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Drug Problem         Thailand Based                              Submit to     Assoc. Prof. Dr.Prapat Thepchatree         ...
19/09/11                                                                  Drug Problem in Thailand Report                 ...
19/09/11                                  Drug Problem in Thailand Report                        3Executive summaryImpress...
19/09/11                                 Drug Problem in Thailand Report                       4Introduction           D R...
19/09/11                                   Drug Problem in Thailand Report                       5        Executed is occu...
19/09/11                                Drug Problem in Thailand Report                      6In International          Th...
19/09/11                               Drug Problem in Thailand Report                      7          Production became p...
19/09/11                               Drug Problem in Thailand Report                      8          After 1933, Japan i...
19/09/11                                  Drug Problem in Thailand Report                      9Common types drugs in this...
19/09/11                                    Drug Problem in Thailand Report                    10    4.   Amphetamines (YA...
19/09/11                                 Drug Problem in Thailand Report                      11Drugs and society        W...
19/09/11                                  Drug Problem in Thailand Report                      12The causes of drug proble...
19/09/11                                 Drug Problem in Thailand Report                        13        Eighty per cent ...
19/09/11                                 Drug Problem in Thailand Report                        14        Now the Shinawat...
19/09/11                                 Drug Problem in Thailand Report                         15ILLICIT DRUGS TRAFFICKI...
19/09/11                                 Drug Problem in Thailand Report                      16Cocaine trafficking       ...
19/09/11                                  Drug Problem in Thailand Report                  17arrested with approximately 1...
19/09/11                       Drug Problem in Thailand Report          18Modus Operation/Routes           MYANMAR        ...
19/09/11                           Drug Problem in Thailand Report                     191 Heroin trafficking routes:     ...
19/09/11                                 Drug Problem in Thailand Report                     20Criminal Organization/syndi...
19/09/11                                Drug Problem in Thailand Report                       21From BuyerCause of Thai pe...
19/09/11                                  Drug Problem in Thailand Report                          22Thai people addict Ca...
19/09/11                                 Drug Problem in Thailand Report                       23Illegal drug analysisFact...
19/09/11                             Drug Problem in Thailand Report                  24Attemp to fix the problemRoyal Dut...
19/09/11                             Drug Problem in Thailand Report                 25watershed and to gradually stop the...
19/09/11                             Drug Problem in Thailand Report                 26farmer around 450 million bath in 2...
19/09/11                                  Drug Problem in Thailand Report                        27Government, Official an...
19/09/11                                            Drug Problem in Thailand Report                   287 plans includePla...
19/09/11                                 Drug Problem in Thailand Report                      29        Social fence is cr...
19/09/11                                 Drug Problem in Thailand Report                      30International/Regional Coo...
19/09/11                                Drug Problem in Thailand Report                      31States. This investigation ...
19/09/11                                 Drug Problem in Thailand Report                      32Furthermore, both countrie...
19/09/11                                  Drug Problem in Thailand Report                        33immobilized the Chicago...
19/09/11                                 Drug Problem in Thailand Report                     34           For Mr. Ericsson...
19/09/11                                 Drug Problem in Thailand Report                  35Information sharing & Resource...
19/09/11                               Drug Problem in Thailand Report                36    4) Laws on controlling precurs...
19/09/11                                  Drug Problem in Thailand Report                         37Laws Enforcement Agenc...
19/09/11                                 Drug Problem in Thailand Report                        381.4 Central Investigatio...
19/09/11                                      Drug Problem in Thailand Report                 39Example Case- Between 6-7t...
19/09/11                                Drug Problem in Thailand Report                      402.5 Anti-Money Laundering  ...
19/09/11                             Drug Problem in Thailand Report             41 Arrest/Seizure/Raids/Operations (stati...
19/09/11                          Drug Problem in Thailand Report   42          3 Dried Marihuana25,00020,000             ...
19/09/11                           Drug Problem in Thailand Report   43           8 Methamphetamine           Hydrochlorid...
19/09/11                            Drug Problem in Thailand Report                   44Statistic of arrest in ASEAN membe...
Drug Problem Thailand based
Drug Problem Thailand based
Drug Problem Thailand based
Drug Problem Thailand based
Drug Problem Thailand based
Drug Problem Thailand based
Drug Problem Thailand based
Drug Problem Thailand based
Drug Problem Thailand based
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Drug Problem Thailand based

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TU120 Integrated Social Sciences
Drug Problem Thailand based

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Assoc. Prof. Dr.Prapat Thepchatree

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Drug Problem Thailand based

  1. 1. Drug Problem Thailand Based Submit to Assoc. Prof. Dr.Prapat Thepchatree …Drug problem research team (Group 10) Tanakom Muangsakul 5122790124 Chayut Bhamornsuwan 5122790645 Thesis Denchartphan 5122790306 Ariyachai Chaimanat 5122790389 Harich Nuntachote 5122770084 Sittan Sathianphattanakool 5122779092 Nunchanok Daolomchan 5122790132 Thammachart Tula 5122800568 Vorapong Supaksirichot 5122790751 Nirach Wasusopon 5022800148 Jinnawat Pinchai 5422800433
  2. 2. 19/09/11 Drug Problem in Thailand Report 2Table of ContentsExecutive Summary...................................................................................................................................... 3Introduction .................................................................................................................................................... 4Historical Drug Background .............................................................................................. 4 In Thailand ................................................................................................................... 5 In International ............................................................................................................ 6Common types of drug in this moment and their effect ................................................... 9Drug and Society ........................................................................................................... 11The cause of drug problems ................................................................................................................ 12From Seller ..................................................................................................................... 12 Why sell drug in Thailand ........................................................................................... 12 Drugs trafficking ....................................................................................................... 15 Modus operation/Routes ............................................................................................ 18 Criminal operation/Syndicate ..................................................................................... 19From Buyer .................................................................................................................... 21 Cause of Thai people’s drug addict ............................................................................. 21 Thai people addict case ............................................................................................. 22Illegal drug analysis ....................................................................................................... 23Attempt to solve the problem ............................................................................................................... 24Royal Duties ................................................................................................................... 24Government, Official and Agencies ................................................................................. 27 National drug control strategy .................................................................................... 27 Government policies ................................................................................................... 27 Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra ................................................................... 27 Prime Minister Abhisit Vejjajiva ......................................................................... 28 Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra .................................................................... 29 International/Regional Cooperation............................................................................. 30 Information sharing and resource ............................................................................... 35 Legal Framework to combat Drugs (Laws) ................................................................... 35 Law enforcement Agencies .......................................................................................... 37 Arrest/Seizure/Raids/Operations (Statistic in Thailand) .............................................. 41 Statistic of arrest in ASEAN .......................................................................................... 44 Arrest forfeiture .......................................................................................................... 45Solution ........................................................................................................................................................... 46Treatment and Rehabilitation ........................................................................................ 46Drug addict’s treatment and rehabilitation of Yingluck Government Policy ..................... 49Drug rehabilitation of WAT THAM KRABOK .................................................................... 49Relapse Prevention ......................................................................................................... 50 Why relapse prevention is necessary ........................................................................... 50 To solve social surrounding ........................................................................................ 50Our Conclusion, recommendation and analysis .......................................................................... 51Reference ....................................................................................................................................................... 52
  3. 3. 19/09/11 Drug Problem in Thailand Report 3Executive summaryImpression to research Based on the seriousness of drug situation since Thailand has long been facingthe problem of illicit drug production, illicit drug trafficking and illicit drug consumption,the Nation has placed drug control as the national agenda. The drug control policy hasbeen placed as the top priority of every Government. But the problem the nation still face to seriousness of drug problem. So we needto analyze the drug problem from drug seller and drug addict views.Objective • Studying the background of drug problem and the effect to society. • To know common drug in this moment for create avoiding plan. • To know the origin of cause of problem from realistic seller and buyer. • Analyze the attempt to solve the problem from different way such as Royal duties and Government. • Then improve the solution to solve problem.Method and Methodology First of all, we study and find information to know the origin or background ofdrug problem. Then collect the information of the cause of problem from Seller and buyerview and make an analysis. After that we collect the attempt to solve the problem fromdifferent source and organization. Finally, We analyze all of the knowledge and improve the solution and finalize thereport and presentation.Result of the research After we done all of the process, this report is benefit to study the background ofdrug and deeply in drug situation of Thailand in this moment and to illustrate that whydrug problem is the most seriousness problem all of the time. In this report, Drugabusers and addicts are regarded as "patients" who should receive appropriate treatmentand rehabilitation but the drug seller must be punished.
