New 2-hour Version: Use What You Have and (Still) Produce Great Video to Increase Sales on the Web & Beyond


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1. Learn the importance of understanding differences between what video makers can see with their eyes and what their camera can capture.
2. Learn low cost methods to improve your story-telling by improving the quality of your image and sound capture regardless of what camera you use.

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New 2-hour Version: Use What You Have and (Still) Produce Great Video to Increase Sales on the Web & Beyond

  1. 1. Use What You Have and (Still) Produce GreatVideo to Increase Sales on the Web & Beyond Queens Museum of Art Saturday, April 21 2012 2 PM – 4 PM Queens, New York Presented by Donald Schwartz Technology Writer/Photographer Twitter: Ishkahbibel 1
  2. 2. The Road Ahead Eye vs. Camera Smack Down Focusing Attention – Seeing the Light Making Your Camera’s Sensor HappyHow to Become a Composition Master The Sound & the Fury Image: Jennifer Schwartz 2
  3. 3. The Video Camera vs. Your EyeEye Features:• Auto White Balance – doesnt see shadows as blue nor fluorescents as green.• Auto Exposure – wide contrast range covering highlights and shadows with unrecognizably quick adjustment. (FYI: your camera uses gray scale starting with 18% gray).• Auto Focus – face recognition built in. Multiple focus points built in. 3
  4. 4. Ban All Auto Camera Functions – Who’s More Capable, You or Your Camera?• When an all-auto camera reacts to changes in light levels, color temperature changes and/or audio changes, everything it does is obvious and distracting.• Learn to Love Manual Control (Who’s more capable, you or your camera?) 4
  5. 5. Start Small, Turn Off One Auto Function At a Time 5
  6. 6. Focus Attention – Get Audiences to Pay Attention to What You Want Them to SeeAchieved By:• Lighting – foreground & background separation – create contrast – makes image appear sharper.• Think principal subject – brighter than other pictorial elements.• Create dimensionality by using light and shadow. Shadow defines depth. 6
  7. 7. Focus Attention – Get Audiences to Pay Attention to What You Want Them to See• Technique: Start with 3-point lighting consisting of key (main), fill (fills in detail & lightens shadow), back or separation light. Images: Copyright 2006 Jeremy Birn Used by permission of author 7
  8. 8. Focus Attention – Get Audiences to Pay Attention to What You Want Them to See• Technique: Have no lights? • Apply angle of incidence. Angle of Bounce or reflect available light incidence equals angle of using foam core, show card, or reflectance. Also works for finding cine foil. unwanted reflections. Photo credit: California Sunbounce 8
  9. 9. Everything You Wanted To Know About Light Lighting Characteristics• Color• Hard vs. Soft• Sun is a hard light, a direct light - well defined shadows• Bounced lights are soft - less shadows and good wrap• The bigger the light source, the softer the light• Distance & Light• If you move light close to your subject light will fall off very rapidly, but back will fall off more slowly. When you pull back you can actually light more space.• Inverse Square Law - means of calculating fall off 9
  10. 10. Everything You Wanted To Know About Light Shadows• Can Define Subjects (add 3rd dimension)• Create Pattern• They Can Also Distract• Video or Photography Distractions: – Two cross shadow under chin – Moving shadow against wall 10
  11. 11. Everything You Wanted To Know About Light ShadowsDefine Subject Create Pattern Distraction Images: Donald Schwartz Models L- R: Salley & Lady Camelllia 11
  12. 12. Video Camera Sees Light Differently From Our Eyes Color Balance – White Balance• Light color is measured in degrees Kelvin which corresponds to different colors.• The Basics: – Daylight is blue – Tungsten is red/yellow – Fluorescents are green I Win 12
  13. 13. What Happens When Your Camera’s ColorBalance Doesn’t Match the Color at Your Shooting Location? 13
  14. 14. You Can Use Presets Image Courtesy: Canon 14
  15. 15. The Only Way To Be Sure Is To Do A Custom (Manual) Color Balance Under The Pre- dominant Light SourceHow to:Go to Custom Setting, fill frame with something white and press. 15
  16. 16. What Does Proper Exposure Mean? Why is it Important to You?Answer:The amount of light required for the camera’s sensorto capture the widest range of bright highlights anddark areas without over or under exposing the image. 16
