Rm 5


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Rm 5

  1. 1. Research Methodology Lecture 5 Ms Farha Hassan
  2. 3. Surveys <ul><li>Surveys ask respondents for information using verbal or written questioning </li></ul>
  3. 4. Respondents <ul><li>Respondents are a representative sample of people </li></ul>
  4. 5. Gathering Information via Surveys <ul><li>Quick </li></ul><ul><li>Inexpensive </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient </li></ul><ul><li>Accurate </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible </li></ul>
  5. 6. Problems <ul><li>Poor Design </li></ul><ul><li>Improper Execution </li></ul>
  6. 7. Interviewer Bias <ul><li>A response bias that occurs because the presence of the interviewer influences answers. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Auspices Bias <ul><li>Bias in the responses of subjects caused by the respondents being influenced by the organization conducting the study. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Social Desirability Bias <ul><li>Bias in responses caused by respondents’ desire, either conscious or unconscious, to gain prestige or appear in a different social role. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Communicating with Respondents <ul><li>Personal interviews </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Door-to-door </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shopping mall intercepts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Telephone interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Self-administered questionnaires </li></ul>
  10. 11. Personal Interviews
  11. 12. Good Afternoon, my name is _________. I am with _________ survey research company. We are conducting a survey on_________
  12. 13. Door-to-Door Personal Interview <ul><li>Speed of data collection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate to fast </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Geographical flexibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited to moderate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Respondent cooperation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excellent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Versatility of questioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quite versatile </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Door-to-Door Personal Interview <ul><li>Questionnaire length </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Item nonresponse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Possibility of respondent misunderstanding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lowest </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Degree of interviewer influence of answer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Door-to-Door Personal Interview <ul><li>Ease of call back or follow-up </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highest </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Special features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual materials may be shown or demonstrated; extended probing possible </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Mall Intercept Personal Interview <ul><li>Speed of data collection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Geographical flexibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confined, urban bias </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Respondent cooperation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate to low </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Mall Intercept Personal Interview <ul><li>Questionnaire length </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate to long </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Item nonresponse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medium </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Mall Intercept Personal Interview <ul><li>Degree of interviewer influence of answers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highest </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supervision of interviewers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate to high </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anonymity of respondent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Mall Intercept Personal Interview <ul><li>Ease of call back or follow-up </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate to high </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Special features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taste test, viewing of TV commercials possible </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Telephone Surveys
  20. 21. Telephone Surveys <ul><li>Speed of Data Collection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very fast </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Geographical Flexibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Respondent Cooperation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depends </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Versatility of Questioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Telephone Surveys <ul><li>Questionnaire Length </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Possibility of Respondent Misunderstanding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Average </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Degree of Interviewer Influence of Answer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ease of call back or follow-up </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Telephone Surveys <ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low to moderate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Special features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fieldwork and supervision of data collection are simplified; quite adaptable to computer technology </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Telephone Surveys <ul><li>Central location interviewing( WATS) </li></ul><ul><li>Computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) </li></ul><ul><li>Computerized voice-activated interviews </li></ul>
  24. 25. DISADVANTAGES <ul><li>Lack of visual medium </li></ul><ul><li>Limited duration </li></ul><ul><li>Absence of face to face contact </li></ul><ul><li>??? </li></ul>
  25. 26. Self-Administered Questionnaires
  26. 27. Mail Surveys
  27. 28. Mail Surveys <ul><li>Speed of data collection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Researcher has no control over return of questionnaire; slow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Geographical flexibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Respondent cooperation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate--poorly designed questionnaire will have low response rate </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. Mail Surveys <ul><li>Versatility of questioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly standardized format </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Questionnaire length </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Varies depending on incentive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Item nonresponse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. Mail Surveys <ul><li>Possibility of respondent misunderstanding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highest--no interviewer present for clarification </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Degree of interviewer influence of answer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>None--interviewer absent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supervision of interviewers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not applicable </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. Mail Surveys <ul><li>Anonymity of respondent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ease of call back or follow-up </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy, but takes time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lowest </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Increasing Response Rates <ul><li>Effective cover letter </li></ul><ul><li>Money helps </li></ul><ul><li>Interesting questions </li></ul><ul><li>Follow-ups </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced notification </li></ul><ul><li>Keying questionnaires </li></ul>