  4. 4. 19/09/11 Drug Problem in Thailand Report 4Introduction D RUG TRAFFICKING SITUATION IN T HAILAND IN 2010 WAS MUCH DIFFERENT FROM 2009.H OWEVER , NUMBERS OF DRUG OFFENDERS AND DRUG CASES IN THIS YEAR WERE LOWER THAN LASTYEAR ’ S BUT QUANTITIES OF SOME KINDS OF SEIZED DRUGS WERE IN HIGH VOLUME SUCH ASKETAMINE , COCAINE , CRYSTALLIZED METHAMPHETAMINE OR ICE, AND METHAMPHETAMINE (YABAPILL ). M ETHAMPHETAMINE WAS STILL THE MAJOR DRUG IN THE COUNTRY WHILE ICE WASCONTINUALLY RISING . I RANIAN ICE TRAFFICKERS WERE CAUGHT FREQUENTLY AT THE AIRPORT INTHIS PERIOD . M OREOVER , THE EMERGING OF COLD MEDICINE TABLETS CONTAINING PSEUDO -EPHEDRINE WAS NOTICED . I T HAD BEEN SEIZED IN LARGE QUANTITIES ( SEVERAL MILLION TABLETS )SINCE LAST YEAR . I T WAS BELIEVED THAT THESE PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS WERE BEINGHIPPED TO THE DRUG PRODUCING SITES TO PRODUCE METHAMPHETAMINE . A CCORDING TO THECONCERNED DRUG TRAFFICKERS , THE W EST A FRICAN DRUG NETWORKS ACTIVELY INVOLVED INSHIFTING HEROINE FROM S OUTHEAST A SIA TO OTHER REGIONS .Historical Drug BackgroundIn Thailand Human related to drugs for a long time ago. The first type that occurs in Thailandis opium. From the evident the Opium occur in Thailand in Pra jao U-thong the king of Ayudhya around 1903 or 600 years ago. That appeared in law. From this law said person who consume, sale, eat have to be punish for forfeit wife child assets to state property. Although the punishment is so high penalty but it have Unauthorized trading occur for the time. So some head of state is addicted to opium or vendor of opium. The result is Ayudhya cannot quit from the opium. In the period of Rattanakosin, Rama1 Legislate to stop vendor or consume but it is ineffective. In Rama2 He determine higher penalty. In Rama3 is the period, England get opium from India and sale to Chinese so more consumer in china and this periodcorresponding to many Chinese vendors go to Thailand So it cause of many drug addict inThailand. So he tries to determine higher penalty. In Rama4 he see the penalty is noteffective so he change the policy that is allow Chinese consume and sale in legal but theyhave to pay the tax so it become many revenue for Thailand around 400000 baht. Andthen in Rama5 the situation seem like rama4 and have many people consumed opium.Therefore Rama5 try to fix the tax policy cause to reduce drug addict but it is noteffective In 2502 revolutionary group led by Sarit Thanarat. They consider about takingdrug is scorn of society and it is dangerous for health any country try to stop takingstrictly prohibited. So they try to prohibit opium addict in Thailand. Later they destroyedmany opium that taken from people. Moreover they determine higher penalty. So in thisperiod drug addict is illegal. In addition to that the government making drugs treatmentfor drugs addict. And repression is very strictly.
  5. 5. 19/09/11 Drug Problem in Thailand Report 5 Executed is occur but drugs problem is not decrease and In addition, the drughas been transformed into Heroin. Which is produced by a change in the opium call“morphine” by chemical it more affects than opium, and Epidemic in Thailand. Found inSeptember 2502. Heroin spread in old opium addict. Because they can easily to pump byburn in the paper lead and they do not need the pipe for pump. And does not have smellwhen they pump. And To escape the law, it is easier than smoke opium.Historical drug background in Thailand in brief Sukhothai Ayudhya Rattanakosin Rattanakosin 2498-present• Product • Product In Rama2 In Rama6 In Sarit period from China from China. • Higher penalty • Opium is still • Source of product• No laws • Begin widely controlled by is Myanmar border. used In Rama3 the • Termination of • Become • Product from government. government opium illegal China, more stores. trading and In Rama7 • Become illegal. trafficking by • Opium is still • Switching from “Aung Yi” widely popular. opium to heroin • The migration of • Government product. Chinese into provides a • Amphetamine has a Thailand brings store of opium serious epidemic many smokers. in some city. among the Illegal. workers. • Suppression and arrest so strictly. In Rama4 • They are widely popular. Legal for Chinese people. Apply tax system. • Thai people strictly prohibited. In Rama5 • : More illegal trading. Set up the Department of opium. Nowadays Drugs problem is appear in Thai people in many different styles.In Hill tribes Northern of Thailand, Part of a career is opium cultivation. And most of thesepeople smoke the opium. Among people in rural areas has been smoking opium,marijuana, amphetamine in widespread. The following problem is the spread of drugaddiction are now in country and Bangkok especially amphetamine which widely in mostcommunity It is a big problem that everyone must work together to fix this problem.
  6. 6. 19/09/11 Drug Problem in Thailand Report 6In International The British East India Company was instrumental in expanding the opium tradetowards the end of the 18th century. Founded in 1600, the British East India Companywas given monopoly on trade with the East Indies by the British Crown. Critical to theopium trade was the British East India Company’s trade monopoly in Bengal and Bihar.Bengal and Bihar were already important producers of opium. The monopoly aimed atmaximizing profits from opium. Therefore use policy Colonialism and Brought opiumfrom India to China does eventually come to the Opium War between China and England.Opium exports from India to China rose from just 75 metric tons in 1775 to more than2,500 tons in 1839. The opium business turned out to be highly lucrative and not exclusively forthe British East India Company. From close to negligible amounts, the proportion ofopium in total Chinese imports rose to around 50% in the first decade of the 19th centuryand remained at that level or higher for most of the rest of the 19th century. All of thischanged with the intensified trade in opium. The opium sold illegally in China China attempted to prevent these opium imports by decisively going after the opiumsmugglers, resulting in two so called ‘opium wars’, 1839-42 and 1856-60, in which Chinawas defeated. China is surrender and the amount of compensation to the English Up to 21million US dollars. Then Chinese were weaker. Until Chiang Kai-Shek. The executions ofpeople addicted to opium a lot. The Chinese trade account eroded quickly under the pressure of thelegalization of opium imports and rising demand for opium in China. This impact was notreversed until Chinese authorities gradually allowed domestic farmers to grow opiumpoppy (after 1880). This policy was successful in reducing China’s trade deficit. After1880, rising levels of domestic production helped to curb opium imports and thusreduced the outflow of silver.
  7. 7. 19/09/11 Drug Problem in Thailand Report 7 Production became pervasive and was reported from 20 Chinese provinces.More than 40% of the total production (238,000 piculs or 14,400 tons, i.e. almost twicethe current opium production in Afghanistan) took place in the province of Szechwan,followed by Yunnan (78,000 piculs or 4,700 tons). Yunnan province is located in southernChina, bordering Myanmar and Szechwan province is located north of Yunnan. In otherwords, more than half of China’s opium production took place slightly to the North of thegeo- graphical area, which would become known as Golden Triangle (Myanmar, Laos andThailand). Opium use also affected Chinese populations outside China. In the USA, forinstance, estimates suggested that 30% of adult males of Chinese origin were addicted toopium smoking. Even higher proportions were reported for adult males of Chinese originliving in Southeast Asian countries.
  8. 8. 19/09/11 Drug Problem in Thailand Report 8 After 1933, Japan invaded China by using drug as a tool. So it makes Chinamore difficult drugs problem. Because more types of drug problems. In addition, opiumhas spread everywhere. China was suppressing drug problem with Strong and decisiveway. Then we will mention a history of drug abuse in Hong Kong and Japan. WhenThe Opium War between China and England and Hong Kong is the British colonized. Itmakes lack of freedom in China because Hong Kong is like a face of China in term ofcontact with the free world. In fact, the drug does not produce in Hong Kong. It wassmuggled from China Burma, Laos and Thailand. Formerly, it was smuggled into HongKong. Then produced into heroin in Hong Kong. But today most of heroin smuggledinto Hong Kong. Hong Kong is free port no tax for incoming and outgoing. Therefore theinspection of product is not strictly omitting the illegal product. Hong Kong is like thegateway to the east so it is a great source of the smuggled drugs exports. And if compareamount if drug product with population considered that Hong Kong have many drugsuser too. Although Hong Kong try to suppress strictly by establish Narcotics Bureau inpolice department. And set up special unit to suppress the drugs (Special narcoticssection) in the department of trade and industry for suppresses the smuggling of drugsinto Hong Kong by stay at the airport to check passenger in and out. These two agenciesare coordinate and cooperate closely with agencies of various countries. According tostatistic the person who suspect in criminal case generally has 60percent is associatedwith drugs just like in Thailand 58 percent associated with drugs. So Hong Konggovernment has established a special prison on Kowloon side (TAI LAM PRISON) fortreatment of drug addict. In Japan said they not have drugs problem before. Opium and morphine wasspread in japan when the war between China and Japan. Since that time the drugs hasspread rapidly and widely throughout in Japan. Until 2490 drugs problem in Japan moreserious drugs enforcement commission was announce that now Japan have to buy drugsfrom aboard. By illegally import from Hong Kong and Taiwan. The number of drugs addictin Japan is more than 200,000 people and increasing rapidly.
