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Bob Falco’s references --- Alcohols Make Good Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) Fuels


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A continually updated list of references explaining the value of ethanol and methanol as alternative fuels in Internal Combustion Engines, and the fact that since Henry Ford's time, 100 years ago, it was understood that alcohols can run Internal Combustion Engines better, and with fewer emissions, than gasoline can.

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Bob Falco’s references --- Alcohols Make Good Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) Fuels

  1. 1. Bob Falco‟s Annotated References References that make the case that both ethanol and methanol aregood Internal Combustion Engine fuels, and should be used in the US fuel mixThis is a continually renewed annotated reference list. BobBrusstar and Bakenhus 2010 “Economical High-Efficiency Engine Technologies forAlcohol Fuels. Environmental Protection Agency, Ann Arbor, MI. National Vehicle andFuel Emissions Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI.ABSTRACT: Alcohols fuels, principally methanol and ethanol, have the potential to displace asubstantial portion of the domestic petroleum consumption in the U. S., used either neat or inblends with petroleum fuels. In order to develop effective policies that encourage economicaland environmentally-sustainable use of such fuels, engine technology options must be madeavailable that can achieve these ends. One promising option, being developed by the U.S.EPAs National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory, uses low-cost port-fuel-injection, spark-ignition technology with neat alcohol fuels to reach peak brake thermal efficiency levels ofover 40%, comparable to state-of-the-art diesel engines. This research has more recentlybeen extended to a full range of blends with gasoline, demonstrating significant efficiencygains using fuel containing as little as 30- 50% alcohol by volume. The engine researchprogram described in this work examines the efficiency benefits of higher compression ratioand reduced intake air throttling, enabled by the high octane rating and high dilution toleranceof alcohol fuels. The research centers on a turbocharged, diesel engine.THE ALCOHOL ENGINE @ Contains a good history of ethanol fuel. Points out that a combination of one hundredbillion gallons of synthetic alcohol, plus 30 billion gallons of cellulosic ethanol plus 10 billiongallons of corn ethanol would equal 140 billion gallons. That is possible; what are we waitingforL. Bromberg and W.K. Cheng (2010) Methanol as an alternative transportation fuel in the US: Options forsustainable and/or energy-secure transportation (PSFC/RR-10-12)FROM SUMMARY: Methanol has been used as a transportation fuel in US and in China. Flexible fuelvehicles and filling stations for blends of methanol from M3 to M85 have beendeployed. It has not become a substantial fuel in the US because of itsintroduction in a period of rapidly falling petroleum price which eliminates the
  2. 2. economic incentive, and of the absence of a strong methanol advocacy. Methanolhas been displaced by ethanol as oxygenate of choice in gasoline blends.Nevertheless, these programs have demonstrated that methanol is a viabletransportation fuel.Large scale production of methanol from natural gas and coal is a well developedtechnology. Methanol prices today are competitive with hydrocarbon fuels (on anenergy basis). There is progress on the economic conversion of biomass tomethanol using thermo-chemical processes. Sufficient feedstock of natural gasand coal exists to enable the use of non-renewable methanol as a transition fuel torenewable methanol from biomass. A variety of renewable feedstock is availablein the US for sustainable transportation with bio-methanol.2011-24-0113GEM Ternary Blends: Removing the Biomass Limit by using Iso-Stoichiometric Mixtures of Gasoline, Ethanol and MethanolJ.W.G. Turner, R.J. Pearson and R. PurvisLotus EngineeringE. DekkerBioMCNK. Johansson and K. ac BergströmSaab Automobile Powertrain ABCopyright © 2011 Lotus EngineeringABSTRACTThe paper presents the concept of ternary blends of gasoline, ethanol and methanol inwhich the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio (AFR) iscontrolled to be 9.7:1, the same as that ofconventional „E85‟ alcohol-based fuel. This makes them iso-stoichiometric. Such blendsare termed „GEM‟ after the first initial of the three components. Calculated data ispresented showing how the volumetric energydensity relationship between the threecomponents in these blends changes as the stoichiometric AFR is held constant butethanolcontent is varied. From this data it is contended that such GEM blends can be„drop-in‟ alternatives to E85, because when an engine