Use What You Have and (Still) Produce Great Video to Increase Sales on the Web & Beyond

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New, improved explanations of: middle gray, meaning of exposure, color temperature. Includes tools for iPhone as a video capture device. Video play links added.

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Use What You Have and (Still) Produce Great Video to Increase Sales on the Web & Beyond

  1. 1. Use What You Have and (Still) Produce Great Video to Increase Sales on the Web & BeyondTechnology Essentials for Small Business ConferenceBerkeley College, Brooklyn CampusJuly 29, 2011<br />Presented by<br />Donald Schwartz<br />Technology Writer/Photographer<br />donald.schwartz@imagelinkproductions.com<br />Twitter: Ishkahbibel<br />1<br />
  2. 2. Convergence Finally<br />From Gateway TV to Now<br />We are moving away from 320x240 windows on your computer<br />Google TV interface on SONY TV – channel selection from internet or cable indistinguishable<br />Photo credit: Sony Electronics<br />2<br />
  3. 3. What Happens When You Magnify a Small Image?(From 320x240 to a 50 inch TV Screen)<br />3<br />
  4. 4. The Video Camera vs. Your Eyes & Ears<br />Eye Features:<br />Auto White Balance – doesn't see shadows as blue nor fluorescents as green.<br />Auto Exposure – wide contrast range covering highlights and shadows with unrecognizably quick adjustment. (FYI: your camera uses gray scale starting with 18% gray).<br />Auto Focus – face recognition built in. Multiple focus points built in.<br />4<br />
  5. 5. The Video Camera vs. Your Eyes & Ears<br />Ear Features:<br /><ul><li>Directional Audio – you know where the sound comes from and your ears’ sound view is very large.
  6. 6. Auto Level – hears and adapts quickly to whispers and thunder claps without distortion.
  7. 7. Wide Frequency Range – 20-20,000 Hz.</li></ul>5<br />
  8. 8. Ban All Auto Camera Functions – Who’s More Capable, You or Your Camera? <br />When an all-auto camera reacts to changes in light levels, color temperature changes and/or audio changes, everything it does is obvious and distracting.<br />Learn to Love Manual Control (Who’s more capable, you or your camera?)<br />6<br />
  9. 9. Start Small, Turn Off One Auto Function At A Time<br />7<br />
  10. 10. Focus Attention – Get Audiences to Pay Attention to What You Want Them to See<br />Achieved By:<br />Lighting – foreground & background separation – create contrast – makes image appear sharper.<br />Think principal subject – brighter than other pictorial elements.<br />Creates dimensionality by using light and shadow. Shadow defines depth.<br />8<br />
  11. 11. 9<br />Focus Attention – Get Audiences to Pay Attention to What You Want Them to See<br /><ul><li>Technique: Start with 3-point lighting consisting of key (main), fill (fills in detail & lightens shadow), back or separation light.</li></ul>Images: Copyright 2006 Jeremy Birn<br />3dRender.com<br />Used by permission of author<br />
  12. 12. Focus Attention – Get Audiences to Pay Attention to What You Want Them to See<br /><ul><li>Technique: Have no lights? Bounce or reflect available light using foam core, show card, or cine foil.
  13. 13. Apply angle of incidence. Angle of incidence equals angle of reflectance. Also works for finding unwanted reflections.</li></ul>10<br />Photo credit: California Sunbounce<br />
  14. 14. One Light Setup<br />11<br />
  15. 15. Focus Attention – Get Audiences to Pay Attention to What You Want Them to See<br />DOP – Depth of Field – What’s in focus an what is not? Not available on cameras with small sensors – sorry.<br />Image: Donald Schwartz<br />12<br />
  16. 16. Focus Attention – Get Audiences to Pay Attention to What You Want Them to See<br />Compositional Mastery: Part I<br />Rule of Thirds – divide your frame into a 9 section grid.<br />Image: Donald Schwartz<br />13<br />
  17. 17. Taking Thirds to the Extreme for Effect<br />Compositional Mastery: Part I<br />Rule of Thirds – divide your frame into a 9 section grid.<br />Image: Donald Schwartz<br />14<br />
  18. 18. Focus Attention – Get Audiences to Pay Attention to What You Want Them to See<br />Compositional Mastery: Part I<br />Lens Focal Length – Bringing Your Audience into Your Shot<br />Wide Normal (Perspective) Telephoto<br />Why not zoom in? Because it changes perspective and draws attention to itself.<br />Start wide(r) than normal and walk in to bring your audience with you.<br /> Drawings: Jennifer Schwartz<br />15<br />
  19. 19. Focus Attention – Get Audiences to Pay Attention to What You Want Them to See<br />Compositional Mastery: Part II<br />Solving the 2D Conundrum – Creating 3D<br />Using frames within frames, vanishing point and visual triangles.<br />Think: what frames do you see every day? Clue: what do you look out of – a window?<br />What in this image leads your eye to the horizon?<br /> Images: Donald Schwartz<br />16<br />