  9. 9. 19/09/11 Drug Problem in Thailand Report 9Common types drugs in this moment and their effects 1. Marijuana Cannabis Marijuana cannabis is also known as Marry Jane. It is illegal drug that most consumedin the world. After the cannabis saliva’s leaves and flowers are dried, they can be used tosmoke, added to foods and used to make tea. It is commonly added to a cigarette, andinformally called as a “spiff” or a “joint”. In the Western countries, they often bakecannabis with brownies. Sometimes marijuana is legally used in medication. Cancer, AIDS and glaucomapatients claim that cannabis helps to relieve their symptoms. Short-term effects: Cannabis gives feeling of relaxation, euphoria or drowsiness. Itcan also make the consumer nervous or even paranoid. It may cause people to feel veryhungry after the consumption. Using cannabis affects the consumer short-term memoryand coordination. Long-term effects: If cannabis is used for a long time, it irritates the respiratorysystem and can lead to bronchitis and lung cancer. The other long-term effects can belack of motivation and difficulty of concentration. 2. Cocaine Cocaine is taken from the leaves of coca often found in Andes of Bolivia, Peru andColumbia. It became very popular recreational drug and known as snow, blow and flake. Itcan be smoked, snorted and injected. Short-term effects: Cocaine produces the feeling of euphoria in the consumer. Itincreases the blood pressure and heart rate, causing the user to feel energetic and alert. Long-Term effects: Cocaine-addicts often have chronic runny nose. Cocaine impairsthe ability of smelling and decreases the tasting ability. Users are at risk of heart attackand paralysis. Difficulty sleeping, fatigue, headaches and nausea are the symptoms ofconsumption of cocaine over a long period of time. 3. Heroin Heroin is made from morphine and also informally known as H, smack, junk or horse.This illegal drug can be injected, smoked and snorted but injection seems to be the mostcommon way of consumption. Short-term effects: Heroin gives the feeling of euphoria followed by alternate feelingsof alertness, relaxation and drowsiness. The consumers experience dry mouth, a heavyfeeling in extremities and a warm skin flush. It also decreases the respiration rate of theusers. Long-term effects: Since heroin decreases the respiration rate, there is also apossibility of respiratory arrest, which may cause death. Consumers who share the sameneedle in heroin injection are at risk of HIV/AIDS and hepatitis. It can also causemiscarriage, pneumonia and live & kidney diseases.
  10. 10. 19/09/11 Drug Problem in Thailand Report 10 4. Amphetamines (YABA) Amphetamines are those illegal drugs that chemically act similar to adrenaline (theymimic the effects of adrenaline). There are many different forms of amphetamines butmost of them appear in the forms of capsule and tablet. This drug can be ingested orally,injected, sniffed and smoked. Short-term effects: Amphetamine gives the feelings of energetic and confident.These effects can last up to 12 hours and some people continue consuming to remain theeffects of the drugs. Long-term effects: The consumers will need more and more amount ofamphetamines as they continue over a long period of time because the users’ bodies willresist the drug actions which mean they will have to consume more to make the effects ofamphetamines work. They increase the strain on the heart and blood pressure. They alsoincrease the risks of heart disease, heart attack and stroke. 5. Ecstasy (MDMA - methylene-dioxymethyl amphetamine) Ecstasy often comes in the forms of white, yellow or brown tablet, capsule andpowder. It can be crunched and snorted. Some ecstasy tablets are stamped with images,making them look like candies. It is also known as love drug, X and XTC. Short-term effects: Ecstasy gives the feeling of happiness. It lets the consumer feelmore comfortable in social situations. These feelings will continue for 1-6 hours. After theeffects are gone, user may feel resentful, unhappy, and anxious. Long-term effects: Since ecstasy increases heart rate and blood pressure, it maycause heart attack or stroke. Because of it is often used in nightclubs when users may bepartying for long period, dehydration can be another great danger. It may also lead toloss of memory. 6. LSD - lysergic acid diethylamide LSD is a hallucinogenic drug, which comes in liquid, or tablet forms. It can be takenorally and has a soft bitter taste. It is also known as acid, boomer and “Lucy in the skywith diamonds”. Short-term effects: LSD creates hallucinations and user will be in absent-mindedlystate. There is no way to predict that the hallucinations will be good or bad and they willlast for some hours. It makes the pupils dilate, increases heart rate and blood pressure.Insomnia and tremor are common effect after consumption. Some consumers may feelparanoid or anxious while under its influence. Long-term effects: LSD consumers will experience hallucinations even though theyare not under the influence, and this may continue up to 12 months after use. LSD mayalso cause depression and schizophrenia.
  11. 11. 19/09/11 Drug Problem in Thailand Report 11Drugs and society While many people are focusing on political problems, the one problem that isoverlooked is drug problem. Drug problem is one of the biggest problems in Thailand.Every society and every community are affected by this problem since drugs wereintroduced in Thailand. Although we tried really hard to get rid of illegal drugs but wenever were successful. As days go by, drug problem is becoming more and more seriousand needed to be solved as soon as possible.Drugs give effects many things in society. For examples: 1. Effects on individual: Every kind of illegal drugs directly affects health and mind of the consumers. They also bring death and loss of properties to the consumers. 2. Effects on families: Any society or community, which has addicted consumers, is in trouble because of them. The people are suffering from conflicts, difficulties and loss of time to solve the problem. Addicted consumers often commit crimes such as theft, harming other people and gambling. For the head of the family, if they get caught because of involvement in drugs, their family members surely have to face difficulties in surviving on society. Sometimes students are suspended from schools because of their addicted parents. 3. Effects on nation management The increment of drug cases gives burden to the whole system of Ministry of Justice, increases the expenses of government and also slows down other cases. Besides, drugs can bring corruption, bribe and extortion. 4. Effects on economic Although producing and selling drugs are businesses but they are illegal businesses, which wickedly take advantages of the innocents and government. The government needs to spend a lot of expenses on drug prevention, drug elimination and also curing and giving therapy to addicted people. They have to waste a lot of money, which could be used in many projects, which could bring benefits to the country. 5. Effects on stability and reputation of the country The dispersion of drugs spoils reputation and dignity of Thailand. The foreigners are afraid to come to Thailand because they are concerned about their safety and properties.
  12. 12. 19/09/11 Drug Problem in Thailand Report 12The causes of drug problems.From SellerWhy selling drug in Thailand? Figure 1 Criminals are packing drug for transporting According to the US Department of State, Thailand is home to the worst abuseof methamphetamine in the world. The Thai word for meth is “YA BA” or crazydrug. Little tablets of the substance retail for about 50 baht ($1.20) each making themeasily accessible to all Thai people, with the poor and disadvantaged in slum communitiesespecially vulnerable. In Thailand, the government estimates that an astounding 800 million yaa baatablets were imported and consumed last year, enough for every man, woman andchild in the country to smoke a dozen each! A recent statistic states that at least 1 in 60people in Thailand are meth users. Yaa Baa is said to flood the brain with dopamine, the body’s natural pleasurechemical. When people are trying to get off the drug, it is said to have caused permanentmental damage and made people “go crazy.” There is no type of methadone cure to helpusers get free of it. Its use is on the rise globally, but especially in Asia because of itsease of production and cost. Myanmar or Burma, particularly Wastage, is the main producer for theregion. The drug sales are used to fuel to Wa state army, a pro-Yangon ethnic group saidto operate around 50 laboratories close to the border, as well as mobile production units. “Alleged links between Myanmar’s military rulers and the UWSA — and theresulting lack of law enforcement — as well as the remote jungle canopy under which theUWSA operate, conspire to make Myanmar an unrivalled regional producer.”
  13. 13. 19/09/11 Drug Problem in Thailand Report 13 Eighty per cent of illegal drugs enter in from three provinces–Chiang Mai,Chiang Rai and Mae Hong Son– located near the drug production bases. Some of thisarea being known as the infamous “Golden Triangle” which was and still is in many ways amajor center for opium production. It is under the regular surveillance of the Thaimilitary and undercover Thai DEA agents though corruption is said to still be rampant. A Thai general was quoted recently saying that if they caught 10% of the drugscoming through Bangkok that it would be a good number! You can easily do the math,but that means over 90% is getting through yet in 2009 over 135,000 people werearrested in drug related offenses in Thailand. On the street, even urine tests that comeup positive can land a person in jail. It has been noted that unless something is done to counter this trend, “Morelikely, these countries and societies will have to write off vast swaths of their populationsas drug casualties, like the American victims of the ’80s crack epidemic.”“Counseling facilities are scarce and recovery from drug addiction is still viewed as amatter of willpower and discipline rather than a tenuous and slow spiritual andpsychological rebuilding process.” “In Thailand the few recovery centers suffer from a chronic shortage of staffand beds. While the most powerful tools for fighting addiction in the West 12-stepprograms derived from Alcoholics Anonymous are available in Asia, their disseminationand implementation do not reach much of the region.” In one now infamous Aljazeera interview with a Thai military Colonel who runsone of Thailand’s drug treatments camps for young offenders, tells the addicts theyshould “eat plenty of fish sauce” if they want to get over the addiction. He went on tosay, “It replaces calcium and makes you sweat. The drugs come out with yoursweat.” This is an example of the lack of understanding and ability to handle the realissues involved. Use of yaa baa is said to be widespread now in Thailand. Owners of boats inthe southern coastal province of Ranong and construction foremen in Bangkok are knownto force their workers to take the drug at the beginning of the workday. Occasionally inrural areas, “the farmers dissolve the drug in a bottle which they drink while working. Butit is Thailand’s youth who are most at risk. Consumers are as young as seven and“school has become one of the main hubs for trafficking of methamphetamine. In 2003 then Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra instigated a now infamous waron drugs. Thaksin claimed to be doing this in response to a speech from His Majesty TheKing who called for a solution to the methamphetimine problem that had been plaguingThailand. Over the next three months over 2,500 people died in what many havecalled a vigilante style justice handed down by the Thai government.
