Leadership lecture 1 for dr du plessis


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Leadership lecture 1 for dr du plessis

  1. 1. PROFESSIONAL STUDIES 1BUnit 1: Leadership in the guiding task of the educational leader Lecture 1: PRESENTER : Dr Pierre du Plessis Naicker 2010 1
  2. 2. Lets Get Rid of ManagementPeople don’t want to be managed.They want to be led.Whoever heard of a world Manager:World leader, Yes.Educational leader. Political leader. Religious leader. Scout leader.They lead. They don’t manage. Naicker 2010 2
  3. 3. The carrot always wins over the stick.Ask your horse.You can lead your horse to water,but you can’t manage him to drink. Naicker 2010 3
  4. 4. If you want to manage somebody,manage yourself.Do that well and you’ll be ready to stop managing.And start leading. Naicker 2010 4
  5. 5. Leadership vs ManagementManagement – day to day activities/tasks, efficiency, organisation, implementing policyLeadership – influencing, designing policy, inspiring, having vision, strategy, aligning followers, bringing about improvement/change, futuristic Naicker 2010 5
  6. 6. The concept Leadership Write down the names of some leaders that come to mind. Jot down some words that come to mind if you had to describe them. Discuss Reflect on these in the context of your profession as a teacher. Who are the leaders in a school? Naicker 2010 6
  7. 7. The Concept Leadership cont. The root word of leadership is lead. Hence two or more people must be present. There is movement towards a common goal. The person leading must have certain abilities – convince, inspire, direct, support, guide, vision, creativity Naicker 2010 7
  8. 8. The Concept Leadership cont. Leadership can also be viewed as interactions – between leader and group, leader and followers, leader follower and situation. Guiding is an action of influencing followers by equipping, inspiring, supporting… Interaction depends on communication. Naicker 2010 8
  9. 9. The Concept Leadership cont. The leader fills a certain role and has a certain status. Hence the leader has a certain amount of authority, influence, power and prestige that is awarded to him/her. Naicker 2010 9
  10. 10. Definitions - Leadership Leadership is the ability to influence a group towards the achievement of goals. Leadership is the calling and characteristics through which the leader in a creative and dutiful way stimulates, directs and co- ordinates group interaction towards the accomplishment of group goals.[Reader-pg3] Naicker 2010 10
  11. 11. Definitions – Leadership cont. Leadership is the capacity and will to rally men and women to a common purpose and the character which inspires confidence. (Bernard Montgomery) Naicker 2010 11
  12. 12. LEADERSHIP – HistoricalOverview 1.Person (Qualities, attributes, traits – born with) Learn these to make leaders 2.Behaviour (What successful leaders do – not inborn) Effective leadership methods can be taught – people oriented and task oriented activities. Naicker 2010 12
  13. 13. LEADERSHIP OVERVIEW 3. Interaction between the leader’s traits, the leader’s behaviours and the existing situation. -style and situation -path-goal theory (leaders- followers-goals) Naicker 2010 13
  14. 14. OVERVIEW CONTINUED4. Leaders must be able to take the organisation through change.5. Motivational theories of leadership – transactional and transformational6. Leadership broader – leadership is the accomplishment of group purpose – multiple members Naicker 2010 14
  15. 15. OVERVIEW CONTINUED7. Superleadership – leadership within each individual in the group. Rotation of leaders8. Leadership as a social process – leader emerges social constructivism – teamwork concept (Why?)– flatter hierarchy – collective, collaboration, participation, democracy, distribution, teacher leadership Naicker 2010 15
  16. 16. LEADERSHIP THEORY 1The theory of qualities/traits This theory looks at the leader as a person who has certain qualities/ traits. These qualities included the physical (eg height), mental (eg intelligence) or personality traits (eg self-confidence) of a person. This theory is based on the idea that leaders are born not made. This theory ignores the situational/ environmental factors that play a role in a leader’s effectiveness (eg superheads failed to turn around failing schools in England) Naicker 2010 16
  17. 17. LEADERSHIP THEORY 2Situation/contingency theory The situation determines what style of leadership should be used. Thus leadership should be applicable and suit the circumstances, time and the location (context). This theory is based on the idea that there is no best leadership style. We can use this theory to match individuals to job requirements. Naicker 2010 17
  18. 18. LEADERSHIP THEORY 3 The group function theory Leadership is something that happens in and with a group. (Leadership is not in a single person and situation.) This means that leadership may be shared amongst the group members. The group collectively has a leadership role to fulfil. As the needs of the group changes the leader also changes. In this theory leadership is the movement towards a group goal. Naicker 2010 18
  19. 19. The group function theorycont. Interpersonal relationships between group members are important. An advantage is that the contributions of other great thinkers help to achieve the goals. This type of leadership is valuable to education because teamwork is necessary in a school. Naicker 2010 19
  20. 20. What Leadership stylesLeadership style is the manner in whicha person executes/carries out his/herleadership.Leadership style determines theeffectiveness of a leaders management. Naicker 2010 20
  21. 21. Different leadership styles1. Democratic leadership2. Autocratic leadership3. Free rein4. Bureaucratic leadership5. Charismatic leadership6. Transactional leadership7. Transformational leadership8. Educational leadership9. Entrepreneurial leadership Naicker 2010 21
  22. 22. Democratic Leadership (Group-centred leadership) This style is participative. Staff are involved by consultation in decision making. Open communication (voluntary and spontaneous) is encouraged. Staff contributions are encouraged and valued. Positive interpersonal relationships. Naicker 2010 22
