPART 4: Audience Profiling in Practicein Practice  Audience Profiling: A DefinitionAudience Profiling: A Definition  Demographic ClassificationsDemographic Classifications  Audience Profiling in PracticeAudience Profiling in Practice PART 5: The Audience asPART 5: The Audience as InfluencerInfluencer  Origin of the AudienceOrigin of the Audience  The Audience in the New AgeThe Audience in the New Age  Implications forImplications for Communications ManagementCommunications Management
  3. 3. Part OnePart One Profiles and PerspectivesProfiles and Perspectives
  4. 4. Introduction – Why Profile?Introduction – Why Profile?  In an age of increased customization of messages onIn an age of increased customization of messages on different platforms from the face to face encounter, thedifferent platforms from the face to face encounter, the print and electronic medium to the on-line medium; thereprint and electronic medium to the on-line medium; there is a need for profiling.is a need for profiling.  Because there is really no such thing as massBecause there is really no such thing as mass communication in the real sense of the word, messages arecommunication in the real sense of the word, messages are customised based on a defined or intuitive profile of thecustomised based on a defined or intuitive profile of the audience.audience.  This is because, you can only hope to tap into the interestThis is because, you can only hope to tap into the interest of your audience when you are able to connect with his/herof your audience when you are able to connect with his/her circumference of experience.circumference of experience.  A fruitful and productive communication can only be said toA fruitful and productive communication can only be said to have happened when the sender and receiver of a messagehave happened when the sender and receiver of a message are on the same page.are on the same page.
  5. 5. The Flipside of Profiling:The Flipside of Profiling: A Case StudyA Case Study Copy right – Jennifer Daw Holloway of The Monitor, USA ““The Sniper”The Sniper”
  6. 6. Page onePage one  Last October caught the Washington, D.C., areaLast October caught the Washington, D.C., area in a state of anxiety, as a sadistic sniper roamedin a state of anxiety, as a sadistic sniper roamed the metropolitan area picking off victims for nothe metropolitan area picking off victims for no apparent reason and with no obvious motive.apparent reason and with no obvious motive. Police held daily news conferences--some toPolice held daily news conferences--some to convey eyewitness information about vehiclesconvey eyewitness information about vehicles spotted at various shooting scenes and some tospotted at various shooting scenes and some to communicate with the sniper. A variety ofcommunicate with the sniper. A variety of experts, from former law enforcement officials toexperts, from former law enforcement officials to mental health professionals, told the news mediamental health professionals, told the news media the killer was likely a white man, based onthe killer was likely a white man, based on knowledge of past serial killers. The public wasknowledge of past serial killers. The public was warned to be on the lookout for a white van.warned to be on the lookout for a white van. Copy right – Jennifer Daw Holloway of The Monitor, USA
  7. 7. Page TwoPage Two  And the unknown criminal--or criminals--wasAnd the unknown criminal--or criminals--was arguably watching the media circus--andarguably watching the media circus--and maybe even taking cues from the coverage.maybe even taking cues from the coverage. When the news media reported that theWhen the news media reported that the weekday-only shootings might be a clue to theweekday-only shootings might be a clue to the sniper's lifestyle, the sniper struck on asniper's lifestyle, the sniper struck on a Saturday. When "expert profilers" insinuatedSaturday. When "expert profilers" insinuated that the sniper was "playing God," the sniperthat the sniper was "playing God," the sniper left a tarot card that read, in part, "I am God,"left a tarot card that read, in part, "I am God," for police at one shooting scene. And perhapsfor police at one shooting scene. And perhaps most horrifying, when a local official said thatmost horrifying, when a local official said that children would be safe inside "locked down"children would be safe inside "locked down" schools, the sniper shot a student at a Marylandschools, the sniper shot a student at a Maryland school.school. Copy right – Jennifer Daw Holloway of The Monitor, USA