  14. 14. 19/09/11 Drug Problem in Thailand Report 14 Now the Shinawatra government led by Thaksin’s younger sister Yingluck isdeclaring a new way on drugs, but stops short of going back to those dark days of2003. The Thai laws on drug use, sales, and trafficking are still some of the harshest inthe world.Note to foreigners reading: If you are coming to Thailand to “party” and use drugs, I have one piece of advice:DON’T! You are taking your life into your own hands. These issues are not as “easygoing” in Thailand as you may be presuming. Things are tightening up immensely. Youmay very well end up in Bangkok’s notorious KlongPrem prison like the American man Imentioned. The Thai authorities would like to make an example of you and Iwouldn’t blame them. The drug problem here is bad. It needs to be dealt with stronglyand I believe we will see many more arrests in the near future, especially foreigners. For the Thai suffering under the effects of this “crazy” drug there seems to belittle real hope; no good outlook for the future. Taught all of their lives to depend only onthemselves, addicts are considered weak and mainly written off for not overcoming theaddiction on their own. It is each man for him. In the mind some of the religious, it has to do with theirown ignorance and karma. They are merely suffering their own predestined fate. No onecan really help them.
  15. 15. 19/09/11 Drug Problem in Thailand Report 15ILLICIT DRUGS TRAFFICKING Figure 2 Drug trafficking route from neighborHeroin trafficking Thailand is still one of the transit countries for heroin trafficking from the GoldenTriangle to international markets. In 2010, 114,359.8 grams of heroin were seizednationwide, involving 410 offenders in 379 drug cases. Most of the heroin was smuggledinto the Kingdom from the Golden Triangle area with onward deliveries to the thirdcountries, namely Malaysia, China and Taiwan. Of the said quantities seized,approximately 10 kilograms of heroin were interdicted and seized from Pakistaninationals at the Suvarnabhumi International Airport. Those Pakistani couriers werereportedly hired by African drug trafficking groups to smuggle the Golden Crescent-sourced ‘heroin into Thailand. Heroin is also smuggled in and out of the Kingdom by waysof air and sea. The price of heroin per kilogram at Thai-Burmese border stands at 750,000Thai Baht (approximately 25,000 US Dollars) and the price in Bangkok is at 5 million ThaiBaht (approximately 166,000 US Dollars). Heroin trafficking routes: Golden Crescent area - India - Thailand - China Golden Crescent area - Pakistan - Thailand Golden Triangle area - Thailand - Malaysia -China Thailand - Malaysia - Australia Thailand – Taiwan
  16. 16. 19/09/11 Drug Problem in Thailand Report 16Cocaine trafficking African drug trafficking groups are engaged in smuggling cocaine from SouthAmerica through international airports in ASEAN countries for deliveries to the thirdcountries, e.g. Malaysia, the Philippines, Japan, Hong Kong SAR and Thailand. In 2010,48J38.5 grams of cocaine were seized nationwide, involving 74 offenders and 70 drugcases. With regard to drug interdiction at Suvarnabhumi International Airport in 2010, 6Filipino female couriers and one Nigerian courier were apprehended and nearly 17kilograms of cocaine were seized from them. Cocaine trafficking routes: Peru - UAE - Bangkok Peru - Brazil- UAE - Thailand Brazil- UAE – ThailandMethamphetamine (Yaba) Yaba remains the most abused synthetic drug in Thailand. It comes in round-shaped tablet in orange or green color imprinted with WY logo. One tablet contains 10-25% of methamphetamine and 60-70% of caffeine. Yaba has been smuggled fromneighboring countries into Thailand. In 2010, 51,156,246 tablets of Yaba were seizednationwide, involving 215,506 offenders with 207,054 drug cases. The price of Yaba fromMyanmar is at 75 Thai Baht (approximately 2.5 US Dollars) per tablet and the street valueis at 250-300 Thai Baht (approximately 8-10 US Dollars) per tablet. Myanmar-Thailand Myanmar- Lao PDR-Thailand Myanmar-Lao PDR- Cambodia- ThailandMarihuana Marihuana growing in Thailand is very minimal due to continued eradication andsuppression by law enforcement agencies. Dried marihuana seized in Thailand has beensmuggled into the Kingdom from neighboring countries on the northeastern borderlinesfor domestic consumption, mostly on Samui Island, and for international markets, such asMalaysia. Marihuana trafficking routes: Laos, crossing the Mekong River - Thailand Thailand – MalaysiaCrystal Methamphetamine Hydrochloride (ICE) Presently, ICE has been emerging as another threat to national security due to itsinflux into the Kingdom from neighboring countries. Most of the drug refineries thatproduce Yaba have turned to produce ICE also. ICE is smuggled into Thailand by Asiancouriers through Thailand-Myanmar border and Thailand-Cambodia border for domesticconsumption and onward deliveries to Malaysia, the Philippines, Hong Kong SAR andJapan. In recent years, ICE smuggled into Thailand is sourced to Iran and some Africancountries like Ghana and Mali. ICE from Iran and airplane passengers of Iranian andAfrican or Asian origin transport African countries into the Kingdom respectively. In 2010,2,005,111.7 grams of Ice were seized nationwide, involving 10,033 offenders and 9,101drug cases. In relation to drug interdiction at Suvarnabhumi International Airport in 2010,a total of nearly 165 kilograms of ICE were seized from the offenders. (75 Iranians were
  17. 17. 19/09/11 Drug Problem in Thailand Report 17arrested with approximately 117 kilograms, 17 Africans were arrested with approximately26 kilograms, and couriers of other nationalities were arrested with approximately 20kilograms.) The price of Ice per kilogram at Thai-Burmese border stands at 1 - 1.2 millionThai Baht (approximately 33,000 - 40,000 US Dollars) and the retail price is about 3,000Thai Baht (approximately 100 US Dollars) per gram. So far, ICE production labs have not been identified in Thailand yet. ICE trafficking routes: Thailand-Myanmar border - Central Thailand- Southern Thailand - Malaysia Iran- a Middle East country - an Asian country Africa - a Middle East country - Thailand - Cambodia or Malaysia
  18. 18. 19/09/11 Drug Problem in Thailand Report 18Modus Operation/Routes MYANMAR LAOS ANDAMAN CAMBODIA SEA GULF OF THAILAND Figure 3 Blue: Meth, Red : Heroin, Green : Marijuana
  19. 19. 19/09/11 Drug Problem in Thailand Report 191 Heroin trafficking routes: Golden Crescent area -India - Thailand - China Golden Crescent area - Pakistan – Thailand Golden Triangle area - Thailand - Malaysia -China Thailand - Malaysia - Australia Thailand - Taiwan India – Nepal - China India - UAE – Thailand - China Pakistan - Malaysia - Thailand – China2 Cocaine trafficking routes: Peru - UAE - Bangkok Peru - Brazil- UAE - Thailand Brazil- UAE - Thailand India - Peru - Bangkok Philippines - Bangkok Brazil-UAE - Bangkok Benin - Bangkok India – Bangkok3 Methamphetamine (Yaba) routes: Myanmar-Thailand Myanmar- Lao PDR-Thailand Myanmar-Lao PDR- Cambodia- Thailand4 Marihuana trafficking routes: Laos, crossing the Mekong River - Thailand Thailand – Malaysia5 ICE trafficking routes: Thailand - Myanmar border - Central Thailand - Southern Thailand - Malaysia Iran - a Middle East country- an Asian country Africa - a Middle East country - Thailand - Cambodia or Malaysia Tehran (Iran) - Bangkok, Tehran (Iran) – Syria - Turkey - Bangkok Tehran (Iran) - Doha (Qatar) - Bangkok Shiraz (Iran) - Bahrain - Bangkok Istanbul (Turkey) – Bangkok Dubai (UAE) - Bangkok, Abu Dhabi (UAE) - Bangkok Amman (Jordan) - Damascus (Syria) - Bangkok Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) - Bangkok - Malaysia Mali- Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) - Bangkok - Benin South Africa - Ethiopia - Bangkok Ghana - Bangkok Nigeria - Cairo - Bangkok Myanmar – Bangkok – Philippines6 Ecstasy routes: Netherlands-Thailand
  20. 20. 19/09/11 Drug Problem in Thailand Report 20Criminal Organization/syndicates Figure 5 Criminals are arrested by polices.African syndicate - The most well known group which is mainly associated to drugs - West African syndicate is the worst and ruthless group which people in this group is known to be the most wanted - Oblige innocent to handle the drug to different countries - Most of victims are Filipinos or AsiansUnited Wa State Army (UWSA) - Most prolific ethnic trafficking group in Burma, 16,000 “active duty” troops - Opium, Heroin and Methamphetamine production - Supplies drug trafficking groups with opium, heroin, and methamphetamine, which are then reportedly transported to the Thailand-Burma borderShan State Army (SSA) - Involved in drug trade in northern Thailand - Controls key areas along the northern Thailand–Burma border - Some SSA units along the border are involved in taxing drug caravans as they cross into northern Thailand - Engaged in combat against the Burmese Army since December 2010Kachin Defense Army (KDA)/Kachin Independence Army (KIA) - Operates and is alleged to protect drug factories - During June 2011, fighting erupted between the KIA and the Burma Army in the Kachin State, Burma
  21. 21. 19/09/11 Drug Problem in Thailand Report 21From BuyerCause of Thai people addict Some people are able to use recreational or prescription drugs without everexperiencing negative consequences or addiction. For many others, substance use cancause problems at work, home, school, and in relationships, leaving you feeling isolated,helpless, or ashamed. What is the reason that leads the people to be drug addict? Hereare reasons why people turn to drugs. • Stress. A recent study by the Partnership for a Drug-Free showed that 73percent of teens report the number-one reason for using drugs is to deal with thepressures and stress of school. Surprisingly, only 7 percent of parents believe that teensmight use drugs to cope with stress, showing parents severely underestimate the impactof stress on their teens’ decision to use drugs. • Social Acceptance and low Self-Esteem. A 2007 study reported 65 percent ofpeople say they use drugs to “feel cool.” People’ self-worth depends on the approval ofothers, and their desire for social acceptance can drive them to engage in destructivebehaviors, even if they know it could harm them. The same study found that 65 percentof people use drugs to “feel better can fill a void caused by not feeling good aboutthemselves.” People who have low self-esteem are more likely to seek acceptance fromthe wrong crowd by using drugs. • Self-Medication. The teen years are rough, and many people who are unhappydon’t know how to find a healthy outlet for their frustration. These pent up emotions cantake an emotional toll and can even lead to depression or anxiety. A 2009 study reportedan estimated 70 percent of people suffer from undiagnosed clinical depression at somepoint in their life. Many people are unaware that they have an underlying mental or mooddisorder that is causing them to use illegal or prescription drugs to self-medicate andcope with their symptoms. • Misinformation. Studies show that people are widely misinformed about thedangers of drugs. Did you know that 40 percent of people don’t perceive any major riskwith trying drugs once or twice? While abuse of serious drugs is steadily declining amongpeople, their intentional abuse of prescription and over-the-counter medications remainsa serious concern. Many people, 41 percent to be exact, mistakenly believe that it’s saferto abuse a prescription drug than it is to use illegal drugs. Nearly 1 in 5 people havealready abused a prescription medication or prescription painkiller in order to get high ordeal with stress. • Depression/Loneliness. We want to feel good physically and emotionally.Sometimes drugs are the substitution for a healthy life experience. The person in painand they want to numb the pain. The drug numbs the pain and for a moment they don’tfeel as poorly. The person needs to escape the pain of the life experience, and for a shortwhile, the drug takes them away and they feel “better.” • Severe Anxiety. Sometimes people need some help coping with life. Everydaylife becomes a struggle and simple things become too much to handle. Drugs are used todeal with it. In the case of addiction, we are not talking about the use of medication,under the care and observation of a doctor. People who have been clinically diagnosedwith anxiety can lead a very good life. We’re talking here about people who just need toescape. Their drug of choice facilitates that escape.