  17. 17. Exposure Considerations Why Understand Gray Scale or Zone?• Your video camera is color blind.• Exposure is set in relation to Middle Gray (Zone V) – 18% reflectance.• Zones are a method of quantifying shades.• Determining how a color corresponds to a shade of gray produces more consistent results. Photo credit: Donald Schwartz 17
  18. 18. Camera Auto Exposure Set From Middle Gray Black Tank Real World View Courtesy Tim Cooper Photography (Perfect Exposure for Digital Photography) 18
  19. 19. Camera Auto Exposure Set From Middle Gray Black Tank Auto Exposure – Middle Gray View Courtesy Tim Cooper Photography (Perfect Exposure for Digital Photography) 19
  20. 20. Camera Auto Exposure Set From Middle Gray White Wall Real World View Courtesy Tim Cooper Photography (Perfect Exposure for Digital Photography) 20
  21. 21. Camera Auto Exposure Set From Middle Gray White Wall Auto Exposure – Middle Gray Courtesy Tim Cooper Photography (Perfect Exposure for Digital Photography) 21
  22. 22. Exposure For Black And White Light Absorption and Reflection Images: Donald Schwartz 22
  23. 23. Setting Exposure Using Your Camera’s Controls• Zebra Stripes - skin tones and peak white (images: 70 IRE & 100 IRE)• Waveform Monitor - range from black to peak white (image)• Gray Card - mid-tones Gray Card – Cowboy Studio Waveform Monitor IRE Pictures courtesy of The DV Show WFM courtesy: CyberCollege® and InternetCampus® 23
  24. 24. Expose Your Video Camera Like A Still Camera Image Courtesy of Canon 24
  25. 25. A Work Around for Cameras with Auto Only Exposure Shooting a Subject in Front of a Window Work Arounds: • Move subject away from window • Cover window • Add front light Photo credit: Donald Schwartz 25
  26. 26. Focus Attention – Get Audiences to Pay Attention to What You Want Them to See• DOP – Depth of Field – What’s in focus and what is not?• The distance between the nearest and farthest objects that appear in acceptably sharp focus - a function of lens aperture, ISO, shutter speed.• Not available on cameras with small sensors – sorry. Image: Donald Schwartz 26
  27. 27. Focus Audience Attention Compositional Mastery: Part IRule of Thirds – divide your frame into a 9 section grid. Image: Donald Schwartz 27
  28. 28. Focus Audience Attention Compositional Mastery: Part I Changing Lens Focal Length Alters Perspective Wide Normal (Perspective) Telephoto (Compression)• When you change perspective you change the relationship between the background and the foreground• Why not zoom in? Because it changes perspective and draws attention to itself.• Start wide(r) than normal and walk in to bring your audience with you. 28 Drawings: Jennifer Schwartz
  29. 29. Focus Audience Attention Compositional Mastery: Part I Long Lens CompressionAppears Actual Distance 85 mm - lens 125 sec - shutter speed 125 ISO Images: Donald Schwartz 29
  30. 30. Focus Audience Attention Compositional Mastery: Part I Wide Angle Lens – Expands Distance24 mm – lens125 ISO Images: Donald Schwartz Model: 30
  31. 31. Focus Audience Attention Compositional Mastery: Part I Eye Line & Camera AngleUp DownAngle Angle Images: Donald Schwartz 31
  32. 32. Focus Audience Attention Compositional Mastery: Part II Solving the 2D Conundrum – Creating 3DUsing frames within frames, vanishing point and visual triangles.Think: what frames do you see every day? Clue: what do you look out of – a window?What in this image leads your eye to the horizon? Images: Donald Schwartz 32
  33. 33. Focus Audience Attention Compositional Mastery: Part II Solving the 2D Conundrum – Creating 3D Vanishing Point Triangulation•Frame Within Frame •Vanishing Point •Triangulation•Create Scale•Use of Color – set design or color balance Images: Donald Schwartz 33
  34. 34. Audio Mastery The Big IdeaMicrophones Have Different Acceptance Patterns – Each One Hears In A Specific Direction 34
  35. 35. Audio Mastery Basic Microphone TermsOmni Directional: pickup sound from every direction equally.Better at resisting wind noise or mechanical handlingLess susceptible to popping “p,” “b” or “t”Directional Microphones: Sounds best from the front. Tends to reject soundthat comes from other directions• Directional Types: cardioid, subcardioid, hypercardioid, bi-directional• Suppress unwanted noise• Reduce effect of reverberation• Increase gain before feedback – cranks up the good sound before distortion 35