  8. 8. Page 3Page 3  On Oct. 24, the alleged snipers, John Lee Malvo andOn Oct. 24, the alleged snipers, John Lee Malvo and John Allen Mohammed, were arrested and chargedJohn Allen Mohammed, were arrested and charged with the shootings that left 13 dead and fivewith the shootings that left 13 dead and five wounded. Contrary to several "expert" profiles andwounded. Contrary to several "expert" profiles and eyewitness information, Malvo and Mohammed areeyewitness information, Malvo and Mohammed are African American and were driving a blue sedan. TheAfrican American and were driving a blue sedan. The Washington community let out a collective sigh ofWashington community let out a collective sigh of relief, as documented by the media, which coveredrelief, as documented by the media, which covered the story night and day. But did the media coveragethe story night and day. But did the media coverage help or hurt the case? While many of the so-calledhelp or hurt the case? While many of the so-called experts interviewed were former law enforcementexperts interviewed were former law enforcement officials, some were identified as psychologists,officials, some were identified as psychologists, psychiatrists or psychological profilers. Of particularpsychiatrists or psychological profilers. Of particular interest to psychology, how did forensic psychologistsinterest to psychology, how did forensic psychologists respond to media requests for expert opinions andrespond to media requests for expert opinions and profiles of the killers? How should they have? Andprofiles of the killers? How should they have? And what did the entire episode do to the public'swhat did the entire episode do to the public's confidence in profiling?confidence in profiling? Copy right – Jennifer Daw Holloway of The Monitor, USA
  9. 9. Perspective = Profile?Perspective = Profile?  Are you really a product of your age, gender,Are you really a product of your age, gender, status and environment?status and environment?  Does your background affect the kind of clothesDoes your background affect the kind of clothes you wear, the music you listen to, the televisionyou wear, the music you listen to, the television programmes you watch, the people you mix withprogrammes you watch, the people you mix with and the brands you consume?and the brands you consume?  Do Birds of the same feather really flockDo Birds of the same feather really flock together?together?  Do you have a perspective?Do you have a perspective?
  10. 10. Part TwoPart Two The Media in the New AgeThe Media in the New Age
  11. 11. The Media – What Does it Really Mean?The Media – What Does it Really Mean?  There is little doubt that the media is an all-pervasive and key part ofThere is little doubt that the media is an all-pervasive and key part of modern society and communications.modern society and communications.  However, the question remains: what really constitutes the media andHowever, the question remains: what really constitutes the media and how does it operate in the New Age.how does it operate in the New Age.  From a communication perspective, a channel is a physical means ofFrom a communication perspective, a channel is a physical means of transmitting a signal and this include radio wave, light and soundtransmitting a signal and this include radio wave, light and sound waves and telephone cables.waves and telephone cables.  A medium on the other hand consists of the technology or theA medium on the other hand consists of the technology or the physical platform by which content or message is changed into aphysical platform by which content or message is changed into a signal that can be sent along the channel.signal that can be sent along the channel.  From the above definition, a television, radio and a personal computerFrom the above definition, a television, radio and a personal computer can be said to be a medium; this is because these platforms cannotcan be said to be a medium; this is because these platforms cannot transmit messages without the use of a channel.transmit messages without the use of a channel.  For example, the telephone is a medium, while the telephone cable isFor example, the telephone is a medium, while the telephone cable is a channel, the radio is a medium while the radio wave is a channel.a channel, the radio is a medium while the radio wave is a channel.  Another intriguing aspect of technology is that one medium may carryAnother intriguing aspect of technology is that one medium may carry to receivers messages originally sent in another medium e.g.to receivers messages originally sent in another medium e.g. watching movies on the personal computer instead of television. Thewatching movies on the personal computer instead of television. The television also becomes a second medium when it shows a filmtelevision also becomes a second medium when it shows a film originally meant for the cinema.originally meant for the cinema.