  20. 20. Focus Attention – Get Audiences to Pay Attention to What You Want Them to See<br />Compositional Mastery: Part II<br />Solving the 2D Conundrum – Creating 3D<br />Vanishing Point<br />Triangulation<br /><ul><li>Frame Within Frame
  21. 21. Vanishing Point
  22. 22. Triangulation
  23. 23. Create Scale
  24. 24. Use of Color – set design or color balance</li></ul> Images: Donald Schwartz<br />17<br />
  25. 25. Focus Attention – Get Audiences to Pay Attention to What You Want Them to See<br />Framing Mastery<br />Extreme Close –up<br />Medium Close-up<br />Full Close-up<br />Wide Close-up<br />Close Shot<br />Medium Close Shot<br />Medium Shot<br />Medium Full Shot<br />Full Shot<br />Image courtesy of Steven d. Katz<br />Michael Weise Productions in conjunction with Focal Press<br />18<br />
  26. 26. Focus Attention – Get Audiences to Pay Attention to What You Want Them to See<br />Shoot to Edit<br />Wide Shot<br />Medium Shot<br />Triangulation<br />Full Shot<br />Close Up<br />Image courtesy of Steven d. Katz<br />Michael Weise Productions in conjunction with Focal Press<br />19<br />
  27. 27. Camera In Motion<br />Why Does The Camera Bounce When I Walk?<br />Forget in-camera image stabilization – increases file size.<br />Animation courtesy of Darmont - www.idleworm.com<br />20<br />To play movie click here<br />
  28. 28. Camera In Motion<br />Why Does The Camera Bounce When I Walk?<br />Use a camera stabilization system – it separates your gait from the camera. Example: Merlin<br />Merlin Stabilization System<br />To play movie click here<br />Courtesy: The Tiffin Company<br />21<br />
  29. 29. Audio Mastery<br />22<br />Avoid Hollow or Distorted Sound – Pick the right microphone for the job<br />The Big Idea: Microphones have different acceptance patterns; each one hears in a specific direction.<br /><ul><li> Shotgun (hyper cardiod) – the outdoor microphone of choice – very directional audio pickup, e.g. Sennheiser 416.
  30. 30. Lavaliere – the interview microphone of choice – captures voice resonance with accuracy.
  31. 31. Cardiod – most common microphone for interviews – wide heart-shaped acceptance pattern, e.g. Electrolux 635.</li></ul>Hyper Cardiod Shotgun<br /> Cardiod<br />
  32. 32. What does the Word Proper Exposure Mean?Why is it Important to You?<br />Answer:<br />The amount of light required for the camera’s sensor to capture the widest range of bright highlights and dark areas without over or under exposing the image.<br />Photo credit: Donald Schwartz<br />23<br />
  33. 33. Exposure Considerations<br />Why Understand Gray Scale or Zone?<br />Your video camera is color blind<br />Exposure is set in relation to Middle Gray (Zone V) – 18% reflectance<br />Zones are a method of quantifying shades<br />Determining how a color corresponds to a shade of gray produces more consistent results.<br />Photo credit: Donald Schwartz<br />24<br />
  34. 34. Camera Tools for Getting Proper Exposure <br />Zebra Stripes in camera viewfinder<br />Metering in camera (if available) – evaluative, center zone, spot<br />F-stops on lens (advanced)<br />Understanding your camera’s ISO (advanced)<br />Pictures courtesy of The DV Show<br />25<br />
  35. 35. Camera Auto Exposure Set From Middle Gray<br />Black Tank Real World View<br />Courtesy Tim Cooper Photography (Perfect Exposure for Digital Photography<br />26<br />
  36. 36. Camera Auto Exposure Set From Middle Gray<br />Black Tank Auto Exposure – Middle Gray View<br />Courtesy Tim Cooper Photography (Perfect Exposure for Digital Photography<br />27<br />
  37. 37. Camera Auto Exposure Set From Middle Gray<br />White Wall Real World View<br />Courtesy Tim Cooper Photography (Perfect Exposure for Digital Photography<br />28<br />
  38. 38. Camera Auto Exposure Set From Middle Gray<br />White Wall Auto Exposure – Middle Gray<br />Courtesy Tim Cooper Photography (Perfect Exposure for Digital Photography<br />29<br />
  39. 39. Avoidable Mistakes<br />Color Balance – White Balance<br />Video Cameras See Light’s Colors Differently from Our Eyes<br />Light color is measured in degrees Kelvin which corresponds to different colors.<br />The Basics: <br />Daylight is blue<br />Tungsten is red/yellow<br />Fluorescents are green<br />30<br />
  40. 40. What Happens When Your Color Balance Doesn’t Match the Color of the Light?<br />31<br />
  41. 41. The Only Way to be Sure is to Manually Color Balance under a Predominant Light Source<br />32<br />
  42. 42. A Work Around for Cameras with Only Auto Functions<br />Shooting a Subject in Front of a Window<br />Work Arounds:<br /><ul><li> Move subject away from window
  43. 43. Cover window
  44. 44. Add front light</li></ul>To play movie click here<br />Photo credit: Donald Schwartz<br />33<br />
  45. 45. Avoidable Mistakes<br />Panning<br /><ul><li>If you think it’s too slow, make it slower.