isoperated on any of these blendsthe pulse widths of the fuel injectors would not change significantly, and so there will beno impact onthe on-board diagnostics from the use of such blends in existingE85/gasoline flex-fuel vehicles. The resulting ability of such blendsto extend the reach ofa fixed amount of ethanol in the fuel pool is then demonstrated, together with themechanism by which theaddition of the methanol displaces additional gasoline. If themethanol used is of a renewable and energy-secure nature then, for afixed volume ofethanol in the fuel pool, an increased level of renewability and energy security isachieved. This overall situation ismade possible by the fact that there are more E85/flex-fuel vehicles in existence than can currently be serviced by the E85 fuel supplychain. Example price calculations are conducted to show the points of potential pricecompetitiveness.Preliminary tests with such GEM blends in a production-specification E85/gasolinevehicle were conducted to show the validity ofthe approach, and the results are reportedtogether with fuel characteristics such as RON, MON and sensitivity. Road mileage isalsoreported using one of the fuel blends. Together these findings show the attractivenessof the concept and that there is therefore apossibility to significantly extend the use ofrenewable alcohol fuel in the market due to the miscibility of gasoline, ethanol and
  3. 3. methanol. This is primarily because, when they are blended to a target stoichiometricAFR, any of the blends possible shareessentially the same volumetric energy content,RON, MON, sensitivity and latent heat (to within 4%). In turn, this makes taxationand pricing of such fuels simple and straightforward, further removing roadblocks tointroduction.2012-01-1279GEM Ternary Blends: Testing Iso-Stoichiometric mixtures ofGasoline, Ethanol andMethanol in a Production Flex-Fuel VehicleFitted with a Physical Alcohol SensorJ.W.G. Turner, R.J. Pearson, M.A. McGregor and J.M. RamsayLotus EngineeringE. DekkerBioMCNB. IosefaMethanex CorporationG.A. DolanMethanol InstituteK. Johansson and K. ac BergströmSaab Automobile Powertrain ABCopyright © 2012 Lotus CarsABSTRACTThe paper presents vehicle-based test work using tri-component, or ternary, blends ofgasoline, ethanol and methanol for which thestoichiometric air-fuel ratio (AFR) wascontrolled to be 9.7:1. This is the same as that of conventional „E85‟ alcohol-based fuel.Suchternary blends are termed „GEM‟ after the first initial of the three components. Thepresent work was a continuation of an earliersuccessful project which established that theblends were effectively invisible to a car using a virtual alcohol sensor. The vehicleusedhere employed the other major technology in flex-fuel vehicles to determine theproportion of alcohol fuel in the tank, a physicalalcohol sensor.Another aspect of the present work included the desire to investigate ternary blendreplacements for E85 having low ethanolconcentrations. Evidence from the previouswork suggested that under specific conditions, ethanol was required in some amount toact as a cosolvent for the gasoline and methanol in the blend. The present paper discussesthe position of the phase separationboundary with respect to the concentration of theindividual components, and determines new blends for test which are closer to thisboundary. These and other ternary blends were first tested on the road and in a coldchamber, where cold startability was gauged at -20°C. All of the ternary blends werefound to start well except that corresponding to E85, which would not start at all at thislowtemperature using this summer grade fuel.Of the fuel blends tested in the first phase, four were selected for more-controlledinvestigation in an emissions laboratory. Each wastested twice on the NEDC cycle undercold and hot conditions. In addition, gasoline baseline tests (using the same procedure)wereconducted at the start and end of the ternary blend tests. The ternary blends wereinvisible to the vehicle, with no malfunctionindicator light activity at all.An estimate of the cost of one of the blends (containing 10% by volume ethanol), basedon current individual costs of the individualcomponents, is made to be 10.1% cheaper
