Rm 6

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Rm 6

  1. 1. Research Methodology Lecture 6 Ms Farha Hassan
  2. 2. Secondary Data <ul><li>Data gathered and recorded by someone else prior to and for a purpose other than the current project </li></ul><ul><li>Is often: </li></ul><ul><li>Historical </li></ul><ul><li>Already assembled </li></ul><ul><li>Needs no access to subjects </li></ul>
  3. 3. Advantages of Secondary Data <ul><li>Inexpensive </li></ul><ul><li>Obtained Rapidly </li></ul><ul><li>Information is not Otherwise Accessible </li></ul>
  4. 4. Government Data Is Often Free Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  5. 5. Disadvantages of Secondary Data <ul><li>Uncertain Accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Data Not Consistent with Needs </li></ul><ul><li>Inappropriate Units of Measurement </li></ul><ul><li>Time Period Inappropriate (Dated) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Secondary Data may be Dated The Economic Census profiles the U.S. economy every 5 years, from the national to the local level.
  7. 7. Evaluating Secondary Data Does the data help to answer questions set out in the problem definition? Does the data apply to the time period of interest? Does the data apply to the population of interest? Applicability to project objectives
  8. 8. Do the other terms and variable classifications presented apply? Are the units of measurement comparable? If possible, go to the original source of the data? Evaluating Secondary Data (continued) Applicability to project objectives Accuracy of the data
  9. 9. Is the cost of data acquisition worth it? Accuracy of the data Is there a possibility of bias? Can the accuracy of data collection be verified?
  10. 10. Objectives for Secondary Data Studies <ul><li>Fact Finding </li></ul><ul><li>Model Building </li></ul><ul><li>Data Based Marketing </li></ul>
  11. 11. Common Research Objectives for Secondary Data Studies Fact Finding - Identifying consumption patterns - Tracking trends Model building - Estimating market potential - Forecasting sales - Selecting trade areas and sites Data Base Marketing - Development of Prospect Lists - Enhancement of Customer Lists
  12. 12. Fact Finding <ul><li>Identify consumer behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Trend analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental scanning </li></ul>
  13. 13. Model Building <ul><li>Market potential </li></ul><ul><li>Forecasting sales </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of trade areas </li></ul>
  14. 14. Data Based Marketing <ul><li>Practice of maintaining a customer data base </li></ul><ul><li>Names </li></ul><ul><li>Addresses </li></ul><ul><li>Past purchases </li></ul><ul><li>Responses to past efforts </li></ul><ul><li>Data from numerous sources </li></ul>
  15. 15. Internal Data <ul><li>Internal and proprietary data is more descriptive </li></ul><ul><li>Accounting information </li></ul><ul><li>Sales information </li></ul><ul><li>Backorders </li></ul><ul><li>Customer complaints </li></ul>
  16. 16. Data Mining
  17. 17. External Data <ul><li>Created, recorded, or generated by an entity other than the researcher’s organization </li></ul><ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><li>Trade associations </li></ul><ul><li>Newspapers and journals </li></ul>
  18. 18. External Data <ul><li>Libraries </li></ul><ul><li>The Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Vendors </li></ul><ul><li>Producers </li></ul><ul><li>Books and periodicals </li></ul>
  19. 19. External Data <ul><li>Government sources </li></ul><ul><li>Media sources </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial sources </li></ul>
  20. 20. Government Sources
  21. 21. <ul><li>U.S. Population by Race and Hispanic Origin, July 1, 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>(in thousands) </li></ul><ul><li>White Black American Indian Asian & Pacific </li></ul><ul><li>& Alaska Native Islander </li></ul><ul><li>non-Hispanic 194,571 32,324 1,977 9,532 </li></ul><ul><li>Hispanic 26,746 1,649 347 598 </li></ul>
  22. 22. Commercial Sources <ul><li>Market share data companies like A.C. Nielsen provide information about sales volume and brand share over time </li></ul><ul><li>Demographic and census updates—many organizations supply census updates, in easy-to-use or custom formats </li></ul>
  23. 23. Commercial Sources <ul><li>Attitude and public opinion research—syndicated services report the findings of opinion polls </li></ul><ul><li>Consumption and purchase behavior data </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising research—readership and audience data </li></ul>
  24. 24. Single Source Data <ul><li>Diverse types of data offered from a single source </li></ul><ul><li>- e.g., television viewing and scanner purchase data </li></ul>

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