  12. 12. Evolution of the Mass MediaEvolution of the Mass Media  Traditionally, mass media is the term used to denote, as a class, thatTraditionally, mass media is the term used to denote, as a class, that section of the media specifically conceived and designed to reach asection of the media specifically conceived and designed to reach a very large audience (typically at least as large as the wholevery large audience (typically at least as large as the whole population of a nation state). It was coined in the 1920s with thepopulation of a nation state). It was coined in the 1920s with the advent of nationwide radio networks and of mass-circulationadvent of nationwide radio networks and of mass-circulation newspapers and magazines.newspapers and magazines.  Traditional forms of mass communication: Newspapers, magazines,Traditional forms of mass communication: Newspapers, magazines, direct mail, billboards, bus signs, radio and television.direct mail, billboards, bus signs, radio and television.  The internet is one important media that has changed the concept ofThe internet is one important media that has changed the concept of the mass-media.the mass-media.  Before the internet, the recognised advertising media wereBefore the internet, the recognised advertising media were newspapers, magazines, billboards, radio and television. Digitalnewspapers, magazines, billboards, radio and television. Digital interactive advertising media started with the Internet, accessed at aninteractive advertising media started with the Internet, accessed at an indoor computer, but is quickly spreading to television, cellularindoor computer, but is quickly spreading to television, cellular devices and outdoor locations.devices and outdoor locations.  In search of better advert attraction, what is today considered asIn search of better advert attraction, what is today considered as mass-media outlets began to specialize in a core area targetingmass-media outlets began to specialize in a core area targeting audiences with specific interests and lifestyles in order to capture thataudiences with specific interests and lifestyles in order to capture that explicit market.explicit market.  Today, areas of specialized coverage include News, Sports, Music,Today, areas of specialized coverage include News, Sports, Music, Fashion, Movies etc.Fashion, Movies etc.
  13. 13. The Media in the New Age:The Media in the New Age: From the Printed Page to the Computer ScreenFrom the Printed Page to the Computer Screen  As technology continues to unveil newer ways ofAs technology continues to unveil newer ways of communicating, the concept of what should constitute acommunicating, the concept of what should constitute a medium is simultaneously affected.medium is simultaneously affected.  Away from the traditional media platforms such as theAway from the traditional media platforms such as the Telephone, the Radio, the Television, the Cinema andTelephone, the Radio, the Television, the Cinema and the Print media, today, the internet is extending thethe Print media, today, the internet is extending the bounds of communication and is pungently redefiningbounds of communication and is pungently redefining lifestyles.lifestyles.  Today we speak of such things as blogs and socialToday we speak of such things as blogs and social networking on the internet as a veritable media on whichnetworking on the internet as a veritable media on which advertisers are spending billions, little wonder then thatadvertisers are spending billions, little wonder then that the advertising done on You-tube, E-bay, Goggle andthe advertising done on You-tube, E-bay, Goggle and Yahoo are more than traditional media such as BBC,Yahoo are more than traditional media such as BBC, NBE, CNN, New York Times, Chicago Tribune, TheNBE, CNN, New York Times, Chicago Tribune, The Herald, in terms of the actual dollar expended.Herald, in terms of the actual dollar expended.
  14. 14. Part ThreePart Three Lifestyle and MediaLifestyle and Media SegmentationSegmentation
  15. 15. Lifestyle: A DefinitionLifestyle: A Definition  Lifestyle is basically a person's pattern of living as expressed inLifestyle is basically a person's pattern of living as expressed in his or her activities, interests, and opinions or way of life.his or her activities, interests, and opinions or way of life.  It is a manner of living which reflects the attitude and values ofIt is a manner of living which reflects the attitude and values of a person or group.a person or group.  It is a way of living based on identifiable patterns of behaviourIt is a way of living based on identifiable patterns of behaviour based on an individual’s choice, influenced by the individual’sbased on an individual’s choice, influenced by the individual’s personal characteristics, their social interactions, andpersonal characteristics, their social interactions, and socioeconomic and environmental factors.socioeconomic and environmental factors.  It is a way of living encompassing material surroundings,It is a way of living encompassing material surroundings, attitudes, behaviour, etc.attitudes, behaviour, etc.  Simply put, it is an individual’s or a group’s expression of lifeSimply put, it is an individual’s or a group’s expression of life  Lifestyle usually define the human personae and serves as aLifestyle usually define the human personae and serves as a platform for identification, differentiation and distinction.platform for identification, differentiation and distinction.  From the above definitions, it is clear that lifestyle is central toFrom the above definitions, it is clear that lifestyle is central to the understanding of the interests as well as consumptionthe understanding of the interests as well as consumption patterns of a given individual or group as opposed to another.patterns of a given individual or group as opposed to another.