  4. 4. than gasoline, on an energy basis. Finally, there is a discussion of how renewablemethanolcan be introduced, aided by the ability of the existing flex-fuel vehicle fleet toaccept these fuel blends, and also of a means ofmanufacturing such fully-sustainablemethanol by a coupling of the electricity and gas grids to enable massive storage ofrenewableenergy.A key plot, and the basis of GEM mixtures being „easy‟ to introduce into E85 vehicles is:ANY COMBINATION ALONGTHE X AXIS WILL WORK IN AN FFVNichols, R.J., “The Methanol Story: A Sustainable Fuel for the Future”, J. Sci. Ind.Res., Vol. 62 , pp. 97-107, January-February2003 18 Aug 2012Notes: Roberta Nichols of FORD directed the Flex Fuel Vehicle Program.Quote from her Abstract:“Of the various choices, methanol appeared to be the best candida~ for long-term,widespread replacement ofpetroleum-based fuels. Initial support by the government wasbased on the desire for energy security, but the potential forimprovement in air qualitybecame an important driver as well. Experimental fleets of dedicated methanol vehiclesdid wellin the field, but the lack of refueling infrastructure led to the development of theflexible fuel vehicle (FFV), a vehicle thatcould operate on either gasoline or methanolwith only one fuel system Oll board. Legislation was put in place to encouragethe autoindustry to begin production, which started in 1993 for the M85 FFV at Ford. By the end
  5. 5. of the decade, however,full production volumes had been transferred to the E85 FFV(gasoline or ethanol). The technical, economic and politicalreasons for this shift areemphasised and are discussed below, including visions for the future, and the directmethanol fuel cell.”Ward and Teague 1996 “Fifteen Years of Fuel Methanol Distribution in California” accessed 16 Aug 2012Conclusions:The methanol demonstration program inCalifornia hos resulted in a number of successes,due primarily to cooperative efforts involving thefuel retailing compnnies, the vehiclemanufacturers, vehicle fleet operators and stateand local governmental agencies. The programhas demonstrated the feasibility of methanol as atransportation fuel in a variety of applications.The future of methanol as a motor fuel is now at acrossroads, poised as it is for furthercommercialization and yet facing strongcompetition from other fuels.Black, F., “An Overview of the Technical Implications of Methanol and Ethanol asHighway Motor Vehicle Fuels”, SAE paper number 912413 and SAE 1991Transactions, Vol. 100, Sec. 4, pp. 1161-1190Bossel, U., Eliasson, B. and Taylor, G., “The Future of the Hydrogen Economy:Bright or Bleak?”, Cogeneration and Distributed Generation Journal, Vol. 18, No.3, pp. 29-70, Summer 2003Hagen, D.L., “Methanol as a Fuel: A Review with Bibliography”, SAE paper number770792 and SAE 1977 Transactions, Sec. 4, pp. 2764-2796Machiele, P.A., “Summary of the Fire Safety Impacts of Methanol as aTransportation Fuel”, SAE paper number 901113, 1990Olah, G.A., Goeppert, A. and Prakash, G.K.S., “Beyond Oil and Gas: TheMethanol Economy”, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KgaA, Weinheim,
  6. 6. Germany, 2006, ISBN 3-527-31275-7Steinberg, M., “Methanol as an Agent for CO2 Mitigation”, Energy Convers.Mgmt,Vol. 38, Suppl., pp. S423-S430, 1997Weimer, T., Schaber, K., Specht, M. and Bandi, A., “Methanol from AtmosphericCarbon Dioxide: A Liquid Zero Emission Fuel for the Future”, Energy Convers.Mgmt, Vol. 37, Nos 6-8, pp. 1351-1356, 1996Bergström, K. ac, Melin, S.-A. and Jones, C.C., “The New ECOTEC TurboBioPower Engine from GM Powertrain - Utilizing the Power of Naturesresources”, 28th International Vienna Motor Symposium, Vienna, Austria, April2007Bergström, K. ac, Nordin, H., Königstein, A., Marriott, C.D. and Wiles, M.A.,“ABC - Alcohol Based Combustion Engines - Challenges and Opportunities”,16th Aachen Colloquium, Aachen, Germany, pp. 1031-1071, October 2007Brewster, S., “Initial Development of a Turbo-charged Direct Injection E100Combustion System”, SAE paper number 2007-01-3625 , 14th Asia-PacificAutomotive Engineering Conference, Hollywood, CA, USA, August 2007Brusstar, M., Stuhldreher, M., Swain, D. and Pidgeon, W., “High Efficiency andLow Emissions from a Port-Injected Engine with Neat Alcohol Fuels”, SAE papernumber 2002-01-2743, SAE Powertrain & Fluid Systems Conference &Exhibition, San Diego, CA, USA, October 2002Brusstar, M.J. and Gray, C.L., “High Efficiency with Future Alcohol Fuels in aStoichiometric Medium Duty Spark Ignition Engine”, SAE paper number 2007-01-3993, SAE Powertrain & Fluid Systems Conference & Exhibition, Chicago,
  7. 7. IL, USA, October 2007Kowalewicz, A., “Methanol as a fuel for spark ignition engines: a review andanalysis”, Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs Journal of Automotive Engineering, Vol. 27,Part D, pp.43-52, 1993Pearson, R.J. and Turner, J.W.G., “Exploitation of Energy Resources and FutureAutomotive Fuels”, SAE paper number 2007-01-0034, SAE Fuels andEmissions Conference, Cape Town, South Africa, 23rd-25thJanuary, 2007Turner, J.W.G., Pearson, R.J., Holland, B. and Peck, B., “Alcohol-Based Fuels inHigh Performance Engines”, SAE paper number 2007-01-0056, SAE Fuels andEmissions Conference, Cape Town, South Africa, 23rd-25thJanuary, 2007Turner, J.W.G., Peck, A and Pearson, R.J., “Flex-Fuel Vehicle Development toPromote Synthetic Alcohols as the Basis of a Potential Negative-CO2Energy Economy”, SAE paper number 2007-01-3618, 14th Asia-Pacific AutomotiveEngineering Conference, Hollywood, CA, USA, August 2007