  22. 22. 19/09/11 Drug Problem in Thailand Report 22Thai people addict CaseFrom anonymous I feel the rush as I exhale. My heartbeat accelerates and I lean back on a pile ofgreasy nylon pillows. When I open my eyes again, Bangkok’s worst slum suddenly doesn’tseem so bad. A glow has settled on the room. There are eight people here (mom and herboyfriend are downstairs with their own stash). The conversation is warm and earnest. “Istarted three years ago,” the impossibly thin girl is saying. “I lent money to a friend andshe paid me back with some pills. I’ve smoked yaba almost every day since. It makes mefeel confident. Thai’s are supposed to be shy. But I don’t want to be shy. If I was shy Iwouldn’t be able to do my work.” She drifts off, yabbering away in a mix of English andThai about an argument with her friend. Eventually she comes back and I catch what sheis saying: “Sometimes I think there are two me’s: nice me who is a very shy traditional girland nasty modern me – who likes dancing and drinking and talking and spending andfucking and…” She drifts off.From Gor (Student) Figure 4 Student who is addict before It is easy to start taking drugs, but it is very difficult to quit. Believe me I know itwell. Your life will never be the same again. Please dont try it even one time. Dont ruin allyour future by experimenting with drugs like me.
  23. 23. 19/09/11 Drug Problem in Thailand Report 23Illegal drug analysisFactors of selling drug in Thailand1.Cost The low cost of drugs, about 50 baht per tablet each making easily accessible toall Thai people.2. Low Revenue of Thai peopleMost of mountain tribes in the North which their homeland near to Thailand neighborsuch as Myanmar, have a low revenue from their occupation so selling drug is quite easyand get so more money than the old jobs.3.TraffickingThailand is the way of transportation to the other countries. For example, transportingcocaine from Brazil to Malaysia, Thailand is the way of transportation. So, selling drugs inThailand is beneficial and make the greater of selling.4. The main producerMyanmar is the main producer for the region The drug sales are used to fuel to Wa statearmy, a pro- Yangon ethnic group said to operate around 50 laboratories close to theborder, as well as mobile production units.5.BribeMany officers in Thailand involve in drugs, they discard criminals to produce andtransport without arresting by getting money instead. Therefore the criminals still selldrugs if they pay for the bribe.6. A few recovery centersThere is a few recovery center, addicts are more than a lot if compare with number. Sothere are still a lot of addicts.7. The widespread of using drugsOwners of boats in the southern coastal province of Ranong and construction foremen inBangkok are known to force their workers to take the drug at the beginning of theworkday.
  24. 24. 19/09/11 Drug Problem in Thailand Report 24Attemp to fix the problemRoyal Duties In the past 60 years, the footprint of the Thai king was placed everywherein the Thailands ground without exception of the land of wilderness andremoteness that has not been accessed. The images of a great king of Thaipeople who have forsaken the comfort of the body devoted to devote his ageand devoted his heart is dedicated to dispelling the suffering and maintains thehappiness of the people and land. The king has changed the mountain that was covered with tens ofthousands of acres of opium fields with the power of opium production is up to200 tons per year into the land of many ethnic groups, tribes and watershed andforest which had been overthrown burned from a shifting cultivation has beenreplaced by the winter vegetables under the operation of the project was called“the Royal Project” In the past, the king has come to the hill village of Hmong tribe on thePui’s mountain that is located in the national park of Doi Suthep-Pui in Chiang-Mai province. The visual in that place is shown the pathetic life of poverty peoplethat planting of opium and shifting cultivation for their living same as theHmong tribe of Mae Sa Mai village of Pong Yang district by the most of them wasmigrated from the village of Pang Pa Kha that have been suppressed of drugtrafficking as same as of the Ban Nong Hoi Kao of Mae Ram district that is themajor source area of opium’s production and nearest to the center of Chiang-Maiby words of the Ban Nong Hoi people said that when there used to produce theopium as a career. There has problem about the food that has not been servedto all of people. There solve the solution by eating of the corn that there used tofeed the animals combining with the low quality of rice to serve what their needsthat as well as Khun Chang Kian village in Cherry Grove of Chang district thatcame from the Hmong, Doi Pui because of the enough space for cultivation. Inthat time, The Long-terms vision of the King is to maintain the upland forest
  25. 25. 19/09/11 Drug Problem in Thailand Report 25watershed and to gradually stop the cultivation of opium with a settledresidence. The King has initiative to find a winter crop to be planted and make itto be a substitute for opium. When the peoples in the village earn more revenuethan the opium cultivation and have no more threat of government legislation. Itwas the phase out opium cultivation and turned to winter crops, fruits, variouskinds of compensation. Most of all of the policies that the King mainly used arelove and the compassion. The Royal solutions that integrated to treatment of pains to the tribalnations who rely on the Royal protection and born to the “Royal” project thateffort to revive the fourth decade of his life to make hundreds of thousands ofpeople to live and work on sustainable forest upstream of the reconstruction.The drug trade traffic has been break and turn the minority of nationalsovereignty had become unstable people who call Thailand the "The FatherLand." His mercy and grace give a good quality of life for the better view of themajesty when the king visited at the Mae Sa Mai village is like precious treasurewhich connect love and commitment that the people gave to him until thepresent as well as to the peoples in Mhong village at Nhongh Hoi Kao in Mae Rimdistrict, Chaingmai and Mhong at Ban Khun chang kien in Meung district that themajesty has visited to treat and help to the people of those 4 village and turn tothose villages to become a prototype villages that can be follow the wishing ofthe majesty with self-sufficient life and legal occupation and living with thenature with the King’s management system for the sustainable resource. Around four decades of the King’s duty in order to make a better life tothe Mhone’s tribe. The King was dedicated himself and devoted from his speechthat he says when started the Royal project is the happiness of the people andthe stability of the country. Now the Royal project has 4 research stations andhas 38 developing station and has winter plant to encourage the high areafarmers for more than 350 types and has 13 hills for tribe farmers and morethan 150,000 people that has join the Royal project. The King has changed theopium plantation to be a source of winter vegetable that make income for the
  26. 26. 19/09/11 Drug Problem in Thailand Report 26farmer around 450 million bath in 2531. The Royal project won the prize fromMagsaisai’s prize in the international understanding. In 2546, The Royal project won the prize of Colombo plan that is theorganization that has been supported from USA government to cooperate forfixes the drugs problem in Asia Pacific as a single project that can fix the opiumproblem in term of creative and free of violence that has been successful. Themethod of the Royal project is to acceptable and make interoperations to manycountries and become to be a prototype for developing high area farmers inregional an expand to other country such as Bhutan, Afghanistan, Columbia andneighboring countries in South East Asia and continue and drive the mission interm of help hill tribe and help the world.