  16. 16. Lifestyle and PsychologyLifestyle and Psychology  Psychology is basically the study of the mind and how it affectsPsychology is basically the study of the mind and how it affects behaviour.behaviour.  For example, how do children between the ages of 4 to 10 react whenFor example, how do children between the ages of 4 to 10 react when you tune to network away from Mickey-mouse or Tom and Jerryyou tune to network away from Mickey-mouse or Tom and Jerry Cartoon which they were previously watching? How does a middleCartoon which they were previously watching? How does a middle aged man in executive position react when he is denied reading theaged man in executive position react when he is denied reading the Stock-market report or the op-ed column in the paper all because hisStock-market report or the op-ed column in the paper all because his wife wants to read the fashion and beauty tips column of the samewife wants to read the fashion and beauty tips column of the same paper?paper?  From the above examples, it is clear that based on sex, age, socialFrom the above examples, it is clear that based on sex, age, social status and other factors, people generally have preferences whichstatus and other factors, people generally have preferences which lifestyle alone cannot explain.lifestyle alone cannot explain.  Profilers generally use lifestyle and social psychology as the basis forProfilers generally use lifestyle and social psychology as the basis for understanding human beings and what feeds their media appetite.understanding human beings and what feeds their media appetite.  This is because human beings and the dynamics of their interaction inThis is because human beings and the dynamics of their interaction in society is complex, explaining the motivations and reactions of peoplesociety is complex, explaining the motivations and reactions of people to certain messages as opposed to the other requires a complexto certain messages as opposed to the other requires a complex process which vary from lifestyle studies to social psychology.process which vary from lifestyle studies to social psychology.  In profiling therefore, profilers aside from studying trends and socialIn profiling therefore, profilers aside from studying trends and social patterns, also use psychology.patterns, also use psychology.
  17. 17. Lifestyle and Media SegmentationLifestyle and Media Segmentation  In deciding which programmes or messages to broadcast and at which particular times on which particular platform, there is a consideration for the average lifestyle of the target audience as the foundation on which such decisions are made.  This is borne out of the need to note the uniqueness of audiences in terms of age, background, economic status, interests and orientation.  The process of sifting and choosing in order to best suit different audience types is basically referred to as Segmentation.
  18. 18. Part FourPart Four Audience Profiling in PracticeAudience Profiling in Practice
  19. 19. Audience Profiling – A DefinitionAudience Profiling – A Definition  Audience Profile is a description of theAudience Profile is a description of the demographic composition of an audience, usuallydemographic composition of an audience, usually in percentage distribution terms.in percentage distribution terms.  Traditionally It is driven towards a more preciseTraditionally It is driven towards a more precise programming concept, timing and moreprogramming concept, timing and more importantly advertising consideration for theimportantly advertising consideration for the audio and visual media, while it is driven towardsaudio and visual media, while it is driven towards space, language, issues and advertisingspace, language, issues and advertising consideration for the print medium.consideration for the print medium.  For the internet medium, content, web-traffic andFor the internet medium, content, web-traffic and advert consideration are important.advert consideration are important.
  20. 20. Demographic ClassificationsDemographic Classifications state pensioners or widows (no other earner), casual or lowest grade workers those at lowest level of subsistenceE semi and unskilled manual workersworking classD skilled manual workersskilled working classC2 supervisory or clerical, junior managerial, administrative or professional lower middle classC1 intermediate managerial, administrative or professional middle classB higher managerial, administrative or professional upper middle classA occupationsocial status social grade Source: National Readership Survey, United Kingdom, January-December 2005 •Because media targets are as different as there are media issues and programmes, there is a pungent need for Demographic Classifications. •There are however different types of classifications based on diverse yard-sticks. •Some classifications however stress economic status while others stress individual needs.