  46. 46. Apply pressure before you need to and lessen before you stop.
  47. 47. Use a tripod.</li></ul>Eye Line<br /><ul><li>Consider viewer’s point of view. If you are above or below it has to be for a reason.</li></ul>Avoid Dead Eye<br /><ul><li>Cause it too much top light.</li></ul>The 180 Degree Rule<br /><ul><li>You have crossed the line.
  48. 48. Quick and dirty solution for interviews: shoot over right shoulder and for reverse, reaction shot over left shoulder.</li></ul>Image courtesy of Steven d. Katz<br />Michael Weise Productions in conjunction with Focal Press<br />34<br />
  49. 49. Tools to Turn Your iPhone into a Controllable Video Capture Device<br />35<br />Adaptor for audio – Courtesy of Sescom<br />Filmic PRO – Courtesy of Filmic PRO<br />vReveal – Courtesy of vReveal<br />Plus portable digital recorder and Plural Eyes by Singular Software<br />Wide Angle Lens – Courtesy of Photojojo<br />Miniature Shotgun Microphone – Courtesy of Vericorder Technology<br />
  50. 50. What Was Next<br />Consumer to Prosumer Cameras<br /><ul><li>Allows you to visually see audio and light levels (via Zebra).</li></ul>35mm Cameras Capturing Video<br />Pros: <br /><ul><li>Enable depth of field with large sensor.
  51. 51. Use of great glass lenses.
  52. 52. Exceptional ISO/light sensitivity.</li></ul>Cons: <br /><ul><li>Limited recording time due to sensor over-heating.
  53. 53. Poor sound quality.
  54. 54. Requires mounting rig for shoulder or mounting on a tripod.</li></ul>36<br />Photo courtesy of www.idcphotovideo.com<br />
  55. 55. What’s Next Now<br />Panasonic AG-AF 100<br />4/3 – type MOS Sensor AVCCAM Camcorder<br />Pros:<br />More cost efficient than using hybrid 35mm camera add-ons<br />Use of existing 35mm camera lenses<br />Real Depth of Field<br />No constraints on video recording time<br />No requirement to sync audio<br />Use of normal rigging for tripods<br />Focus Assist Function – sharpen detail in view finder<br />Zebra & Color Bar Displays – Zebra for assessing highlights and/or peak white. Color bars for editing match camera output.<br />XLR balanced audio inputs vs. 1/8 inch minis<br />Audio monitoring<br />Cons:<br />No 35mm sensor so have crop factor<br />Only Panasonic lenses allow for power zoom, aperture and focus – all other adapted lenses are manual.<br />37<br />Image courtesy of Panasonic Inc.<br />
  56. 56. Resources & Sources<br /><ul><li>Web Video: Making It Great, Getting It Noticed </li></ul>By: Jennie Bourne; Dave Burstein<br />Publisher: Peachpit Press<br />Pub. Date: August 05, 2008<br />Print ISBN-10: 0-321-55296-2<br /> <br /><ul><li>101 Quick and Easy Secrets to Create Winning Photographs</li></ul>By: Matthew Bamberg<br />Publisher: Course Technology PTR<br />Pub. Date: April 14, 2009<br />Print ISBN-10: 1-59863-902-1<br /> <br /><ul><li>Film Directing - Shot by Shot</li></ul>Visualizing from Concept to Screen<br />By: Steven d. Katz<br />Publisher: Michael Weise Productions & Focal Press<br />Publication Date: June 1991<br />ISBN #: 0-941188-10-8<br /> <br />Stoppees’ Guide to Photography & Light: What Digital Photographers, Illustrators, and Creative Professionals Must Know<br />By: Brian & Janet Stoppee<br />Publisher: Focal Press<br />Pub. Date: October 22, 2008<br />eISBN-10: 0-08-092798-X<br /> <br />Home Recording for Beginners<br />By: Geoffrey Francis<br />Publisher: Course Technology PTR<br />Pub. Date: January 01, 2009<br />Print ISBN-10: 1-59863-881-5<br /> <br />Digital Lighting & Rendering, Second Edition<br />By: Jeremy Birn<br />Publisher: New Riders<br />Pub. Date: April 27, 2006<br />Print ISBN-10: 0-321-31631-2<br />Info on Walk Cycle: http://www.idleworm.com/how <br />Info on Light Reflection Tools: California Sunbounce: http://www.sunbounce.de/<br />Info on Camera Motion Control: Tiffin: http://www.tiffen.com/<br />38<br />
  57. 57. Donald Schwartz<br />Imagelink Productions<br />11 Sterling Place<br />Brooklyn, NY 11217<br />donald.schwartz@imagelinkproductions.com<br />Twitter: Ishkahbibel<br />39<br />

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