  27. 27. 19/09/11 Drug Problem in Thailand Report 27Government, Official and AgenciesNational drug control strategy Drug control strategy of Thailand comes out of an idea of disconnecting drugdemand from drug supply and being obliged to the principle that "drug addicts arepatients who are in need of treatment while drug traffickers are those who must bepunished under the judicial process" Based on the seriousness of drug situation since Thailand has long been facingthe problem of illicit drug production, illicit drug trafficking and illicit drug consumption,the Government has placed drug control as the national agenda. The drug control policyhas been placed as the top priority of every Government. Intensity efforts are given by the Royal Thai Government to solve drug problemsin comprehensive and systematic manner. Pursuant to Police Statement to the NationalAssembly, Drug issue was placed as the countrys urgent problem under Policy on SocialWelfare and Human Security item 3.5.7 which states "Intensify efforts in solving thenarcotics drug problem in a comprehensive and systematic manner, from prevention tosuppression to rehabilitation of drug addicts, in tandem with improving relevantlegislation in accordance with the evolving situation and ensuring strict enforcement oflaw, and enhance cooperation with neighboring countries and the internationalcommunity in addressing the narcotic drug problem". Cooperation with neighboringcountries and international community in fighting against illicit drugs is also enhancedenthusiastically to address drug problems.Government policies Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra On 30 Aug 2011, ONCB declared the drug policy of the current Prime MinisterYingluck Shinawatra. The government thinks that the drug is considered a national agenda to be takento resolve the issue seriously. And will apply the plan from the Queen Speech to achievethe compliance. The government will use power of people as the many strategy to overcome thedrug problem. The main strategic of government is“ 7 plans 4 adjusts 3 principles 6 improves”
  28. 28. 19/09/11 Drug Problem in Thailand Report 287 plans includePlan 1 - Plan for social and community empowerment to overcome drug addiction.Plan 2 – Plan to help drug addictedPlan 3 - Anti-drug plan.Plan 4 - Suppression drug plan.Plan 5 - Plan for International Cooperation.Plan 6 - Plans to block cross-border drug monitoring.Plan 7 - Integrated management plan.4 adjusts includeAdjusts 1 – Adjust the informationAdjusts 2 – Adjust the behavior of officialAdjusts 3 – Adjust the lawAdjusts 4 – Adjust the opinion of social and community to participate in resolve drug problem3 principles includePrinciple 1 – Use love, compassion, and fellow and aimed to return happy to social.Principle 2 – Use the good willingness of law along with combating and suppression.Principle 3 – Use area approach as case study.6 improves includeImproves 1 – Improve the operation information.Improves 2 – Improve to decrease the drug problem from community.Improves 3 – Improve the cooperation of international and interception of drug.Improves 4 – Improve to suppress seller and decrease the trouble of citizenImproves 5 – Improve to solve the youth.Improves 6 – Improve the strong community Prime Minister Abhisit Vejjajiva On 18 March 2009, Prime Minister Abhisit Vejjajiva declared to take drastic measures to crack down illicit drugs with tangible results within six months. In this connection, the government would implement a "five fences" strategy for controlling and reducing nationwide drug problems. The referred fences infer buildingimmunity, creating activities and establishing a working process in which peopleconcerned both public and people sectors can effectively work together and measure areintegrated to keep drug addicts, drug dealers and risk groups away from drugs. This "fivefences" strategy listed as follows: Border fence is creating activities and a working process in order to strengthenmeasure, prevent drug smuggling into the country along the target border areas. Community Fence is creating activities and a working process according to allmeasures that facilitate strengthening and building drug immunity in the targetvillage/communities.
  29. 29. 19/09/11 Drug Problem in Thailand Report 29 Social fence is creating activities and a working process such as implementingintegrated social order, eliminating all kinds of negative risk factor, enhancing positivefactors affecting the drug immunity building in order to strengthen the societies of allprovinces. School Fence is creating activities and a working process such as strengtheningfamily institution to be more immune to drugs and be a good fundamental unit of society. The "five fences" strategy had already been implemented for 2 phases, which thesecond phase had just been terminated in September 2010. Now Thailand isimplementing the third phase (November 2010-September 2011) of the strategy.Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra Even if it goes up to 5 years, however, that the aftermath of the war on drugs in the era of Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra still in the memory of dead’s relatives who would not think that this person is returned to power again. "I want to kill them dead" is the word of merchants selling food. Mention to the Policeand prime minister that is a leading cause of death of his son. The Human rights organization believes that these are the work of police thatsupport the drug trade practice clearance of Thaksins policies, which is criticism aboutthe harassment or killing people without due process. Before the coup, Thaksin Shinawatra, in 2006 the peoples hearts with grass-rootspopulist policies. And declared war on drug trafficking, especially methamphetamineepidemic that is hard. A report from the Narcotics Control Board on the 2008 crime statisticsindicate that Thailands rising 88 percent during the month of February to April2003, which was a government crackdown on drug traffickers vigorously. With the2873 murder case in 1370 is related to drug cases. Benjamin Wagga in Albuquerque, researchers from Thailand, said AmnestyInternational is "to fear" when that person is behind the war on drugs. Thai politics willreturn soon. "When there is a possibility that politicians will return to the previous page, it ispossible as well. In the future, there may be a new war on drugs, "he said oiling things.
  30. 30. 19/09/11 Drug Problem in Thailand Report 30International/Regional Cooperation Maintain active and close cooperation with the other agencies in suppression ofnarcotics, included intelligence exchange and promote cross border cooperation withother counterpart as important allies in this matters. Annually, ONCB will hold a meeting and field excursion for DLOs stationed inThailand. The activity is about to updating current drugs situation and reviewing mutualcooperation procedures among all international representatives and Royal Thai lawenforcement officers. Moreover, all delegations will gain an opportunity to establishedinterpersonal relationship enhancing their future joint-operation and intelligence infighting against trans-organized drugs crimes.Currently, there are drug liaisons posting to Thailand from 25 countries and 3organizations as follows:- Australia Australian Federal Police (AFP), Australian AFP continued to provide funding for support and assistance to the ThailandTransnational Crime Coordination Network, the Cambodian Transnational Crime Teamand the Colombian Transnational Crime Team. The assistance provided by the AFPthrough the LECP ensures that each team/unit/network continues to service investigationsin their respective agencies and requests for operational support from the AFP across allcrime types in a timely, secure and effective manner. There also providing intelligencetraining program that delivered to Thailand, China, Laos, Cambodia, Malaysia and Burma.- Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP), CanadaThailand and Canada have cooperated closely in preventing and combating drug abusethroughout. Both in terms of information exchange and coordination between theauthorities crack down on drugs. Canada has sent the staffs to coordinate drug fromCanada Police Department were came to Thailand since 2519 and has provided assistancein the areas of protection of drug and crop substitution. Both directly and through theUnited Nations Fund for Drug Abuse. The assistance will be provided training to staff inthe drug war in Thailand by sent the Canada staff as a training officer in able to teachingthe Thailand staff by focusing on the drug news and financial investigations and narcoticstechnique and the use of special investigative techniques. This is an example case of the Canadian police in combating the drug transportinto the country from Thailand to Canada.Project E-PAGE In June 1999, Project E-PAGE culminated after a 2 1/2 year internationalinvestigation with the arrest of 28 individuals of an organized crime group active inBritish Columbia, and various cities in the United States, Hong Kong, Thailand andMyanmar. Approximately 6.3 kilograms (9 units) of heroin were seized in the United
  31. 31. 19/09/11 Drug Problem in Thailand Report 31States. This investigation foiled a number of conspiracies to import large shipments ofheroin to North America. 6 Recent large seizures in British Columbia (70 kilograms inNovember 1998 and 42 kilograms in February 1999) have reduced supplies and pushedthe unit (700 g) price up into the $55,000 range as opposed to $40,000 in 1998.- National Authority for Combating Drugs (NACD), Cambodia The both sides are discussed and exchanged the information by to seek mutualcooperation in drug control across the borders, particularly the establishment of BorderLiaison Offices (BLOs). It also helps to coordinate the cross-border cooperation mechanism and hasestablished a Group meeting to exchange the overall of drug problem. As seen below. • Joint Commission • Border Peace Keeping Committee • General Border Committee • Regional Border Committee • Thailand-Cambodia Meeting on Drug Law Enforcement Cooperation • High Level Bilateral Drug Control Meeting • Provincial Cross-Border Drug Control Meeting- National Narcotics Control Commission (NNCC), ChinaThailand and China have cooperated closely in preventing and combating drug abusethroughout by establish the meeting between those country to exchange the knowledgeof drug problem such as the technology to detect the drugs in many situation, illegaltrafficking of drugs and to optimize the protection and prevention of international drugproblems. Here is an example of cooperation between the National Narcotics ControlCommission (NNCC) and The Royal Thai Police Narcotics Suppression Bureau (NSB) inorder to arrest of the drug traffickers.The 10th Thailand - China Bilateral Meeting on Drug Control Cooperation During 14 – 18 June 2011, ONCB delegation led by Mr. Sukhum Opasniputh,Deputy Secretary General, NCB, attending the 10th Thailand – China Bilateral Meeting onDrug Control Cooperation in Huangshan, Anhui Province, China. The Chinese delegationled by Mr. Wei Xiaojun, Deputy Secretary-General, ONNCC. The meeting agenda was about to review the mutual cooperation progress anddifficulties on drug control occurred during the previous year. The two countries alsoagreed on mutual investigation and intelligence exchange on transnational drugsyndicates that influent and dominated the drugs trafficking and abuse in this region. Forinstance, the West African and the Iranian group became the most threatening ones at themoment. In addition, the forum marked a concern on air route trafficking according to thenewly promote of commercial flight traveling among Bangkok – Guangzhou – Kunming.
