C A N C E R A N D I M M U N O T H E R A P Y

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C A N C E R A N D I M M U N O T H E R A P Y

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C A N C E R A N D I M M U N O T H E R A P Y

  1. 1. CANCER AND IMMUNOTHERAPY<br /> By : KailashPandey<br />Sidharth Kumar<br />
  2. 2. Content:<br />Cancer <br />Classification of cancer<br />Type of cancer <br />a) Brain cancer <br />b) Breast cancer <br /><ul><li>Immunology
  3. 3. Application of immunology in cancer</li></li></ul><li>Cancer<br />Cancer: /kænsər/ (medical term, malignant neoplasm) is a class of disease in which a group of cells display uncontrolled growth.<br />Invasion that intrudes upon and destroys adjacent tissues, and sometimes metastasis, in which cancer cells spread to other locations in the body via lymph or blood. <br />
  4. 4. Cancer<br />Cell reproduction is an extremely complex process, which is normally tightly regulated by several classes of genes including oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes.<br />The presence of cancer can be suspected on the basis of symptoms, or findings on radiology.<br />
  5. 5.  ClassificationofCancer<br />There are two classified cancer.<br /><ul><li>Malignant tumors(Cancer): They are usually named using –carcinoma, -sarcoma or -blastoma as a suffix, with the Latin or Greek word for the organ of origin as the root
  6. 6. Benign tumors (which are not cancers):They are named using -oma as a suffix with the organ name as the root.</li></li></ul><li>BrainCancer<br />A brain tumor(cancer) is an intracranialsolid neoplasm, a tumor (defined as an abnormal growth of cells) within the brain.<br />Type of brain tumor:<br /><ul><li>Primary brain tumor
  7. 7. Secondary brain tumor</li></li></ul><li>Characteristicsoftumor<br />Anaplasia: or dedifferentiation; loss of differentiation of cells .<br />Atypia: is an indication of abnormality of a cell (which may be indicative for malignancy). <br />Neoplasia: is the (uncontrolled) division of cells; as such neoplasia is not problematic but has consequences.<br />Necrosis: is the (premature) death of cells.<br />
  8. 8. Signsandsymptoms<br /><ul><li>Consequences of intracranial hypertension</li></ul> <br /><ul><li>Dysfunction</li></ul> <br /><ul><li>Irritation </li></li></ul><li>Common Brain Tumors <br />Primary tumor are :<br /><ul><li>Astrocytoma
  9. 9. Central Nervous System Lymphoma
  10. 10. Medulloblastoma</li></li></ul><li>CommonBrainTumors<br />Secondarytumors:<br /><ul><li>Secondary brain tumors or metastatic tumor occur when cancer cells from other parts of the body, such as the lung, breast, skin, kidney, colon spread to the brain</li></ul>Childhood brain tumor:<br /><ul><li>Two types of brain cancers that are more common in children than in adults are medulloblastoma and ependymoma. </li></li></ul><li>Risk Factor<br />The following risk factors are associated with an increased chance of developing a primary brain tumor: <br /><ul><li>Sex
  11. 11. Race
  12. 12. Family history
  13. 13. Age
  14. 14. Exposure and Occupational history
  15. 15. Radiation</li></li></ul><li>Brain tumors diagnosis <br />Various tests are done to confirm the diagnosis.<br /><ul><li>Nervous system examination
  16. 16.  An eye examination using an ophthalmoscope
  17. 17. Facial muscle tests - smiling, grimacing
  18. 18. CT Scan
  19. 19. MRI
  20. 20. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)</li></li></ul><li>Treatment of brain tumors<br />Surgery<br />Craniotomy<br />Laser microsurgery<br />Radiation Therapy<br />Chemotherapy<br /><ul><li>SUPPORTIVETHERAPY</li></ul>Immunotherapy <br />Gene Therapy<br />Steriod Therapy<br />
  21. 21. 2) BREASTCANCER<br />Breast cancer (malignant breast neoplasm ) is cancer originating from breast tissue, most commonly from the inner lining of milk ducts or the lobules that supply the ducts with milk.<br />The most common type of non-skin cancer in women and the fifth most common cause of cancer. <br />
  22. 22. Breast cancer classification<br /><ul><li>TNM CLASSIFICATION (STAGES)
  23. 23. Histopathology.
  24. 24. Grade (Bloom-Richardson grade).
  25. 25. Receptor status.
  26. 26. DNA microarrays</li></li></ul><li>Signs and symptoms<br />The first noticeable symptom of breast cancer is typically a lump & other are following:<br /><ul><li>Inflammatory breast cancer.
  27. 27. Paget's disease of the breast.
  28. 28. Fibroadenoma</li></li></ul><li>Risk factors<br />The primary epidemiologic and risk factors that have been identified are <br /><ul><li>Sex
  29. 29. Age
  30. 30. Lack of childbearing or breastfeeding
  31. 31. Higher hormone levels
  32. 32. Race
  33. 33. Economic status and also dietary iodine deficiency</li></li></ul><li>Riskfactors<br />In addition to the risk factors specified above, demographic and medical risk factors include<br /><ul><li>Personal history of breast cancer
  34. 34. Family history
  35. 35. Certain breast changes</li></li></ul><li>Prevention<br />Exercise may decrease breast cancer risk.<br />Also avoiding alcohol and obesity.<br />Prophylactic bilateral mastectomy may be considered in patients with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations<br />
  36. 36. Pathophysiology<br />Breast cancer, like other cancers, occurs because of an interaction between the environment and a defective gene.<br />Normal cells divide as many times as needed and stop.<br />They attach to other cells and stay in place in tissues. Cells become cancerous when mutations destroy their ability to stop dividing, to attach to other cells and to stay where they belong. <br />When cells divide, their DNA is normally copied with many mistakes. Error-correcting proteins fix those mistakes. The mutations known to cause cancer, such as p53, BRCA1 and BRCA2, occur in the error-correcting mechanisms. <br />
  37. 37. Medications<br />There are currently 3 main groups of medications used for adjuvant breast cancer treatment:<br /><ul><li>Hormone Blocking Therapy
  38. 38. Chemotherapy
  39. 39. Monoclonal Antibodies</li></li></ul><li>Diagnosis<br />The screening techniques are useful in determining the possibility of cancer are<br /><ul><li>Excisional biopsy
  40. 40. Core biopsy
  41. 41. Vacuum-assisted breast biopsy</li></li></ul><li>TreatmentofcancerusingImmunotherapy<br />Immunotherapy is a medical term defined as "treatment of disease by inducing, enhancing, or suppressing an immune response“<br />Activation immunotherapies.<br />Suppression immunotherapies.<br />
  42. 42. Activation immunotherapiesto Cancer (E:g)<br />Cancer immunotherapy attempts to stimulate the immune system to reject and destroy tumors.<br />BCG immunotherapy for early stage (non-invasive) bladder cancer<br />Dendritic cell based immunotherapy<br />T cell based adoptive immunotherapy<br />
  43. 43. Thank you.<br />

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