  23. 23. Benefits of Democratic Leadership Contributions from staff members enable creative and original ideas. Different points of view/perspectives are shared enriching the discussion. Staff feel ownership of decisions made. Staff take collective responsibility for decisions made and accomplishment of goals. Naicker 2010 23
  24. 24. Autocratic leadership (leader-centred leadership) The leader dominates decision-making and policy making. The leader makes decisions without consulting or involving staff. One-way communication between the leader and the group. Leader assumes responsibility for decisions and goals. Naicker 2010 24
  25. 25. Autocratic leadership cont. Leader wants to fulfil his/her own needs. Staff become dependent on leader. Leader approaches and instructs staff individually. Leader is the ruler and commander. Praise and criticism to staff becomes personal rather than group oriented. Naicker 2010 25
  26. 26. Autocratic leadership Dominating therefore has difficulty in working with others May be appropriate in situations where there is a lack of discipline. Eg in the classroom. Naicker 2010 26
  27. 27. Free rein leadership(laissez-faire/individual centred) Laissez (leave) – faire (do) The presence of the leader is not felt. Staff have freedom to make own individual or group decisions. Leader appeals to the personal integrity of staff members. Individual feels totally trusted and makes own decisions. Naicker 2010 27
  28. 28. Bureaucratic leadership The leader adheres strictly to the law, rules and regulation to maintain his/her position but sometimes does as he pleases. Teachers seen as merely employees. Head-subordinate relationship. Authority from above (centralised) – staff to obey. Naicker 2010 28
  29. 29. Bureaucratic leadership -Characteristics High efficiency Predictable – set rules and regulations Uniformity Impersonal – law does not take person into account. Inflexible and rigid. Naicker 2010 29
  30. 30. CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP Regarded by followers as having heroic or extraordinary leadership abilities. These leaders have extremely high self confidence, dominance, strong convictions in their beliefs, a strong compelling vision They are prepared to make self-sacrifices, and demonstrate courage for their beliefs in the vision. Eg Nelson Mandela, Bill Gates Naicker 2010 30
  31. 31. Transactional Leadership The leader uses his/her position to create an exchange process (transaction) to motivate followers. Rewards for efforts (bonuses) Rewards for good performance (promotion, good work reports) Recognises accomplishments (praise, letters of recognition) Naicker 2010 31
  32. 32. Transactional Leadership cont. Example of how a teacher can use transactional leadership - If everyone passes the class test the class will get an extended break. / Those who get the highest results get praised in the assembly. Motivation by extrinsic rewards. Naicker 2010 32
  33. 33. Transformational leadership Motivation by intrinsic ,moral purpose. Inspires followers to go beyond their self interests and work for the good of the school by:  Communicating high expectations  Provides intellectual stimulation – promotes intelligence, rationality in problem solving. Naicker 2010 33
  34. 34.  Treating each person according to their individual needs - gives personal attention, coaches, advises, supports, mentors (fosters good relationships) Uses charisma – provides vision, gains respect and trust of followers, models behaviour Develops and empowers followers. Promotes teamwork, open communication Naicker 2010 34
  35. 35. Educational Leadership Leadership provided in the school context to promote teaching and learning. Various professional skills needed besides personality.  Subject knowledge  Knowledge of human nature  Communication skills  Decision-making skills Naicker 2010 35
  36. 36.  Problem-solving ability Listening abilty Delegating skills Naicker 2010 36
  37. 37. Entrepreneurial LeadershipSchool leaders require business skills to improve the school by securing additional funding. These funds can be used to purchase resources such as equipment, textbooks, pay for extra teachers, pay for teacher training.Benefit: Improve quality of education Naicker 2010 37
  38. 38. ASSIGNMENT 1 Read the following scenario and answer the questions following.You are a teacher at school X. Two big problems were identified at the school:(a). The first is a little problem where the school grounds are excessively littered.(b). The second is a disturbing increase in drug abuse. Naicker 2010 38
  39. 39.  The school principal asks you to take responsibility for ONE of the two problems and to work on a solution to address the problem. Identify the leadership style and theory you think would be the best option to resolve this problem. Motivate. Naicker 2010 39
  40. 40. GUIDELINE – ASS 1INTRODUCTION 10IDENTIFICATION 15EXPLANATION 35CONCLUSION 10COVER PAGE 5 (Surname & Initials, Student No. Assignment no, Topic)LANGUAGE 10ARGUMENT 10GENERAL 5TOTAL 100 Naicker 2010 40
  41. 41. GUIDELINE – ASSIGN 1INTRODUCTION 10IDENTIFICATION 15 (choose theory & style , define)EXPLANATION 35 (specifically explain how you would use the above to solve the problem i.e what would you do.CONCLUSION 10 (Recap/reinforce main points)COVER PAGE 5LANGUAGE 10ARGUMENT 10 (logical thinking)GENERAL 5 (overall impression)TOTAL 100 Naicker 2010 41
  42. 42. Good leadership Does not force others Does not oppose change Welcomes co-operation Acts on reason Does not seek own gain Wants to make progress Respects followers Naicker 2010 42
  43. 43. The five most typical patterns of leadership behaviour1. Telling – Leader identifies problems and solutions and instructs (tells) others what to do. Leader makes decisions.2. Selling – The leader decides and persuades (sells) others to accept decisions by pointing out the benefits. Naicker 2010 43
  44. 44. Typical patterns of leadership cont.3. Testing – The leader decides and allows followers to comment or react. The leader listens and then makes the final decision.4. Consulting – The leader involves followers from the beginning. The leader eventually selects the most promising solution. Naicker 2010 44
  45. 45. Typical patterns of leadershipcont. 5. Joining – The leader joins the discussion as an equal group member. The group decides on a decision and the leader carries out the group decision. Naicker 2010 45