  32. 32. 19/09/11 Drug Problem in Thailand Report 32Furthermore, both countries agreed on mutual cooperation on narcotics forensic inexchanging their forensic scientists as to share the experiences and lesson-learnedbetween each other. The exchange training of narcotics law enforcement officer wasgranted as well. Finally, the venue completed with successful conclusion on drugs control not onlythe gain for the both parties but also benefit to all neighboring countries and this regionas a whole.- Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), United States of America DEA offices have been working side by side with the Kingdom of Thailand tocrack down on both the production and trade of drugs including heroin and other illegaldrugs in South-east Asia. DEA has proposed a training technique used to suppress thedrug to achieve the crackdown on drugs in Thailand. And law enforcement officials aswell as officials from other neighboring countries and many other countries. The DEA offices are in conjunction with other law enforcement agencies. Theinvestigation is continuing to make adjustments to cope with the ever-changing threats.One way is to put Internet network used to obtain information on the whereabouts of thepublic. This site is a part of the project of “Reward for a clue”, the DEA office, whichopened to the public across the continent with law enforcement agencies, can provideclues about a person who is involved with drugs, terrorism and money laundering. Thisproject also received information about the criminals who escaped justice in the casesoccurring in Asia and the United States Here is an example of cooperation between the Drug Enforcement Administration(DEA) and The Royal Thai Police Narcotics Suppression Bureau (NSB) in order to arrest ofthe drug traffickers.Operation Global Sea (1995) In 1994, Southeast Asian heroin, which was smuggled by ethnic China andNigeria-based traffickers, was one of the greatest drug threats to the United States.Almost 60 percent of the heroin that came to the United States at that time originated inSoutheast Asia’s “Golden Triangle”—Burma, Laos, and Thailand. Those mainly responsiblewere ethnic Chinese traffickers who controlled sophisticated international networks thatsmuggled hundreds of kilograms of heroin in commercial cargo on a regular basis. Inaddition to the China, Nigeria and West Africa-based trafficking organizations helpedsmuggle the heroin, typically using the “shotgun” approach to smuggling by recruitingthird party couriers to travel aboard commercial airlines and smuggle from one to 10kilograms of heroin per trip. In response to this facet of the drug trade, Operation GlobalSea targeted a Nigerian, female-led, drug trafficking organization that was responsiblefor smuggling into the United States $26 million worth of high-purity South­east Asianheroin. Global Sea, an Organized Crime Drug Enforcement Task Force operation, wascomprised of the DEA, the U.S. Customs Service, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, andlaw enforcement authorities in Thailand, Great Britain, France, Switzerland, Mexico, andthe Netherlands. By the end of this 18-month investigation, Operation Global Sea had
  33. 33. 19/09/11 Drug Problem in Thailand Report 33immobilized the Chicago-based drug organization by seizing 55.5 kilograms of heroinwith an average purity of 80 percent arresting 44 defendants in Bangkok, Chicago, NewYork City, Detroit, and Pakistan.- Foreign Anti Narcotics & Crime Community of Thailand (FANC) By establish a meeting between the two parties. DSI will present the issues in therole and its defensive missions to combating transnational crimes including the exchangeof drug’s information and the experience while working to prevent crime.- Narcotics Crime Investigation Department (NCiD), Malaysia The cooperation in combating drugs between Thailand – Malaysia began in 2524with a Drug Law Enforcement meeting once a year by the purpose that to discuss bothpolicy and strategy to solve the problem of transporting illegal drug across borders andinternational drug trafficking.The 29th Thailand - Malaysia Drug Law Enforcement Meeting During 15-16 August 2006, Narcotics Crime Investigation Department (NCID),Royal Malaysia Police hosted the 29th Malaysia-Thailand Bilateral Meeting on NarcoticsLaw Enforcement Cooperation in Tawau, Sabah State. Malaysian Delegation was led byDato’ Mohd. Pol.Lt.Gen led Najib Bin Abdul Aziz, Director of NCID, and Thai Delegation.Krisna Polananta, Secretary-General, NCB. The discussion of the meeting covered theupdated drug situation, information exchange, and operational cooperation insuppressing illicit drug trafficking between the two countries.- NORDIC DLO (Denmark/Sweden), Sweden NORDIC DLO was cooperated with many various countries such as DEA (USA), NSB(Thailand) to exchange and discuss about the international drug problem and draft theinternational drug law. They helped each other’s to prevent and arrest many of drugdealers. This is an example case of the Swedish police in the fight against drug dealersfrom Sweden that came to Thailand and produce drugs in Thailand in cooperation withthe US and Thailand police officers to arrest the drug dealers. A DEA and NSB officer with the Swedish polices breaking the source of ICE’sdrug in Rayong province. The action sets are classified into two sets. First, is to set up theICE’s production block. The second one is to suspects the drug dealers after arrestedthem. The officers found a 2kg crystal of ice after searching the house by used to trackthe behavior of Mr. Ericsson for the activities that he was made before he came toThailand
  34. 34. 19/09/11 Drug Problem in Thailand Report 34 For Mr. Ericsson, Who is leading the industrys largest ice drug in Sweden; Mr.Ericsson was in Thailand to manufacture and sell the ICE’s drug and be prepared to sendit back to sell in Sweden and many countries in Europe.- Belgium Federal Police, Belgium- NORDIC DLO (Denmark/Sweden), Denmark- The Central Office against Illegal Narcotics Trafficking (OCRTIS), France- Bundeskriminalamt (BKA), Germany- Attorney Generals Office (AGO), Indonesia- Israeli Police, Israeli- The Central Drugs Directorate (DCSA) – Bangkok, Italy- National Police Agency / Japanese Customs, Japan- The Embassy of Republic of Korea, Korea- Criminal Intelligence Division (CRI) / National Police Agency, Netherlands- New Zealand Police, New Zealand- Embassy of Nigeria, Nigeria- Norwegian Police, Norway- Embassy of Peru, Peru- The Embassy of the Russian Federation, Russia- Spanish Police, Spain- The Embassy of Switzerland, Switzerland- Serious Organized Crime Agency, United Kingdom- Central Narcotics Bureau (CNB), Singapore- UNODC (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime)- ICPO / Interpol- International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA)
  35. 35. 19/09/11 Drug Problem in Thailand Report 35Information sharing & Resource As the platform for addressing domestic, regional and international drug problem. Development of numerous mechanisms: both in Bi-Lateral and Multi-Lateral forms. - Commission on Narcotic Drugs - Meeting of Heads of national Drug Law Enforcement Agencies, Asia and Pacific - International Drug Enforcement Conference (IDEC) - IDEC Far East Region Working Group - Asia Pacific Operational Drug Enforcement Conference - Meeting of the ASEAN Senior Officials on Drug Matter - Anti-Drug Liaison Officials Meeting for International Cooperation - Seniors Official Committee Meeting of the Signatories to the 1993 - ASEANAPOL Conferences - Joint Thailand-Malaysia Working Committee on Criminal Activities Meeting - Bilateral Meeting between Thai-Malaysia - Bilateral Meeting between Thai-Laos PDR - Bilateral Meeting between Thai-Cambodia - Bilateral Meeting between Thai-Myanmar - Bilateral Meeting between PNSB, Royal Thai Police -CNB, Singapore - Joint Narcotics Training Course Between PNSB, Royal Thai Police -CNB, Singapore NClD,Legal Framework To Combat Drugs (Laws)Main narcotics control laws in Thailand can be classified into 4 following categories: 1) Laws on controlling narcotic substances - Narcotics Act B.E. 2522 (1979) - Psychotropic Substances Act B.E.2518 (1975) - Emergency Decree on Controlling the Use of Volatile Substance B.E.2533 (1990) 2) Laws on designating powers and duties to competent authority - Narcotics Control Act B.E.2519 (1976) - Act on Measures for the Suppression of Offenders in an Offence Relating to Narcotics B.E. 2534 (1991) - Act on Authorizing Naval Officers for the Suppression of Some Offences Committed by Sea (No.4) B.E. 2534 (1991) - Money Laundering Control Act B.E.2542 (1999) - Act on Procedure of Narcotic Case B.E. 2550 (2007) 3) Laws on special measure - Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act B.E. 2545 (2002) - Act on Measures for the Suppression of Offenders in an Offence Relating to Narcotics B.E. 2534 (1991) - Money Laundering Control Act B.E.2542 (1999) - Act on Procedure of Narcotic Case B.E. 2550 (2007) - Taxation Law
  36. 36. 19/09/11 Drug Problem in Thailand Report 36 4) Laws on controlling precursor and essential chemicals for illicit drug production - Commodities Control Act B.E. 2495 (1952) - Hazardous Substances Act B.E. 2535 (1992) - Narcotics Act B.E. 2522 (1979) - Psychotropic Substances Act B.E.2518 (1975) - Emergency Decree on Controlling the Use of Volatile Substance B.E.2533 (1990) - Import and Export Act B.E. 2522 (1979) The followings laws are utilized to prosecute drug offenders: - Extradition Act B.E. 2551 (2008) - Act on Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters B.E.2535 (1992) - Legislation Procedure for Cooperation between States in the Executive of Penal Sentences B.E.2527 (1984) - Witness Protection Act B.E.2546 (2003) - The Criminal Procedure Code - Act on Procedure of Narcotic Case B.E. 2550 (2007)
  37. 37. 19/09/11 Drug Problem in Thailand Report 37Laws Enforcement Agencies1. Royal Thai Police (RTP) Agencies of drug enforcement responsibilities within RTP. Integration allresources maintain high alert and set as high priority as National Agenda has declared.The implementation of five fences to protect the prevalence of the narcotics: from theborder line- in road network-social-community-school and institution-family value.1.1 Border Patrol Police (BPP) Border Patrol Police is act as soldier to control the peace around the border ofcountry they allowed to act as police. At the foundation period they were used to againstthe communist to attack Thailand. BPP has 3 main properties1.) They are asked for protect the criminal like police.2.) They can fight like soldier.3.) They can manage and serve help to people like other government officer. As we can see that Drugs is the main problem that attack our community. Trafficof drugs is mainly come from the border of Thailand. BPP is directly has responsibility tocover drugs traffic problem. BPP has divided to many parts for maximum control quality,BPP31 is control around northern part of Thailand, and BPP24 is control around EastNorthern of Thailand. We can see that a lot of drugs cases are under the control of BPP.Example Case- 8th March 2011, BPP31 and Provincial Police are arrest a big lot of the trafficking of Yabaand Ice around Pis-sa-nu-lok province and the they got 2,610,000 pills of Yaba and 210grams of Ice.- 4th September 2010, BPP24 arrest 5 Marijuana retailers around Chiang-Mai provincethey found 494 Kg of Stick Marijuana and 7 bags of Marijuana are pack in the box inContainers Of Truck and in Bronze Honda CR-V.1.2 Provincial Police Region Provincial Police are working like normal police. They are asking to protect peopleand control criminal. Provincial Police is divided in to 9 regions all over Thailand for easierto process their duty. Drugs is one of their under control duty. Each region of ProvincialPolice Region are have their owns plan that was applied to their regionExample Case- PPR5 and DSI work co-operation to arrest the Yaba retailer. They have got 200,000 pillsof Yaba. This case was happened by knowing of selling of Yaba at Chiang Mai province atthe north of Thailand.1.3 Metropolitan Police Bureau Metropolitan Police Bureau is another region of police. They have duty inBangkok. The main duty is to help people and control the rising of criminal as anotherregion.