  36. 36. Audio Mastery Visualizing Microphone Pickup Patterns Patterns, called polar patterns, should be taken as the floor plan of a microphone’s response; where the microphone hears the best. Microphone PatternsAT8004L Audio-Technica Omnidirectional Audio-Technica AT831 R - Audio Technica-AT875 Short Condenser MicrophoneDynamic Microphone Cardioid Condenser Microphone 36
  37. 37. Audio Mastery Sound Recording – Best Practices• Recording level should be as close to zero on your meter as possible without increasing background noises.• Get microphone or camera as close to subject as possible.• Metering: Level should be as close to zero as possible with increased background noise.• When setting level have subject speak normally. The subject should not move backwards or forwards during the test.• Don’t use AGC (audio gain control).• Record at least a minute of ambient sound (called room tone) with no one talking. 37
  38. 38. Camera In MotionWhy Does The Camera Bounce When I Walk? Animation courtesy of Darmont - 38
  39. 39. Camera In Motion A Moving Camera • Use a camera stabilization system – it separates your gait from the camera. Example: Merlin Merlin Stabilization SystemAdditional Benefits: A moving camera creates motionwhere there is none. Enables multiple angles and diverseshot compositions (wide angle to close up) without editing.Allows crossing the line (the 180 degree rule). Courtesy: The Tiffin Company 39
  40. 40. Video Promotion for the Artist 101Ideas for Narration:• Who you are• Things you can say about your work• The tools you use• How long did you take to create• Who or what was your inspiration• Create a back story. Make one up if necessary 40
  41. 41. Video Promotion for the Artist 101 The PicturesThe Cutaways:• Show studio or where you work• Show work-in-progress• If used found objects, show where found• Show your muse with visual suggestions as to “why” he or she assumed that role 41
  42. 42. Video Promotion for the Artist 101 Your Art• When showing your art, animate it.• With an installation, walk in and around as if you were a viewer.• With paintings and photographs, move camera across the painting or photo – think Ken Burns.• Use lighting to create dimensionality for sculpture or installations..• Create a mood using music, sound effects. For example: bells, foot steps, thunder.• Create a back story and cut back and forth between you talking directly to the camera and your work.• What can you say about your work? If you can show it with footage and stills, do it.• You can talk about process, materials, specialized tools, why you applied the paint the way you did.• You can talk about influences, inspiration, your muse. 42
  43. 43. Avoidable MistakesPanning The 180 Degree Rule • If you think it’s too slow, make it • You have crossed the line. slower. • Quick and dirty solution for • Apply pressure before you need to interviews: shoot over right shoulder and lessen before you stop. and for reverse, reaction shot over • Use a tripod. left shoulder.Avoid Dead Eye • Cause: too much top light. Image courtesy of Steven d. Katz Michael Weise Productions in conjunction with Focal Press 43
  44. 44. Lighting Supplementals 44
  45. 45. Everything You Wanted To Know About Light Light Creators• The Sun• LED – Litepanels Hilio• Fluorescent – Riffa 55 Kit – Want high CRI – Efficient, short throw Litepanels Hilio™ Riffa 55 Kit• Tungsten – More heat, less light – Lowel D Light & Tota• HMI - generate light equivalent to sun light color temp Lowel D Light & Tota 45
  46. 46. Everything You Wanted To Know About Light Light Controls and Shaping• Limits (softens) light output• One light two different intensities• Removes light from where you dont want it to be 46
  47. 47. Everything You Wanted To Know About Light Lighting Control Tools Altman Barn Doors Westcott Fast Flags & Nets Internal & External Scrims Altman Fresnel Doors, IK Scrims: Courtesy of Altman, Fast Flags: Courtesy ofNote: Nets & Scrims: two light intensities from one Westcottinstrument 47
  48. 48. Everything You Wanted To Know About Light Light Rigging Tools – Your Personal AssistantAvenger C Stand Kit & Set Technicians Handbook 48
  49. 49. One Light Setup 49
  50. 50. Audio Supplementals 50
  51. 51. Audio Mastery Understand the LanguageDynamic MicrophonesCondenser MicrophonesOmni-directional, DirectionalMicrophone Acceptance & Rejection PatternsPhantom PowerImpedance – Low & HighBalanced & Unbalanced MicrophonesSensitivity – measured in db (decibels)Mic Level & Line LevelFrequency - measured in Hz (Hertz)sGainSignal to Noise 51