  21. 21. Demographic ClassificationsDemographic Classifications detached and resentful, embittered and apathetic, tending to live in the 'ever-present now' disconnected averse to risk, guided by traditional behaviours and values, quiet and reserved, hanging back and blending in with the crowd traditionalists wanting to be 'normal', so follow the herd, accepting of their circumstances, they are contented and comfortable in the security of their own making contented conformers attaching importance to image and status, as a means of enabling acceptance by their peer group, at the same time holding onto traditional values strivers acquisitive and materialistic, aspiring to what they see are symbols of success, including things and experiences esteem seekers self-confident risk-takers, seeking new and different things, setting their own targets to achieve innovators focused on people and relationships, individualistic and creative, enthusiastically exploring change, 'in a framework of non- prescriptive consideration for others' self actualisers Characteristics  social value group Source: ACORN United Kingdom 2005 This classification is modeled after Abraham Maslow’s HierarchyHierarchy of Needsof Needs
  22. 22. Audience Profiling in PracticeAudience Profiling in Practice •Senior executives, affluent investors, tech influencers and small business owners comprise CNNMoney.com's audience of more than 8 million average monthly unique users. •Drawn to CNNMoney.com's insightful and comprehensive business and finance content, these business leaders and savvy investors are among the most sought-after-and difficult-to-reach decision makers in the world. Unique Users 8.2 MM Median Age 46 Household Income $100K + 37% Time Spent (minutes per month) 17 Sources: Nielsen Netratings, (1/06– 12/06) Nielsen@Plan, Winter 2007 Source: CNNMoney.com
  23. 23. Part FivePart Five The Audience as InfluencerThe Audience as Influencer
  24. 24. Origin of the AudienceOrigin of the Audience  The origin of today's media audience is in publicThe origin of today's media audience is in public ritualistic and theatrical performances of theritualistic and theatrical performances of the ancient times.ancient times.  The earliest notion of the audience is in aThe earliest notion of the audience is in a gathering of people in a physical space watchinggathering of people in a physical space watching a musical, game or magical performance as in thea musical, game or magical performance as in the case of the Greek or Roman Theatre.case of the Greek or Roman Theatre.  The Greco-roman audience has a lot of similarityThe Greco-roman audience has a lot of similarity with today’s audience and these include:with today’s audience and these include: • Planning and Organisation of viewing and listeningPlanning and Organisation of viewing and listening • Events with a popular and public characterEvents with a popular and public character • Voluntary individual acts of choice and attentionVoluntary individual acts of choice and attention • Specialization of roles of author, performer andSpecialization of roles of author, performer and spectatorspectator • Physical located-ness of performance and spectatorsPhysical located-ness of performance and spectators experienceexperience
  25. 25. The Audience in the New AgeThe Audience in the New Age  The word “audience” in the simple sequential model of theThe word “audience” in the simple sequential model of the mass communication process (source, channel, message,mass communication process (source, channel, message, receiver, effect), refers to the receiver(s) of Mass Mediareceiver, effect), refers to the receiver(s) of Mass Media messages.messages.  With the proliferation of media platforms in the wake ofWith the proliferation of media platforms in the wake of technology innovations, this simple term “audience“ is nowtechnology innovations, this simple term “audience“ is now being used to describe an increasingly diverse and complexbeing used to describe an increasingly diverse and complex reality.reality.  In the new age, the term audience for most mass media isIn the new age, the term audience for most mass media is not usually observable except fragmentarily and in indirectnot usually observable except fragmentarily and in indirect ways.ways.  Given the different meanings of the term however, theGiven the different meanings of the term however, the audience still remains, within the purview of massaudience still remains, within the purview of mass communication, a subject of the social context andcommunication, a subject of the social context and continues linger as the core purpose for all marketing andcontinues linger as the core purpose for all marketing and communications activities.communications activities.
  26. 26. Implications for CommunicationsImplications for Communications ManagementManagement  The audience currently holds the key to how the Mass MediaThe audience currently holds the key to how the Mass Media works.works.  The search for all the mysteries regarding the influence of theThe search for all the mysteries regarding the influence of the audience on the mass media is still on.audience on the mass media is still on.  There is a need to know your audience, their economic, social andThere is a need to know your audience, their economic, social and cultural nuances.cultural nuances.  There is a need to design communications which captures theirThere is a need to design communications which captures their interest.interest.  There is a need to test new innovations on the target audienceThere is a need to test new innovations on the target audience before roll-out.before roll-out.  Always get your audience profile correctly or the audience mayAlways get your audience profile correctly or the audience may not be watching and the advertising traffic will not be swayednot be watching and the advertising traffic will not be swayed since money only follows where the numbers exist.since money only follows where the numbers exist.
  27. 27. Thank youThank you

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