  38. 38. 19/09/11 Drug Problem in Thailand Report 381.4 Central Investigation Bureau Central Investigation Bureau is one part of Royal Thai Police. They act like anotherpolice to serve people control criminal and protect the King. The main property of CIB isplanning and advising for another police bureau that has related to them1.5 Narcotic Suppression Bureau Narcotic Suppression Bureau is directly related to drugs suppression. The mainproperty of this bureau is to give the suggestion about drugs to National Police Bureau,Drugs Suppression and advising to another related policeco-operation of some department All of above are the main department of Royal Thai Police that related to drugsproblem. They often co-operation to access the goal to suppressing drugs and these aresome of example that come out from co-operation of some department- BPP & PP 1-9 responsible for narcotic crop eradiation.- Metro & PP 1-9 responsible for suppression of local drug pusher within on jurisdiction.- Central Investigation Bureau responsible for interdiction on transportation routes.- Narcotics Suppression Bureau (NSB) responsible for suppression of refineries,syndicates, financiers, and major cases investigation.2 Ministry of Justice2.1 Office of Narcotic Control Board ONCB was found in 18th November 1976, the main property is to suppress drugproblem. Because of wide spread of drug problem and become stronger problem, weneed high cooperation of many government departments. From this, make ONCB to belike head quarter of drug problem suppression.Vision: The ONCB will be the central agency of excellence in integrated managing andconfidence building on drug control of national and international counterparts by 2015.Mission: 1. To formulate national narcotics control strategy by taking into account of drugs situation 2. To manage the narcotics control work as stipulated in the national narcotics control strategy 3. To supervise and direct the integration / codification of narcotics law enforcement and other related of narcotics control laws 4. To cooperate with the foreign countries / international organizations / communities in fighting against illicit drugs 5. To monitor, examine and keep a close watch over the epidemic of drugs
  39. 39. 19/09/11 Drug Problem in Thailand Report 39Example Case- Between 6-7th September 2011, ONCB has known that there is a “Lee Saw” man selling“Yaba” around Chiang Mai and Lam-Poon. ONCB are planning trick to arrest them andfinally they got 200,000 pills of Yaba.2.2 Office of the Attorney General (สํานักงานอัยการสูงสุด) Office of the Attorney General is responsible for all criminal proceedings, civilproceedings and providing legal advice to governments and government agencies. Officeof the Attorney General is related with drug problem on the laws side.2.3 Department of Corrections (กรมราชทัณฑ) The main property of this office is to control the prisoner. They have special planfor drug prisoner to therapy them and make them better people after they have finishedtheir penalty. The control of drug problem can see in prison and they aimed tosuppression them too.Vision: To become an efficient agency in keeping into custody and rehabilitating prisonersin order to.Mission: • Professionally keeping prisoners in custody • Rehabilitating prisoners with efficiency.Example case- Department of Corrections recognizes the old building converted into a prison condo.This condo is special use for the identification and detention of suspects of drug cases.From the prison overcrowding and stuffing problems, Department of Correctionsidentified more than 2,600 in Bangkok prisons.- Prison officials of Song-Khla have confiscated 24 tubes of ice, which is stuffed into thechicken soup smuggled to prisoners. Then control 4 visitors to extend the network intoprison gang of drug traffickers.2.4 Department of Special Investigation DSI is one of famous department in Thailand, because a lot of famous case isunder control of DSI. DSI is compatible to every kind of case from drug to crime. Case thatwill under control of DSI is a kind of complex case that needs special technique ininvestigation. Example Case - DSI has been reported from northern sources said. The process of manufacturing methamphetamine precursor transport. On 30th June 2011 at approximately 18:10 pm, DSI and co-accused were arrested three people With 10 bags of pills (approximately 1 million pills) at BKK.
  40. 40. 19/09/11 Drug Problem in Thailand Report 402.5 Anti-Money Laundering Anti-Money Laundering is a state agency that has authority to set rules andensure compliance with the law to prevent and suppression of money laundering. And theaudit of financial information related to money laundering. Anti-Money Laundering isrelated to drug problem with the plan to protect laundering the money from selling drug.3 Ministry of Public Health3.1 Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration has the special department that work with drugscall Narcotic Control Division. Because of using of drug and medicine in medic, there aresome drugs that except from Food and Drug Administration and allowed to use. Theproperty of this division is to filtered and scan drug. There is not only Food and Drug Administration that under the control of MinistryOf Public Health. There are another hospital and department that will give advice andmake therapy for drug-addicted people. We can see that there are too many departmentthat undertake this problemExample- Thanyarak’s Institute, Department of Medical Services- Hospital Accreditation or HA – this department is use to guarantee the hospital4 Army- Royal Thai Army- Royal Thai Navy- Royal Thai Air force
  41. 41. 19/09/11 Drug Problem in Thailand Report 41 Arrest/Seizure/Raids/Operations (statistics) 1 Statistics on Drug Cases and Offenders in Thailand (Year 2001- 2010)250,000 250,000200,000 200,000150,000 150,000100,000 100,000 50,000 50,000 0 0 Drug Cases Offender in Thailand 2 Statistics on Major Drug Seizures and Cases in Thailand (2002-June 2010) 1 Methamphetamine (YABA)200,000 120150,000 100100,000 80 60 50,000 40 0 20 b0 Drug Cases Million of Tablets 2 Heroins 1200 3,000 1000 b 2,500 800 2,000 600 1,500 400 1,000 200 500 0 0 Kilogram Drug Cases
  42. 42. 19/09/11 Drug Problem in Thailand Report 42 3 Dried Marihuana25,00020,000 70,000 60,00015,000 50,00010,000 40,000 5,000 30,000 20,000 0 10,000 0 Drug Cases Kilogram 4 Ecstasies700 160,000600 140,000500 120,000400 100,000300 80,000200 60,000100 40,000 0 20,000 0 Drug Cases Tablets 5 Ketamine b 200350300 150250200 100150100 50 50 b 0 0 Drug Cases Tablets 6 Volatile Substances 60020,000 50015,000 400 30010,000 200 100 5,000 0 0 Kilograms Drug Cases
  43. 43. 19/09/11 Drug Problem in Thailand Report 43 8 Methamphetamine Hydrochloride (ICE) 6000 800 5000 4000 600 3000 400 2000 200 1000 0 0 Drug Cases Kilograms
  44. 44. 19/09/11 Drug Problem in Thailand Report 44Statistic of arrest in ASEAN member countries of the NSB from June 2009until at presentNo. Nationality Number Number Type of exhibit Number of exhibit of case of Arrest1 Laos 25 31 • Methamphetamine 107,221 pills pills (YABA) • Dry cannabis 403 kilograms • Cocaine 12.8 grams • Ecstasy 1 pill 1 1 • Immigration Law2 Malaysia 18 21 • Methamphetamine 40,674.55 grams Crystal (ICE) • Methamphetamine 224,000 pills pills (YABA) • Ketamine 30.18 grams • Ecstasy 7438.5 pills • Erimin5 73 pills3 Myanmar 30 42 • Methamphetamine 1,153,404 pills pills (YABA) 2 2 • Methamphetamine 22,400.5 grams Crystal (ICE) 2 2 • Heroin 182 grams 1 1 • Immigration Law4 Vietnam 1 1 • Methamphetamine 3,700 gram Crystal (ICE)5 Cambodia 6 6 • Methamphetamine 4,910 pills6 Brunei - - - -7 Philippine 6 9 • Cocaine 11,760 pills 1 1 • Methamphetamine 3,080 grams Crystal (ICE) 1 1 • Heroin 2.6 grams8 Singapore - - - -9 Indonesia 1 - • Methamphetamine 6000 grams Crystal (ICE)TOTAL 51 118

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