  52. 52. Audio Mastery The EssentialsMic Level - audio that comes directly from a microphone.• Diagnosis: can barely hear it.Line Level – amplified audio that comes from a mixer, audio system.• Diagnosis: distorted audio or pinned needle.Phantom Power –• Provides power to use the microphone at the camera input or from a mixer.• Unlike Dynamic, Condenser microphones require a power source. If you dont power from an external source must boost in line. Will require some kind of battery.Balanced Unbalanced Audio Connectors –• Balanced audio connectors are less prone to RFI(Radio Frequency), hum and buzz.• Unbalanced audio connectors can be ¼ inch or 3.5 mm and are more prone to RFI, hum and buzz. XLR ¼ inch 3.5 mm 52
  53. 53. Audio Mastery Work Arounds Egg Crates or Shipping Foam Matthews Sound Blankets - Moving Blankets Courtesy of Matthews Auralex Styrofoam Wedgies Comprehensive EXF Mini - Courtesy of ComprehensiveHosa XVM XLR Female to 3.5mm mini male -Courtesy of Hosa Beachtek DXA-2J next to Beachtek DXA-5D Courtesy of Beachtek 53
  54. 54. Improving How You Look To Your Audience Talk to The Camera: Three Views of the Teleprompter Courtesy of Second Screen Academy Auralex Styrofoam WedgiesInterior Teleprompter Teleprompter with cowling Teleprompter displaying text 54
  55. 55. Tools to Turn Your iPhone into a Controllable Video Capture DeviceFilmic PRO – Courtesy of Filmic PRO Adaptor for audio – Courtesy of Sescom vReveal – Courtesy of vReveal Plus portable digital recorder and Plural Eyes by Singular SoftwareWide Angle Lens – Courtesy of Photojojo Miniature Shotgun Microphone – Courtesy of Vericorder Technology 55
  56. 56. Camcorder AlternativeConsumer to Prosumer Cameras • Allows you to visually see audio and light levels (via Zebra).35mm Cameras Capturing Video Pros: • Enable depth of field with large sensor. • Use of great glass lenses. • Exceptional ISO/light sensitivity. Cons: • Limited recording time due to sensor over-heating. Improving. • Poor sound quality. • Requires mounting rig for shoulder or mounting on a tripod. • Rolling shutter effect (going away). Photo courtesy of 56
  57. 57. Picking Up SteamPanasonic AG-AF 1004/3 – type MOS Sensor AVCCAM CamcorderPros:• More cost efficient than using hybrid 35mm camera add-ons• Use of existing 35mm camera lenses = good glass• Real Depth of Field• No constraints on video recording time• No requirement to sync audio• Use of normal rigging for tripods Image courtesy of Panasonic Inc.• Focus Assist Function – sharpen detail in view finder• Zebra & Color Bar Displays – Zebra for assessing highlights and/or peak white. Color bars for editing match camera output.• XLR balanced audio inputs vs. 1/8 inch minis• Audio monitoringCons:• No 35mm sensor so have crop factor• Only Panasonic lenses allow for power zoom, aperture and focus – all other adapted lenses are manual. 57
  58. 58. Picking Up SteamSony NEX FS100UKPros:• More cost efficient than using hybrid 35mm DSLR camera add- ons• Exmor Super35 CMOS Sensor• Real Depth of Field• Embedded TimecodeCons: Sony NEX FS100UK• All manual control lensing• Control Access & Design• Some difficulty associated with using prime lenses other than NEX lens 58
  59. 59. Resources & SourcesWeb Video: Making It Great, Getting It NoticedBy: Jennie Bourne; Dave BursteinPublisher: Peachpit PressPub. Date: August 05, 2008Print ISBN-10: 0-321-55296-2101 Quick and Easy Secrets to Create Winning PhotographsBy: Matthew BambergPublisher: Course Technology PTRPub. Date: April 14, 2009Print ISBN-10: 1-59863-902-1Film Directing - Shot by ShotVisualizing from Concept to ScreenBy: Steven d. KatzPublisher: Michael Weise Productions & Focal PressPublication Date: June 1991ISBN #: 0-941188-10-8Stoppees’ Guide to Photography & Light: What Digital Photographers, Illustrators, and Creative Professionals Must KnowBy: Brian & Janet StoppeePublisher: Focal PressPub. Date: October 22, 2008eISBN-10: 0-08-092798-XHome Recording for BeginnersBy: Geoffrey FrancisPublisher: Course Technology PTRPub. Date: January 01, 2009Print ISBN-10: 1-59863-881-5Digital Lighting & Rendering, Second EditionBy: Jeremy BirnPublisher: New RidersPub. Date: April 27, 2006Print ISBN-10: 0-321-31631-2Info on Walk Cycle: on Light Reflection Tools: California Sunbounce: on Camera Motion Control: Tiffin: 59
  60. 60. Resources & Sources Perfect Exposure for Digital Photography The Zone System of Metering & Shooting (DVD) By: Tim Cooper ISBN 9780981602905 The Lighting Technicians Handbook By: Harry C. Box Publisher: Focal Press 60
  61. 61. Donald Schwartz Imagelink Productions 11 Sterling Place Brooklyn, NY Twitter: Ishkahbibel 61