  32. 33. E-Mail Questionnaire Surveys <ul><li>Speed of data collection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instantaneous </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Geographic flexibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>worldwide </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cheaper distribution and processing costs </li></ul>
  33. 34. E-Mail Questionnaire Surveys <ul><li>Flexible, but </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensive differences in the capabilities of respondents’ computers and e-mail software limit the types of questions and the layout </li></ul></ul><ul><li>E-mails are not secure and “eavesdropping” can possibly occur </li></ul><ul><li>Respondent cooperation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Varies depending if e-mail is seen as “spam” </li></ul></ul>
  34. 35. Internet Surveys <ul><li>A self-administered questionnaire posted on a Web site. </li></ul><ul><li>Respondents provide answers to questions displayed online by highlighting a phrase, clicking an icon, or keying in an answer. </li></ul>
  35. 37. Internet Surveys <ul><li>Speed of data collection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instantaneous </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cost effective </li></ul><ul><li>Geographic flexibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>worldwide </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Visual and interactive </li></ul>
  36. 38. Internet Surveys <ul><li>Respondent cooperation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Varies depending on web site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Varies depending on type of sample </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When user does not opt-in or expect a voluntary survey cooperation is low. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-selection problems in web site visitation surveys - participants tend to be more deeply involved than the average person. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 39. Internet Surveys <ul><li>Versatility of questioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extremely versatile </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Questionnaire length </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individualized base on respondent answers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Longer questionnaires with panel samples </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Item nonresponse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Software can assure none </li></ul></ul>
  38. 40. Internet Surveys <ul><li>Representative samples </li></ul><ul><li>The quality of internet samples may vary substantially. </li></ul><ul><li>A sample of those who visit a web page and voluntarily fill out a questionnaires can have self-selection error. </li></ul>
  39. 41. Drawbacks <ul><li>Not all individuals in the general public have internet access </li></ul><ul><li>Many respondents lack powerful computers with high-speed connections to the internet </li></ul><ul><li>Many respondents computer skills will be relatively unsophisticated. </li></ul><ul><li>Possibility for respondent misunderstanding is high. </li></ul>
  40. 42. Internet Surveys <ul><li>Anonymity of Respondent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Respondent can be anonymous or known </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ease of Callback or Follow-up </li></ul><ul><ul><li>difficult unless e-mail address is known </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Special Features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>allows graphics and streaming media </li></ul></ul>
  41. 43. Scientific Observation Is Systematic “ YOU SEE, BUT YOU DO NOT OBSERVE.” Sherlock Holmes
  42. 44. What Can Be Observed? <ul><li>Physical actions </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Expressive behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial relations and locations </li></ul><ul><li>Temporal patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal and pictorial records </li></ul>
  43. 45. What Can Be Observed Phenomena Example Human behavior or physical Shoppers movement action pattern in a store Verbal behavior Statements made by airline travelers who wait in line Expressive behavior Facial expressions, tone of voice, and other form of body language
  44. 46. What Can Be Observed Phenomena Example Spatial relations How close visitors at an and locations art museum stand to paintings Temporal patterns How long fast-food customers wait for their order to be served Physical objects What brand name items are stored in consumers’ pantries Verbal and Pictorial Bar codes on product packages Records
  45. 47. Categories of Observation <ul><li>Human versus mechanical </li></ul><ul><li>Visible versus hidden </li></ul><ul><li>Direct </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled </li></ul>
  46. 48. Observation of Human Behavior Benefits <ul><li>Communication with respondent is not necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Data without distortions due to self-report (e.g.: without social desirability) Bias </li></ul><ul><li>No need to rely on respondents memory </li></ul><ul><li>Nonverbal behavior data may be obtained </li></ul>
  47. 49. Observation of Human Behavior Benefits <ul><li>Certain data may be obtained more quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental conditions may be recorded </li></ul><ul><li>May be combined with survey to provide supplemental evidence </li></ul>
  48. 50. Observation of Human Behavior Limitations <ul><li>Cognitive phenomena cannot be observed </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation of data may be a problem </li></ul><ul><li>Not all activity can be recorded </li></ul><ul><li>Only short periods can be observed </li></ul><ul><li>Observer bias possible </li></ul><ul><li>Possible invasion of privacy </li></ul>
  49. 51. Scientifically Contrived Observation <ul><li>The creation of an artificial environment to test a hypothesis </li></ul>
  50. 52. Content Analysis <ul><li>Obtains data by observing and analyzing the content of advertisements, letters, articles, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Deals with the study of the message itself </li></ul><ul><li>Measures the extent of emphasis or omission </li></ul>
  51. 53. Mechanical Observation <ul><li>Traffic Counters </li></ul><ul><li>Web Traffic </li></ul><ul><li>Scanners </li></ul><ul><li>Peoplemeter </li></ul><ul><li>Physiological Measures </li></ul>
  52. 54. Physiological Reactions <ul><li>Eye tracking </li></ul><ul><li>Pupilometer </li></ul><ul><li>Psychogalvanometer </li></ul><ul><li>Voice pitch </li></ul>
  53. 55. Eye Tracking Monitors <ul><li>Record how the subject actually reads or views an advertisement </li></ul><ul><li>Measure unconscious eye movements </li></ul>
  54. 56. Pupilometer <ul><li>This device observes and records changes in the diameter of the subject’s pupils. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased pupil size reflects positive attitude towards a stimulus. </li></ul>
  55. 57. Psychogalvanometer <ul><li>Measures galvanic skin response(GSR) or </li></ul><ul><li>Involuntary changes in the electrical resistance of the skin. </li></ul><ul><li>Assumption: </li></ul><ul><li>physiological changes accompany emotional reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional reactions to advertisements, slogans, etc </li></ul>
  56. 58. Voice Pitch Analysis <ul><li>Measures emotional reactions through physiological changes in a person’s voice. </li></ul><ul><li>Very expensive. </li></ul>